nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2011‒11‒01
six papers chosen by
Roland Kirstein
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg

  1. The Propertisation of Science By Gabriel Galvez-Behar
  2. Is knowledge exchange and combination always useful for innovation? By Ana Pérez-Luño; Ramón Valle-Cabrera
  3. Multi-level innovation policy in southern EU countries.An additionality evaluation of the Italian and Spanish public interventions By Alberto Marzucchi
  4. The Scope of Open Licenses in Cultural Contents Production and Distribution By Massimiliano Gambardella
  5. Innovation Policy Design: Identification of Systemic Problems By Edquist, Charles
  6. Does the Introduction of IFRS Change the Timeliness of Loss Recognition? Evidence from German Firms By Sebastian Brauer; Carl-Friedrich Leuschner; Frank Westermann

  1. By: Gabriel Galvez-Behar (IRHiS - Institut de Recherches Historiques du Septentrion - CNRS : UMR8529 - Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III)
    Abstract: For thirty years scientific institutions have been engaged in a process of propertisation through the strengthening of intellectual property in science. In fact, the relationship between science, intellectual property rights and the economic spheres have ever been neither stable nor continuous. Therefore a historical inquiry is necessary to understand the meaning and the practice of scientific property from the middle of 19th century to WW II. In this paper, the relationship between scientific authorship and property appears as a mean to promote the scientific work and its professionalization. Moreover, through the study of the French case, the place of science in the patent system is taken into account in order to understand, at last, the international controversy about scientific property during the interwar period.
    Keywords: Propertisation ; Science ; Intellectual Property ; History ; Scientific Authorship
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Ana Pérez-Luño (Department of Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Ramón Valle-Cabrera (Department of Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: Using the resource-based view, this paper aims to provide a better understanding of the effect of knowledge on innovation. With this general aim in mind, we relate knowledge’s nature (tacit vs. explicit) and the process (e.g., knowledge exchange and combination) to innovation. Using a sample of 105 marketing and 176 R&D managers from 105 innovative firms, we find a positive linear effect of tacit knowledge on innovation and a U-shaped relationship between knowledge exchange and combination and innovation. We also find an enhancing effect of tacit knowledge on the first part of the curvilinear relationship between knowledge exchange and combination and innovation.
    Keywords: : R&D, patents, knowledge, inventions
    Date: 2011–10
  3. By: Alberto Marzucchi
    Abstract: The present paper aims to analyse the innovation policies implemented in Italy and Spain. It adopts a multi-level perspective to investigate the effects induced by regional and national public supports and a multi-dimensional approach to disentangle the different types of additionality impacts on firms’ innovation process. In particular input, output and behavioural additionality are considered. The results, obtained through a propensity score matching estimation of the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) implemented on CIS 4 microdata, capture a complex picture. In both the countries only national policies increase R&D investment. As for output additionality, whereas Spanish regional and national policies enhance the economic exploitation of new products and patent applications, Italian interventions boost only process innovation. As for the behavioural additionality, mixed evidences emerge for regional Italian policies, for which some negative effects are also found, Italian national interventions positively affect interactions with other firms and research partners, Spanish policies (both national and regional) induce funded firms to engage in formal training and to interact more with business and research partners. A tentative analysis of the “risk of policy failure†is also provided. Apart from Italian regional policies, for which no significant result is found, the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients reveal that the (rank of the) ATT calculated for each additionality measure is negatively related to the (rank of the) corresponding coefficient of variation. High TTs are thus correlated with low dispersions.
    Keywords: innovation policy, R&D subsidies, additionality
    JEL: O31 O38
    Date: 2011
  4. By: Massimiliano Gambardella
    Abstract: This paper aims to explore the impact of ex-ante legal status of creator on ex-post open license choice. It first describes the emergents Creative Commons licenses in Open Cultural Contents production and distribution. It introduces the two open models of diffusion and production, followed by creators. It orders the licenses according with their degree of openness in production as well as in diffusion. Then the paper presents an empirical analysis of the impact of legal status of creators on open license choice using an original database of video under Creative Commons licenses, created from the Internet Archive. The results show the existence of two models, Open Diffusion model and Open Production, that the creator has to balance when he/she decides the license. The results also show that in order to obtain benefit from the community, the For-Profit actors are more likely to adopt a high degree of openness in license.
    Keywords: Open Production, Open Diffusion, Creative Commons, Open Licenses, Extrinsic, Intrinsic, Monetary, Non-Monetary, Motivations, Institutional Analysis and Development Framework, Common Goods, Digital Goods, For-Profit, Non-Profit
    JEL: D20 L82
    Date: 2011
  5. By: Edquist, Charles (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: ‘Activities’ in innovation systems are the determinants of the development and diffusion of innovations. Examples are R&D, provision of organizations and institutions, financing of innovations, incubation, etc. These activities are partly performed by private organizations and partly by public organizations, the latter performing tasks that constitute innovation policy. As a basis for innovation policy, the problems (failures) in the systems must be identified. This paper focuses upon the design of innovation policy through diagnostic analysis; it provides a framework for identification of systemic problems (or failures) in innovation systems.
    Keywords: Innovations systems; innovation policy
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2011–10–21
  6. By: Sebastian Brauer (Universitaet Osnabrueck); Carl-Friedrich Leuschner; Frank Westermann (Universitaet Osnabrueck)
    Abstract: In this paper, we re-evaluate the hypothesis that the introduction of the IFRS has an impact on the timeliness of loss recognition. We test this hypothesis in a data set of public German firms that report according to German-GAAP and IFRS, respectively. The parallel use of the two accounting standards in Germany provides a unique opportunity to contribute to the academic discussion, as well as to the current policy debate on regulatory reform in Germany. Starting from the standard time series concept of conditional conservatism that was initially proposed by Basu (1997), we implement a wide range of test specifications, including (i) a threshold unit-root test specification; (ii) a multivariate approach to outlier detection and (iii) various forms of controlling for fixed effects. We do not find evidence that IFRS and German-GAAP firms differ with respect to their timeliness of loss recognition in any of these specifications - a result that appears surprising in light of the more prudent regulation in the German-GAAP, but is consistent with some earlier findings in the literature.
    Keywords: IFRS, German-GAAP, Timely loss recognition, Conservatism
    JEL: M41 C22 K22
    Date: 2011–10–20

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