nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2014‒01‒10
seven papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Universita' del Piemonte Orientale Amedeo Avogadro

  1. Complementarity, Fragmentation, and the Effects of Patent Thickets By NAGAOKA Sadao; NISHIMURA Yoichiro
  2. Foreign Direct Investments and Intellectual Property Rights. International Intangible Assets in Spain circa 1820–1939 By Saiz, Patricio; Castro, Rafael
  3. Structure of technology evolution: The way on which ICT industry emerged in Korea By Kim, Kibae; Jung, Sungdo; Lee, Changjun; Hwang, Junseok
  4. Estimation of switching costs and network effects in mobile telecommunications in Poland By Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Sobolewski, Maciej
  5. Learning Standards, Teaching Standards and Standards for School Principals: A Comparative Study By Centre of Study for Policies and Practices in Education (CEPPE), Chile
  6. The digital complexity in destination branding: the case of Portugal as tourism destination By Oliveira, Eduardo
  7. The dilemma of electronic books in the mobile age in Taiwan By Tseng, Kuo-Feng

  1. By: NAGAOKA Sadao; NISHIMURA Yoichiro
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the effects of patent thickets. One unique feature of our study is to identify two sources of patent thickets: (1) complementarity as measured by the number of the patents to be used jointly with the focal patent in commercialization, and (2) ownership fragmentation as measured by the number of firms whose patents are cited by an examiner for the granting of the focal patent. There are three major findings. First, there is a significant difference between complex industry sectors and discrete ones regarding complementarity, while the difference regarding fragmentation at the patent level is small. Second, more complementarity is significantly associated with the importance of first mover advantage in research and development (R&D) and (less significantly) with that in commercialization, while fragmentation has little effect on them. Consistent with this finding, complementarity is associated with high patent value. Third, cross licensing motivation significantly accounts for patenting propensity while blocking motivation does not. Complementarity is significantly associated with more patenting for cross licensing, which facilitates both combining the inventions of different firms and preventing the risk of being held up. Furthermore, it does not invite patenting for blocking. Thus, we do not see significantly negative consequences of patent thickets on R&D, as seen by incumbents. At the same time, it is important to pay focus on policy to avoid granting patents to low quality inventions and to facilitate the mechanism of ex-ante contracting in complex industry sectors where patenting motivations are high.
    Date: 2014–01
  2. By: Saiz, Patricio (Departamento de Análisis Económico: Teoría Económica e Historia Económica. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid); Castro, Rafael (Departamento de Análisis Económico: Teoría Económica e Historia Económica. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)
    Abstract: In this paper, we reflect on the links between the origin and rate of foreign direct investments (FDI) and the granting of intellectual property rights (IPRs) to foreigners in Spain during the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century. Our main hypothesis is that the two issues were strongly related during the extension of industrialization in Europe, although distinct interests and goals could have led to different investment and IPR strategies. This was true during the whole period studied, and especially after 1880, when the first globalization emerged, progressively favoring corporative transnational investments and international agreements on IPRs. During both centuries, foreign investors from several North Atlantic countries flooded the Spanish economy, taking thousands of patents and trademarks. Based on outstanding data on FDI and foreign IPRs in Spain, the scope of this complex relation is explored. In doing so, our hypothesis is confirmed and distinct international strategies and performances in the Spanish economy disentangled. Thus, our study provides a better understanding: 1) of the spread of international capitalism and multinationals, 2) of the competition among pioneers and first followers in the international markets, and 3) of the role of IPRs in that process. Our findings also shed light on the current debates regarding the relation of international investments and the protection of intangible assets in today’s global markets.
    Keywords: foreign investments, patents, trademarks, Spain
    JEL: F21 N73 N74 O34
    Date: 2013–07
  3. By: Kim, Kibae; Jung, Sungdo; Lee, Changjun; Hwang, Junseok
    Abstract: The role of ICT in the economic growth in Korea is a great attraction to the telecommunication society interested in the relationship among ICT, innovation policy and economic growth. However, prior research concentrates on investigating the effect of policy on innovation and economic growth, but misses the mechanism how a policy affects the technological system which interacts with public institutes, universities and private firms. In this paper, we analyze the structure of technology evolution in Korea with empirical data of patents to understand the prosperity of ICT sector in Korea. To do so, we define a technology network, or a set of nodes and links, representing technology fields and the relations between the fields, respectively, and measure the network topology and position per year between 1970 and 2010. Our results propose that the technology network maintains the scalefree topology, but the entities of the hub positions are gradually replaced emerging entities on the invariant network topology. Our findings are expected to motivate ICT innovation studies to understand the evolutionary mechanism of ICT industry in the systematic perspective of technology, and improve the policy of ICT innovation. --
    Keywords: Industry Change,Information and Communication Technology,Network Analysis,Patent Analysis
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Sobolewski, Maciej
    Abstract: In this paper we utilize discrete choice experiment method to identify and measure switching costs and network effects in mobile telephony in Poland. Based on hypothetical choices consumers make we construct a conditional random parameters multinomial logit model to analyze their preferences. In our choice design we explicitly account for status quo inertia, number portability, operator brand, network distribution of most frequently called parties and price of on-net and off-net calls. Stated preference approach allows us to calculate marginal rates of substitution and hence implicit prices of the non-price attributes used to describe choices and switching behavior. Results of our study indicate that although choices of mobile operators are largely driven by price of calls, switching costs and network effects have and strong impact on utility of subscribers. In particular users assign positive value to their mobile phone number and the size of family and friends group in the same network. The monetary value of phone number is significantly higher among individual entrepreneurs then residential subscribers. In our model switching behavior is not discouraged by brand loyalty which turned out to be insignificant. Instead subscribers follow status quo inertia which reflects uncertainty associated with new operator. Therefore we conclude that despite introduction of mobile number portability, switching costs continue to be an important issue in telecommunications markets. On recommendations level, we argue that regulatory and competition policies should continue to reduce uncertainty associated with changing operator by ensuring service and platform compatibility and reducing tariff complexity. In light of our results we recommend tariffs to be non-discriminatory so that operators are unable to utilize network effects in a way which discourages switching behavior. --
    Keywords: Switching costs,network effects,mobile telecommunications,mobile number portability,brand valuation,stated preference methods,non-market valuation methods,choice experiment,multinomial conditional logit model,random parameters model
    JEL: L1 L86 O3
    Date: 2013
  5. By: Centre of Study for Policies and Practices in Education (CEPPE), Chile
    Abstract: This series is designed to make available to a wider readership selected studies drawing on the work of the OECD Directorate for Education. Authorship is usually collective, but principal writers are named. The papers are generally available only in their original language (English or French) with a short summary available in the other This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. The opinions expressed in these papers are the sole responsibility of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or of the governments of its member countries. You can copy, download or print OECD content for your own use, and you can include excerpts from OECD publications, databases and multimedia products in your own documents, presentations, blogs, websites and teaching materials, provided that suitable acknowledgement of OECD as source and copyright owner is given. All requests for public or commercial use and translation rights should be submitted to
    Date: 2013–12–18
  6. By: Oliveira, Eduardo
    Abstract: Tourism destinations are demanding strategic thinking and dynamic methods to address the contemporary digital challenge. The application of information communication technologies (ICTs) by tourism destinations, when correctly articulated with a destination branding strategy, could be a driving force to improve their strategic positioning, competitiveness, image and to optimise the benefits they derive from tourism. The novelty of this paper lies in the strategic approach to the digital complexity in destination branding by researching developments in branding Portugal as a tourism destination. A content analysis and text mining were applied as research methodology. Perceive how tourism-oriented promotional channels characterize destination Portugal, and further discuss the best branding strategies, is a central element along the study.
    Keywords: content analysis, destination branding, digital, Portugal, strategy, text mining
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2013–12–10
  7. By: Tseng, Kuo-Feng
    Abstract: As the voice profits of the mobile phone companies continuously decline in Taiwan, they need to find other revenues from the digital contents to survive in the mobile age. The mobile phone companies had created several online platforms to sell digital video, music and books. Especially in the past two years, as more and more customers had the big screens of portable tablet PC or smart phones, the sale of the e-books becomes the major marketing strategy to promote the penetration of smart phones in Taiwan. However, few e-books were available in the mobile online platforms in the past few years, so this study conducted the survey of the book publishing industry to understand the major factors. The results show: first, few copyrights of the popular oversea books are available; second, only the book conglomerate are willing to take the risk to launch the e-book services; third, currently the sales of the e-books are not able to compensate the costs; fourth, there is no such a platform to let all kind of e-books available in Taiwan. --
    Keywords: e-book,digital book,business model,industry survey,mobile device
    Date: 2013

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