nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2013‒04‒20
ten papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Universita' Amedeo Avogadro

  1. Fast-Tracking 'Green' Patent Applications: An Empirical Analysis By Antoine Dechezleprêtre
  2. Patent Citations and Knowledge Spillovers: An Analysis of Chinese Patents Registered in the US By Fei Yu; Yanrui Wu
  3. Patent Examination and Disguised Protection By Fei Yu; Yanrui Wu
  4. Science, technology and innovation for sustainable development By Keun Lee and John Mathews
  5. Decreasing returns, patent licensing and price-reducing taxes By Sen, Debapriya; Stamatopoulos, Giorgos
  6. Unveiling Global Innovation Networks By Leonardo Costa Ribeiro; Glenda Kruss; Gustavo Britto; Ricardo Machado Ruiz; Américo Tristão Bernardes; Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque
  7. Intellectual Property Protection in Plant Varieties. A New Worldwide Index (1961-2011) By Mercedes Campi; Alessandro Nuvolari
  8. Greening Global Value Chains: Innovation and the International Diffusion of Technologies and Knowledge By Matthieu Glachant
  9. Intellectual Property, Innovation and the Governance of the Internet By David K. Levine
  10. Variable marginal propensities to pirate and the diffusion of computer software By Waters, James

  1. By: Antoine Dechezleprêtre
    Abstract: This paper presents the first empirical analysis of programmes to fast-track 'green' patent applications in place in seven Intellectual Property offices around the world. We find that only a small share of green patent applications (between 1% and 20% depending on the patent office) request accelerated examination, suggesting that patent applicants have a strong incentive to keep their patent applications in the examination process for as long as possible. Fast-tracking programmes reduce the examination process by several years compared to patents going through normal examination procedure and have seemingly accelerated the diffusion of technological knowledge in green technologies. In addition, we find that applicants require accelerated examination for patents of relatively higher value and that fast-tracking programmes seem to be particularly appealing to start-up companies in the green technology sector that are currently raising capital but still generate small revenue.
    Keywords: green patent application, green innovation, Intellectual Property, sustainable development
    Date: 2013–03
  2. By: Fei Yu (Business School, University of Western Australia); Yanrui Wu (Business School, University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: This paper examines US patent citation data and analyzes how different firms in China affect knowledge spillovers. Patents granted by the US patent office to inventors located in China are collected along with their citation counts. Two kinds of patent citations, namely, citations of previous patents and those of non-patent literature, are used to measure knowledge flows. In the empirical analysis, the negative binomial and zero-inflated count models are considered. The regression results suggest the existence of heterogeneity among firms of different ownership. In terms of knowledge spillovers, US multinational corporations (MNC) perform better than those from other western countries; Taiwanese companies outperform their counterparts from Hong Kong; and Chinese private corporations contribute more than Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs). These results have important policy implications for the development of a knowledge-intensive economy in China.
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Fei Yu (Business School, University of Western Australia); Yanrui Wu (Business School, University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: This paper proposes a game theory model in which a foreign multinational corporation (MNC) and a domestic firm compete in the domestic market. In this model the domestic patent office could influence the firms’ profit curves by controlling the pendency and grant probability of the MNC’s patents. Hence, patent examination could be used implicitly or explicitly as a tool to protect the domestic firm and help it to catch up or even leapfrog ahead technologically. Numerical simulations are then conducted to identify potential features of such protection and to establish hypotheses for empirical testing using patent data from selected countries.
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Keun Lee and John Mathews
    Abstract: The paper argues that science, technology and innovation (STI) play a critical role in expediting transition to a sustainable mode of development. Latecomer nations suffer from several disadvantages as they attempt to catch-up with the technological leaders, but they can enjoy latecomer advantages, if appropriate strategies are formulated and executed. One of the key concepts is leapfrogging, whereby the latecomers absorb what the technological leaders have to offer and leap to a new environment-friendly techno-economic paradigm. To facilitate such leap, the current intellectual-property-rights regimes need to evolve to one that fosters technology diffusion and greater use of intellectual property.
    Keywords: leapfrogging, environment-friendly tech-economic paradigm, public-private partnership, Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
    JEL: L52 O32 O34 O38 O53 O55
    Date: 2013–04
  5. By: Sen, Debapriya; Stamatopoulos, Giorgos
    Abstract: Patent licensing agreements among competing firms usually involve royalties which are often considered to be anticompetitive as they raise market prices. In this paper we propose simple tax policies than can alleviate the effect of royalties. Considering a Cournot duopoly where firms produce under decreasing returns and trade a patented technology, we show that the interaction of royalties with decreasing returns may generate the counter-intuitive result that market prices decrease in the magnitude of diseconomies of scale. In such cases there exist progressive quantity taxes on firms that weaken the effect of royalties and lower the market prices. These taxes collect sufficient revenue to compensate firms for their losses. As a result, it is possible to design deficit neutral tax-transfer schemes that strictly Pareto improve the welfare of consumers as well as firms.
    Keywords: Decreasing returns; patent licensing; royalty; progressive quantity tax; deficit neutrality
    JEL: D43 D45 H21 L24
    Date: 2013–04–16
  6. By: Leonardo Costa Ribeiro (INPI); Glenda Kruss (HSRC South Africa); Gustavo Britto (Cedeplar-UFMG); Ricardo Machado Ruiz (Cedeplar-UFMG); Américo Tristão Bernardes (UFOP); Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: The role of multinational enterprises in the internationalization of production has been recognized and studied from several points of view. We believe that multinational firms have a similar role in shaping flows of knowledge, technology, and scientific research. Therefore, multinational firms, science and technology could be linked in a way that allows us to identify Global Innovation Networks (GIN), another and important feature of the internationalization of capital. The goal of this paper is to develop a methodology to identify GINs, based on previous work on patents and their citations of scientific papers, which was adapted to track GINs. That is, the main indicators measure interactions between firms and universities. We argue that the links between patenting firms and the authors of cited papers establish connections that allow the identification of several types of GINs. A case study of IBM is presented in this paper, as a well-known leading patent firm with several papers cited in its patents. It may provide an excellent case to demonstrate how the selected indicators describe the knowledge flows between firms and research institutions. The conclusion shows that other GINs can be identified applying the same methodology.
    Keywords: multinational firms, complex networks; diffusion; patents; innovation; technological change
    Date: 2012–10
  7. By: Mercedes Campi; Alessandro Nuvolari
    Abstract: In this paper, we construct a new index that measures the strength of intellectual property (IP) protection for plant varieties for 69 countries over the period 1961-2011. We examine the statistical properties of the index and we compare it with other measures of IP protection. We conclude that the indicator provides a reasonable proxy for assessing the relative strength of IP protection in plants across countries. Finally, we study the main determinants of the evolution of the index over time and we nd that variables such as GDP per capita, types of political and institutional environment, levels of urbanization and schooling aect the level of IP protection for plant varieties. The TRIPS Agreement appears as an exogenous factor driving the process towards stronger levels of IP protection for all countries.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights; Plant Breeders' Rights; UPOV Convention; International Comparison
    Date: 2013–04–10
  8. By: Matthieu Glachant
    Abstract: The objective of the paper is to lay out the state of knowledge on the role of innovation and the diffusion of technologies in the greening of global value chains as well as some of the main policy issues and key research gaps1. A special emphasis will be put on developing countries in which innovation, skills and technological absorptive capacities tend to be lower while green technologies are urgently needed. The structure of the paper is extremely simple. In a first part, we give some concepts and definitions on technology, innovation, and the channels of technology diffusion. In a second part, we use various statistics (green patents, trade flows, and foreign direct investments) and illustrative examples to describe how technology and knowledge is created today and disseminated across countries. For data reasons, we mostly focus on climate-mitigation technologies, but there are good reasons to think that other green technologies do not significantly differ from the “average” climate mitigation technology. Then, we list and discuss key policy challenges (the role of environmental policies, intellectual property rights, capacity building, etc.). The conclusion summarizes the main lessons.
    Date: 2013–04–11
  9. By: David K. Levine
    Abstract: I discuss both the causes and consequences of the Internet being squeezed by copyright proponents. The striking fact is that while this squeeze has a broad and negative impact on society broadly, it brings very little benefit to the copyright proponents. The implication for the governance of the Internet is clear: a small minority who derive little benefit in an effort that imposes great costs on everyone else should not have a role in governance.
    Keywords: internet governance, copyright, piracy, downloading
    Date: 2013–03
  10. By: Waters, James
    Abstract: In this paper, we empirically investigate the dynamics of the marginal propensity to pirate for computer software. We introduce a state space formulation that allows us to estimate error structures and parameter significance, in contrast to previous work. For data from 1987-92, we find a rising propensity to pirate as the number of existing pirate copies increases, and higher late piracy incidence than implied by static models. We strengthen prior results on the impact of piracy in the spreadsheet market, finding it to be the only significant internal influence on diffusion. However, when we allow for negative error correlation between legal and pirate acquisitions, we contradict earlier work by finding that, in the word processor market, piracy did not contribute to diffusion and only eroded legal sales.
    Keywords: Computers, software, piracy, technology, diffusion
    JEL: O3 O33
    Date: 2013–04–10

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