nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2013‒08‒10
seven papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Universita' Amedeo Avogadro

  1. A Cross-Country Index of Intellectual Property Rights in Pharmaceutical Innovations By Ming Liu; Sumner la Croix
  2. Measuring Patent Quality: Indicators of Technological and Economic Value By Mariagrazia Squicciarini; Hélène Dernis; Chiara Criscuolo
  3. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents By Chang, C.L.; McAleer, M.J.; Tang, J-T.
  4. Networks of innovators within and across borders. Evidence from patent data By Andrea Morescalchi; Fabio Pammolli; Orion Penner; Petersen Alexander M.
  5. The informal economy, innovation and intellectual property - Concepts, metrics and policy considerations By Jeremy de Beer; Kun Fu; Sacha Wunsch-Vincent
  6. Knowledge Networks and Markets By OECD
  7. The economics of copyright and the internet: Moving to an empirical assessment relevant in the digital era By Sacha Wunsch-Vincent

  1. By: Ming Liu (Dept. of Finance Nankai University Tianjin, China); Sumner la Croix (University of Hawaii Economic Research Organization Department of Economics, University of Hawai‘i–Mānoa Global Public Health and Population Studies Program, University of Hawai‘i–Mānoa)
    Abstract: Building on the seminal work of Ginarte and Park (1997), we develop an index of property rights in pharmaceutical innovations, the Pharmaceutical Intellectual Property Protection (PIPP) Index, for 154 countries spanning 1960 to 2005. It incorporates 5 types of property rights in pharmaceuticals; 6 statutory measures of enforcement; and adherence to 3 international agreements providing for the grant and enforcement of rights to foreigners. For both developing and developed countries, the PIPP Index starts at low levels in 1960, increases slowly through the early 1990s, and then sharply increases due to minimum standards set by the 1995 TRIPS Agreement.
    Keywords: Patents, index, pharmaceuticals, intellectual property, TRIPS
    JEL: F53 I18 K42 O31 O34
    Date: 2013–08
  2. By: Mariagrazia Squicciarini; Hélène Dernis; Chiara Criscuolo
    Abstract: This work contributes to the definition and measurement of patent quality. It proposes a wide array of indicators capturing the technological and economic value of patented inventions, and the possible impact that these might have on subsequent technological developments. The measures proposed build extensively upon recent literature, rely on information contained in the patent documents, and are calculated on patent cohorts defined by the combination of the technology field and the year of filing of patents. This is done to account for possible time- and technology-related shocks. The description of the indicators is accompanied by statistics compiled on patents from the European Patent Office, as well as tests aimed at addressing the sensitivity of the measures to alternative specifications and the correlations that may exist among them. The indicators proposed, which can be constructed on all patents, have the advantage of relying on a homogeneous set of information and of being comparable across countries and over time. To facilitate their compilation on data from other Intellectual Property (IP) offices, the SQL-based program codes used to calculate the indicators are also supplied. The paper is further accompanied by a dataset – to be obtained upon request – containing the indicators calculated on EPO patent documents published during the period 1978-2012, as well as some cohort specific statistics (i.e. main moments and key percentiles).<P>Evaluer la qualité des brevets : Des indicateurs de valeur technologique et économique<BR>Ce travail apporte une contribution à la définition et à l’évaluation de la qualité des brevets. Le large éventail d’indicateurs proposé vise à saisir la valeur des inventions brevetées, au niveau technologique comme au niveau économique, et à estimer l’impact potentiel de ces inventions sur les développements technologiques ultérieurs. Ces mesures reposent principalement sur des travaux récents dans le domaine et exploitent l’information disponible dans les documents brevets. Pour tenir compte de possibles effets temporels et technologiques, les indicateurs sont calculés par cohortes, définies par l’année de dépôt de la demande de brevet et le domaine technologique auquel celle-ci se réfère. La description de chaque indicateur s’accompagne de statistiques établies sur les brevets déposés auprès de l’Office Européen des Brevets (OEB). S’ensuivent des tests évaluant la sensibilité des définitions à différentes spécifications et leur corrélation entre elles. Les indicateurs présentés ici peuvent être construits pour tout document de brevet. Ils ont pour avantages de reposer sur un ensemble d’information homogène et d’être comparables entre pays et dans le temps. Le code des programmes SQL développés pour le calcul des indicateurs est également détaillé, afin de faciliter la compilation de ces indicateurs sur des données d’autres bureaux de propriété intellectuelle. En parallèle, les indicateurs finaux sont mis à disposition des utilisateurs, à la demande, pour l’ensemble des brevets OEB publiés entre 1978 et 2012, ainsi que des statistiques agrégées par cohortes (i.e. principaux moments et centiles).
    Date: 2013–06–06
  3. By: Chang, C.L.; McAleer, M.J.; Tang, J-T.
    Abstract: With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sensibly invested in international cooperation, learning, innovation, technology diffusion and knowledge. In this paper, we use a panel data set of 40 countries from 1981 to 2008 and a negative binomial model, using a novel set of cross-border patents and joint patents as proxy variables for technology diffusion, in order to investigate such diffusion. The empirical results suggest that, if it is desired to shift from foreign to domestic technology, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for business enterprises and higher education, exports and technology. If the focus is on increasing bilateral technology diffusion, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for higher education and technology.
    Keywords: R&D;exports;imports;cross-border patent;international technology diffusion;joint patent;negative binomial panel data
    Date: 2013–07–01
  4. By: Andrea Morescalchi (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies); Fabio Pammolli (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies); Orion Penner (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies); Petersen Alexander M. (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies; IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy and Innovation, K.U. Leuven)
    Abstract: Recent studies on the geography of knowledge networks have documented a negative impact of physical distance and institutional borders upon research and development (R&D) collaborations. Though it is widely recognized that geographic constraints hamper the diffusion of knowledge, less attention has been devoted to the temporal evolution of these constraints. In this study we use data on patents filed with the European Patent Office (EPO) for 50 countries to analyze the impact of physical distance and country borders on inter-regional links in four different networks over the period 1988-2009: (1) co-inventorship, (2) patent citations, (3) inventor mobility and (4) the location of R&D laboratories. We find the constraint imposed by country borders and distance decreased until mid-1990s then started to grow, particularly for distance. The intensity of European cross-country inventor collaborations increased at a higher pace than their non-European counterparts until 2004, with no significant relative progress afterwards. Moreover, when analyzing networks of geographical mobility, multinational R&D activities and patent citations we do not depict any substantial progress in European research integration aside from the influence of common global trends.
    Keywords: Geography of knowledge; Networks of Innovators; European integration; Spatial proximity; Crossborder collaboration; Gravity model
    JEL: O30 R10 R23
    Date: 2013–08
  5. By: Jeremy de Beer (U. Ottawa); Kun Fu (Imperial College); Sacha Wunsch-Vincent (World Intellectual Property Organization, Economics and Statistics Division, Geneva, Switzerland)
    JEL: E26 O12 O17 O3
    Date: 2013–07
  6. By: OECD
    Abstract: This report aims to shed light on the role of markets and networks for knowledge-based assets. Knowledge Networks and Markets (KNMs) comprise the wide array of mechanisms and institutions facilitating the creation, exchange, dissemination and utilisation of knowledge in its multiple forms. This document provides new evidence on the knowledge-sourcing strategies of firms and their role in shaping innovation activities, according to different characteristics, and their impact on performance. It proposes a conceptual framework for understanding how KNMs support knowledge flows and the transfer of intellectual property (IP) rights, supported by a number of novel examples. It considers more specifically some developments in the market for IP rights, looking in the first instance at the evidence on the size of the market and the role of intermediaries. The role of public policies in the IP marketplace is also considered, with particular emphasis on some new forms of policy interventions such as government-sponsored patent funds. This document briefly reviews some key features of the markets and networks for knowledge originating in public research organisations, as well as the role of intermediaries such as technology transfer offices, whose role has been changing rapidly in recent years. Finally, the analysis of knowledge markets is extended to the market for knowledge embodied in highly skilled employees. The mixed impact of mobility on innovation is noted, considering in particular the use of agreements to restrict the movement of human capital and the potential implications of their enforcement. Some proposals for inclusion in a future measurement agenda are outlined.
    Date: 2013–06–19
  7. By: Sacha Wunsch-Vincent (World Intellectual Property Organization, Economics and Statistics Division, Geneva, Switzerland)
    Date: 2013–07

This nep-ipr issue is ©2013 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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