nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2013‒10‒02
eight papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Universita' Amedeo Avogadro

  1. Exploring the worldwide patent surge By Carsten Fink; Mosahid Khan; Hao Zhou
  2. Global dynamic timelines for IPRs harmonization against software piracy By Asongu Simplice; Antonio R. Andrés
  3. The use of intellectual property in Chile By Maria Jose Abud; Carsten Fink; Bronwyn Hall; Christian Helmers
  4. The Knowledge Economy-finance nexus: how do IPRs matter in SSA and MENA countries? By Asongu Simplice
  5. The Innovation Potential of Universities - An Explorative Analysis By Jörg Bühnemann; Steffen Burchhardt
  6. What makes companies pursue an open science strategy? By Markus Simeth; Julio Raffo
  8. Royalties, Entry and Spectrum Allocation to Broadcasting By Amnon Levy; Michael R. Caputo; Benoît Pierre Freyens

  1. By: Carsten Fink (World Intellectual Property Organization, Economics and Statistics Division, Geneva, Switzerland); Mosahid Khan (World Intellectual Property Organization, Economics and Statistics Division, Geneva, Switzerland); Hao Zhou (World Intellectual Property Organization, Economics and Statistics Division, Geneva, Switzerland)
    Date: 2013–09
  2. By: Asongu Simplice (Yaoundé/Cameroun); Antonio R. Andrés (Ifrane, Morocco)
    Abstract: This paper employs a recent methodological innovation on intellectual property rights (IPRs) harmonization to project global timelines for common policies against software piracy. The findings on 99 countries are premised on 15 fundamental characteristics of software piracy based on income-levels (high-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income and low-income), legal-origins (English common-law, French civil-law, German civil-law and, Scandinavian civil-law) and, regional proximity (South Asia, Europe & Central Asia, East Asia & the Pacific, Middle East & North Africa, Latin America & the Caribbean and, Sub-Saharan Africa). The results broadly show that a feasible horizon for the harmonization of blanket policies ranges from 4 to 10 years.
    Keywords: Software piracy; Intellectual property rights; Panel data; Convergence
    JEL: F42 K42 O34 O38 O57
    Date: 2013–03–14
  3. By: Maria Jose Abud (INAPI); Carsten Fink (World Intellectual Property Organization, Economics and Statistics Division, Geneva, Switzerland); Bronwyn Hall (U. Berkeley); Christian Helmers (U. Carlos III)
    Date: 2013–07
  4. By: Asongu Simplice (Yaoundé/Cameroun)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the relevance of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in the knowledge economy (KE)-finance nexus using the four variables identified under the World Bank’s knowledge economy index (KEI) and seven financial intermediary dynamics of depth, efficiency, activity and size. Three main findings are established: (1) education increases financial dynamics of depth and size; (2) economic incentives by means of credit facilities (trade openness) mitigate financial dynamics of efficiency and activity (financial dynamics of depth and size) and; (3) ICT and FDI both improve financial depth and decrease financial size (with FDI having an additional edge of improving financial activity). As a policy implication, the enforcement of IPRs is not a general and sufficient condition for positive KE-finance nexuses. Hence, blanket upholding of IPRs to achieve such positive linkages may not be successful unless policy is contingent on the prevailing ‘KE specific component’ trends and dynamics of financial development.
    Keywords: Financial development; Knowledge economy; Intellectual property rights
    JEL: K42 O10 O34 O38 P48
    Date: 2013–01–01
  5. By: Jörg Bühnemann (Faculty of Economics and Management, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg); Steffen Burchhardt (Faculty of Economics and Management, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg)
    Abstract: Knowledge-based innovations are a main driver for economic development of countries and a key factor in global competition. Most industrial countries aim to strengthen their innovative capacity breadthways. Beside large firms especially universities have the necessary potential (infrastructure and knowledge) to be regional drivers of innovations. They develop innovative ideas on their own and even more important support R&D-activities of the local economy. This paper offers a methodological framework for exploring the potential for commercialization within universities. The importance of inventions, publications and third-party funds as objective indicators is highlighted, and an additive value function is introduced to measure the potential for commercialization. Based on expert interviews at a technical university the required weights for all considered indicators are exemplarily identified. By applying different models to aggregate expert weights robust rankings of university units with respect to percapita and overall potential for commercialization were found. Based on these measures a central transfer unit could be able to allocate transfer-oriented resources properly. The specified scoring approach is a first step towards an EU-requested evaluation system.
    Keywords: knowledge transfer, potential for commercialization, patent, invention, university
    JEL: I23 O31 D81
    Date: 2013–09
  6. By: Markus Simeth (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), College of Management, Switzerland); Julio Raffo (World Intellectual Property Organization, Economics and Statistics Division, Geneva, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Whereas recent scholarly research has provided many insights about universities engaging in commercial activities, there is still little empirical evidence regarding the opposite phenomenon of companies disseminating scientific knowledge. Our paper aims to fill this gap and explores the motivations of firms that disclose research outcomes in a scientific format. Besides considering an internal firm dimension, we focus particularly on knowledge sourcing from academic institutions and the appropriability regime using a cost-benefit framework. We conduct an econometric analysis with firm-level data from the fourth edition of the French Community Innovation Survey (CIS4) and matched scientific publications for a sample of 2,512 R&D performing firms from all manufacturing sectors. The analysis provides evidence that the access to important scientific knowledge imposes the adoption of academic disclosure principles, whereas the mere existence of collaborative links with academic institutions is not a strong predictor. Furthermore, the results suggest that overall industry conditions are influential in shaping the cost-benefit rationale of firms with respect to scientific disclosure.
    Keywords: R&D, Industrial Science, Knowledge Disclosure, University-Industry collaboration
    Date: 2013–04
  7. By: Nikolas Zolas; Travis J. Lybbert; Prantik Bhattacharyya
    Abstract: Trademarks (TMs) shape the competitive landscape of markets for goods and services in all countries through branding and conveying information and quality inherent in products. Yet, researchers are largely unable to conduct rigorous empirical analysis of TMs in the modern economy because TM data and economic activity data are organized differently and cannot be analyzed jointly at the industry or sectoral level. We propose an ‘Algorithmic Links with Probabilities’ (ALP) approach to match TM data to economic data and enable these data to speak to each other. Specifically, we construct a NICE Class Level concordance that maps TM data into trade and industry categories forward and backward. This concordance allows researchers to analyze differences in TM usage across both economic and TM sectors. In this paper, we apply this ALP concordance for TMs to characterize patterns in TM applications across countries, industries, income levels and more. We also use the concordance to investigate some of the key determinants of international technology transfer by comparing bilateral TM applications and bilateral patent applications. We conclude with a discussion of possible extensions of this work, including deeper indicator-level concordances and further analyses that are possible once TM data are linked with economic activity data.
    Date: 2013–09
  8. By: Amnon Levy (University of Wollongong); Michael R. Caputo (University of Central Florida); Benoît Pierre Freyens (University of Canberra)
    Abstract: Optimal control theory is employed to characterize the socially optimal trajectory of the royalty per channel and the number of royalty-paying users of state-owned spectrum for broadcasting. The spectrum royalty is set by an omniscient public planner to maximize the sum of the discounted consumers’ utilities over an infinite planning horizon. The number of broadcasters adjusts over time to profits, while the quality of the industry’s service is determined by variety and reception. The trade-off between the benefits of greater variety and the costs of intensified interferences associated with the number of broadcasters is central to the analysis. The convergence of the socially optimal trajectory of the royalty per channel and the number of broadcasters to a steady state and the comparative statics of the steady state are analyzed.
    Keywords: Broadcasting; Royalties; Spectrum; Optimal Control
    JEL: C61 C62 D61 K23 L52
    Date: 2013

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