nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2013‒06‒30
nine papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Universita' Amedeo Avogadro

  1. Imitation versus Innovation Costs: Patent policies under common patent length By ICHIDA Toshihiro
  2. Statistical patent analysis indicators as a means of determining country technological specialisation By Ekaterina Khramova; Dirk Meissner; Galina Sagieva
  3. The Struggle to Survive in the R&D Sector: Implications for Innovation and Growth By Furukawa, Yuichi
  4. Can Certain Intellectual Property Rights both Protect and Promote Unique Traditional Products and Cultural Heritage from Developing Countries for Economic Benefit? The Case of Georgia By Patrick Martens
  5. User innovation - empirical evidence from Russia By Anna Zaytseva; Olga Shuvalova; Dirk Meissner
  6. Are Consumers more Loyal to National Brands than to Private Labels?. By Bergès, Fabian; Hassan, Daniel; Monier-Dilhan, Sylvette
  7. FDI in Multi-brand Retail Trade and the Safeguards By K, S Chalapati Rao; Dhar, Biswajit
  9. Learning Models: An Assessment of Progress, Challenges and New Developments By Andrew T. Ching; Tülin Erdem; Michael P. Keane

  1. By: ICHIDA Toshihiro
    Abstract: This paper investigates the interaction between innovation and imitation costs for heterogeneous ideas (industries). It analyzes the effect of various patent-related policies under the common patent length across different industries. It also looks at a policy that will strengthen trade secrets such as the Soleau envelope policy. Under the common term of patent with moderate assumption about the joint distribution of costs, the model predicts the existence of imitating products which are successfully invented around the original patent.
    Date: 2013–06
  2. By: Ekaterina Khramova (Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University — Higher School of Economics); Dirk Meissner (Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University — Higher School of Economics); Galina Sagieva (Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University — Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Patent data provide a rich set of information which can be used for comparative studies and trend analysis. The paper presents a systematic overview of the most appropriate tools methodologies that are available for determining the technological specialization of countries. Such analysis includes a discussion of databases, approaches, and indexes appropriate for this kind of analysis. This paper discusses different indicators of technological specialisation, concentration, and patent quality are analysed, including Revealed Technological Advantage (RTA) index, patent share, C20 concentration index, and Gini concentration index. the main available patent databases, especially those with open access, and summarizes arguments for the study of technological specialisation based on assignee and inventor patent data. Also the limits and potentials of the statistics on resident / nonresident patenting on internal and external markets are discussed in the paper.
    Keywords: Revealed Technological Advantage (RTA) index, patent share, C20 concentration index, Gini concentration index, country technological position.
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O34 O47 O57 L24
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Furukawa, Yuichi
    Abstract: By allowing for investment activities by research and development (R&D) firms to prevent product obsolescence, we show that if legal patent protection is too strong, a higher R&D subsidy rate delivers insufficient investments for survival in the R&D sector, depressing innovation and growth in the long run.
    Keywords: Firm survival, R&D subsidy, patent breadth, endogenous growth
    JEL: O31 O34 O41
    Date: 2013–05
  4. By: Patrick Martens (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: This paper is focused on traditional products that include agricultural goods such as wines, spirits and cheeses as well as tangible and intangible cultural heritage and sometimes linked to the manufacture of the product. The aims are: firstly to assess the current context of International Economic Law (IEL) and how Georgia is using IEL legal frameworks to protect its traditional products and heritage; secondly, how effectively its own national treatment and policy environment are functioning; and finally, to make preliminary observations and arguments on the impact and potential of Intellectual Property (IP) systems, Geographical Indications (GIs), Traditional Knowledge (TK), Traditional Cultural Expressions (TCE) and Genetic Resources (GR), on the economic development of regions and communities. The local-global dynamic of IEL is contrasted with Georgia‟s own economic and developmental realities. Against this backdrop, the question emerges as to whether the relevant Intellectual Property (IP) systems can not only provide the necessary „defensive‟ legal protection against misappropriation, misuse, theft and bio-piracy, but also support „positive protection‟ – meaning incentives and opportunities for technological innovation, entrepreneurial endeavor and community development. The main conclusion is that is that the positive aspects of protection need more policy development and action.
    Keywords: Geographical Indications; Traditional Knowledge; Traditional Cultural Expressions; Genetic Resources; International Economic Law; defensive protection; positive protection
    JEL: F13
    Date: 2013–06
  5. By: Anna Zaytseva (Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University — Higher School of Economics); Olga Shuvalova (Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University — Higher School of Economics); Dirk Meissner (Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University — Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Innovations are commonly seen as resulting from the commercialization of new ideas and technological goods by dedicated organizations, especially firms. This conception is reflected in a producer-oriented approach to science, technology and innovation policy-making (STI). However a new understanding of the role of users within innovation processes is gradually taking shape, with profound policy implications. User innovations are often not based on technological improvement or R&D and remain largely under-estimated. Although there are many case studies of user innovators at the industry level, the role of users is not captured by general statistics on innovation. Up to now the only exception is the empirical evidence-based study of user innovation carried out in the UK in 2009. Recently it was complemented by empirical data from the USA and Japan. The present article aims to contribute to closing the gap of empirical data on user engagement into innovation activities at cross-country level. The analysis is based on the results from a national survey carried out in Russia in 2011. The findings contribute to the better understanding of user innovators profile and of the factors which underpin user innovator activities in the context of emerging economies. The article is organized as follows. The first section reviews the relevant literature on the user innovation concept and the main features of user innovations as compared to producer-generated innovations, as well as on the measurement of user innovators. The second section presents the research methodology and the main empirical results. Finally, the paper discusses some of main analytical and policy implications of the empirical findings.
    Keywords: User Innovation, Innovation Sources, Open Innovation, Innovation Management, Demand Driven Innovation.
    JEL: L21 M10 M14 M31 O21 O32 O33
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Bergès, Fabian; Hassan, Daniel; Monier-Dilhan, Sylvette
    JEL: D12 L81 Q13
    Date: 2013–05
  7. By: K, S Chalapati Rao; Dhar, Biswajit
    Abstract: After a long and winding process, India opened the retail trade to foreign direct investment (RFDI) albeit with some caveats. The process, however, suggests that the case of RFDI provides a classic example of large global corporations succeeding in influencing public policy of developing countries and putting the regulatory system to stupor with the backing of powerful home governments. Starting from the mid-2000s when it started seeking to expand its global operations, there have been repeated attempts by Walmart to meet important relevant functionaries in India. Once the policy makers were convinced either on their own or due to the intense and sustained lobbying from abroad, the process has been unidirectional. The process also suggests that the protection offered by the safeguards could be illusory.
    Keywords: FDI, India, Retail Trade, Walmart
    JEL: F21 F23
    Date: 2013–02–27
  8. By: Bruno Schivinski (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland); Dariusz Dabrowski (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: Researchers and brand managers have limited understanding of the effects of firm-created and user-generated social media communication on brand equity, brand attitude, and purchase intention. Thus, we investigated 504 Facebook users using a standardized online survey across Poland. To test the proposed model, we analyzed 60 brands across three different industries: non-alcoholic beverages, clothing, and mobile operators. In the data analysis, we applied the structural equation modeling technique. The results of our empirical studies showed that user-generated social media communication had a positive influence on brand equity and brand attitude. In addition, the analysis indicated that firm-created social media communication affected only brand attitude. Both brand equity and brand attitude showed a positive influence on purchase intention. Moreover, measurement invariance was assessed using a multi-group structural modeling equation. The findings revealed that the proposed model was invariant across the researched industries
    Keywords: social-media; brand equity; brand attitude; purchase intention; Facebook
    JEL: M31 M39 D83
    Date: 2013–06
  9. By: Andrew T. Ching (Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto); Tülin Erdem (Stern School of Business, New York University); Michael P. Keane (Nuffield College and Department of Economics, University of Oxford)
    Abstract: Learning models extend the traditional discrete choice framework by postulating that consumers have incomplete information about product attributes, and that they learn about these attributes over time. In this survey we describe the literature on learning models that has developed over the past 20 years, using the model of Erdem and Keane (1996) as a unifying framework. We described how subsequent work has extended their modeling framework, and applied learning models to a wide range of different products and markets. We argue that learning models have contributed greatly to our understanding of consumer behavior, in particular in enhancing our understanding of brand loyalty and long run advertising effects. We also discuss the limitations of existing learning models and discuss potential extensions. One key challenge is to disentangle learning as a source of dynamics from other key mechanisms that may generate choice dynamics (inventories, habit persistence, etc.). Another is to enhance identification of learning models by collecting and utilizing direct measures of signals, perceptions and expectations.
    Keywords: Learning Models, Choice modeling, Dynamic Programming, Structural models, Brand equity
    Date: 2013–06–13

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