nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2011‒11‒07
eleven papers chosen by
Roland Kirstein
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg

  1. Innovation networks in China, Japan, and Korea : evidence from Japanese patent data By Kuroiwa, Ikuo; Nabeshima, Kaoru; Tanaka, Kiyoyasu
  2. Collaboration and contracting out versus funding and support – Impact on the propensity to patent of Canadian biotechnology firms 1999-2005 By Catherine Beaudry
  3. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Community Patent By Jérôme Danguy; Bruno Van Pottelsberghe
  4. Localized knowledge spillovers and patent citations: A distance-based approach By Yasusada Murata; Ryo Nakajima; Ryosuke Okamoto; Ryuichi Tamura
  5. Patent fees for a sustainable EU patent system By Jérôme Danguy; Bruno Van Pottelsberghe
  6. Knowledge Sharing among Inventors: Some Historical Perspectives By James Bessen; Alessandro Nuvolari
  7. The Contribution of Universities to Growth: Empirical Evidence for Italy By M. Carree; A. Della Malva; E. Santarelli
  8. Big ideas: Innovation Policy By John Van Reenen
  9. A Theory of Private Research Funding By Friedrici, Karola; Hakenes, Hendrik
  10. Le développement du marché des brevets et la problématique des patent trolls By Paul Belleflamme; Laurent Slits
  11. Looking into the black box of Schumpeterian Growth Theories: an empirical assessment of R&D races By Francesco Venturini

  1. By: Kuroiwa, Ikuo; Nabeshima, Kaoru; Tanaka, Kiyoyasu
    Abstract: The growing importance of innovation in economic growth has encouraged the development of innovation capabilities in East Asia, within which China, Japan, and Korea are most important in terms of technological capabilities. Using Japanese patent data, we examine how knowledge networks have developed among these countries. We find that Japan's technological specialization saw little change, but those of Korea and China changed rapidly since 1970s. By the year 2009, technology specialization has become similar across three countries in the sense that the common field of prominent technology is "electronic circuits and communication technologies". Patent citations suggest that technology flows were largest in the electronic technology, pointing to the deepening of innovation networks in these countries.
    Keywords: East Asia, China, South Korea, Japan, Technological innovations, Industrial technology, Patents, Technology transfer, Electronics, Telecommunication, Innovation network, Patent statistics
    JEL: L6 L63 O31 O33
    Date: 2011–03
  2. By: Catherine Beaudry
    Abstract: Using the four Biotechnology Uses and Development surveys of Statistics Canada, we analyse the relative importance of funding and support as well as collaboration and contracting, R&D and IP strategies on the propensity to patent of Canadian biotechnology firms. Our model accounts for the potential endogeneity due to the simultaneity of some of these strategies. Controlling for various firm characteristics, the stage of development of the firm and the sources of its revenues, we find that collaboration with other firms does matter for patenting, as well as R&D, even when controlling for potential endogeneity. IP strategies and contracting out activities also increase the propensity of a firm to patent. And so does angel and venture capital funding. <P>
    Keywords: Innovation, Patents, Collaboration, Contracts, R&D, Biotechnology,
    Date: 2011–10–01
  3. By: Jérôme Danguy; Bruno Van Pottelsberghe
    Abstract: For more than 40 years, governments and professional associations have acted, voted or lobbied against the implementation of the Community Patent (COMPAT, officially called the EU Patent). The econometric results and simulations presented in this paper suggest that, thanks to its attractiveness in terms of market size and a sound renewal fee structure, the COMPAT would drastically reduce the relative patenting costs for applicants while generating more income for the European Patent Office and most National Patent Offices. The loss of economic rents (€400 million would be lost by patent attorneys, translators and lawyers) and the drop of controlling power by national patent offices elucidate further the observed resistance to the Community Patent.
    Keywords: patent systems, community patent, patenting cost, renewal fees, m
    Date: 2011–04
  4. By: Yasusada Murata (Advanced Research Institute for the Sciences and Humanities, Nihon University); Ryo Nakajima (Department of Economics, Yokohama National University); Ryosuke Okamoto (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies); Ryuichi Tamura (Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba)
    Abstract: The existence of localized knowledge spillovers found by Jaffe, Trajtenberg and Henderson (1993) has recently been challenged by Thompson and Fox-Kean (2005). To settle this debate, we develop a new approach by incorporating their concepts of control patents into the distance-based test of localization (Duranton and Overman, 2005). Using microgeographic data, we identify localization distance for each technology class while allowing for cross-boundary spillovers, unlike the existing literature where localization is detected at the state or metropolitan statistical area level. We find solid evidence supporting localized knowledge spillovers even when finer controls are used. We further relax the commonly made assumption of perfect controls, and show that the majority of technology classes exhibit localization unless hidden biases induced by imperfect controls are extremely large.
    Date: 2011–09
  5. By: Jérôme Danguy; Bruno Van Pottelsberghe
    Abstract: This paper puts forward a sustainable fee structure for the EU Patent (COMPAT). The proposal includes pre-grant and post-grant fees and illustrates the differences between Euro-direct applications and PCT applications. The break-even analysis shows that the COMPAT would make the European patent system more attractive with significantly lower relative costs. At the same time, the new schedule provides a financially sustainable model for the system by preserving relatively high absolute fees and allowing for a fee reduction for small innovative firms and public research organizations.
    Keywords: European patent system; Fees; EU patent
    JEL: O34 P14 K41
    Date: 2011–09
  6. By: James Bessen; Alessandro Nuvolari
    Abstract: This chapter documents instances from past centuries where inventors freely shared knowledge of their innovations with other inventors. It is widely believed that such knowledge sharing is a recent development, as in Open Source Software. Our survey shows, instead, that innovators have long practiced ?collective invention? at times, including in such key technologies as steam engines, iron, steel, and textiles. Generally, innovator behavior was substantially richer than the heroic portrayal often found in textbooks and museums. Knowledge sharing sometimes coexisted with patenting, at other times, not, suggesting the importance of policy that accommodates knowledge sharing to foster cumulative innovation.
    Keywords: technological change, knowledge sharing, collective invention, patents
    JEL: N70 O33 O34
    Date: 2011–10–13
  7. By: M. Carree; A. Della Malva; E. Santarelli
    Abstract: New entrepreneurial ventures may represent a viable and effective mechanism to transform academic knowledge into regional economic growth. We test this notion for the Italian provinces between 2001 and 2006. We evaluate three outputs of academic activities: teaching, research and Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) activities management. New ventures may be able to transform the mentioned outputs into improved economic performance. The findings show that the effects of academic outputs on provincial economic growth (all sectors) are appreciable when they are associated with sustained entrepreneurial activities in the province. It suggests that academic inquiry may provide new ventures with valuable commercial opportunities overseen by established companies.
    JEL: I23 O18 O34 R11
    Date: 2011–10
  8. By: John Van Reenen
    Abstract: In the last CentrePiece, John Van Reenen stressed the importance of competition and labour market flexibility for productivity growth. His latest in CEP's 'big ideas' series describes the impact of research on how policy-makers can influence innovation more directly - through tax credits for business spending on research and development.
    Keywords: R&D, competition, patents, tax system
    Date: 2011–10
  9. By: Friedrici, Karola; Hakenes, Hendrik
    Abstract: Research can be carried out in academia, or in the private sector, or as a mixture, for example as privately funded academic research. We develop a theoretical framework in which private research funding (PRF) transfers information about the value of a research project from the private sector into academia, in an incentive compatible way. PRF dominates neither pure academia nor private research. We derive predictions about the optimal sequence of research designs, and about the optimal duration of a project within different designs. For example, PRF is never optimal if not preceded by pure academical research. We compare our results with stylized facts.
    Keywords: Innovation, Research Funding, Research Finance, R\& D, Academia, University Finance.
    JEL: L33 H52 O31
    Date: 2011–08
  10. By: Paul Belleflamme (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Louvain School of Management and Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE)); Laurent Slits (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN)
    Abstract: Les sociétés occidentales sont en pleine mutation et sont devenues, à la fin du siècle passé, de véritables économies de la connaissance. Le brevet vise à rendre excluable cette connaissance et à stimuler, par ce biais, l’innovation. Sur le marché des brevets qui se développe petit à petit, certains acteurs, qualifiés de patent trolls, tirent parti d’un environnement juridicoéconomique qui facilite leur action : l’acquisition et/ou la détention de brevets, non pas dans le but de les exploiter industriellement, mais de les monnayer par le biais - de menaces - d’actions en contrefaçon.
    Date: 2010–12–16
  11. By: Francesco Venturini
    Abstract: This paper assesses whether the most important R&D technologies at the roots of second-generation Schumpeterian growth theories are consistent with patenting and innovation statistics. Using US manufacturing industry data, we estimate various systems of simultaneous equations modeling the innovation functions underlying growth frameworks based on variety expansion, diminishing technological opportunities and rent protection activities. Our evidence indicates that innovation functions characterized by the increasing difficulty of R&D activity fit US data better. This finding relaunches the debate on the soundness of the new Schumpeterian strand of endogenous growth literature.
    Keywords: R&D, patenting, Schumpeterian growth, US manufacturing.
    JEL: O31 O41 O42
    Date: 2011–09–01

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