nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2011‒09‒16
six papers chosen by
Roland Kirstein
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg

  1. Is the Dragon Learning to Fly? An Analysis of the Chinese Patent Explosion By Markus Eberhardt; Christian Helmers; Zhihong Yu
  2. The causal relationship between patent growth and growth of GDP with quarterly data in the G7 countries: cointegration, ARDL and error correction models By Josheski, Dushko; Koteski, Cane
  3. Communitywide Database Designs for Tracking Innovation Impact: COMETS, STARS and Nanobank By Lynne G. Zucker; Michael R. Darby; Jason Fong
  4. Innovation subsidies: Does the funding source matter for innovation intensity and performance? Empirical evidence from Germany By Czarnitzki, Dirk; Lopes Bento, Cindy
  5. Open strategies and innovation performance By Barge-Gil, Andrés
  6. Not searching, but finding: Innovation as a non-linear source of the private use of public knowledge By Azagra-Caro, Joaquín M.; Pardo, Rafael; Rama, Ruth

  1. By: Markus Eberhardt; Christian Helmers; Zhihong Yu
    Abstract: This paper analyses characteristics and determinants of the recent explosion of patent filings by Chinese firms both in China and the United States. We construct a firm-level dataset by matching USPTO and SIPO patents to Chinese manufacturing census data for the period 1999-2006. Using this integrated firm-level dataset, we show that the patent explosion is accounted for by a tiny, highly select group of Chinese companies in the information & communication technology (ICT) equipment industry. This handful of ICT companies accounts for nearly all Chinese USPTO patent filings as well as the vast majority of domestic SIPO patents despite there being a larger number of Chinese companies distributed across a wider range of industries that seeks patent protection domestically. Our empirical analysis further suggests that firms patenting in both US and China are considerably younger, larger and substantially more export-oriented than firms patenting exclusively in China. Our study contributes to the debate on China’s innovative prowess and its potential to transition from an imitator to an innovator economy.
    Keywords: China, firm, patents.
    JEL: L25 O12
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Josheski, Dushko; Koteski, Cane
    Abstract: This empirical study investigates the dynamic link between patent growth and GDP growth in G7 economies. ARDL model showed that there exist positive relationship in long run between quarterly growth of patents and quarterly GDP growth. The error correction term suggests that 20,6 percent of the adjustment back to long run equilibrium of industrial production in G7 countries is corrected by 20,6% a year, following a shock like the one in 1974 , which in our study is controlled by a dummy variable D74. In the short run however at one or two lags there exist negative relationship between quarterly patents growth and quarterly growth of GDP. Johansen’s procedure for cointegration showed that long run multipliers are positive between the patent growth and GDP growth in G7 economies. Granger causality test showed that patent growth Granger cause GDP growth in G7 countries. Unrestricted VAR showed that there exists positive relationship between patent growth and GDP growth at two or three lags.
    Keywords: Cointegration; ARDL; Error correction models; Johasens’s procedure; Patent growth; GDP growth
    JEL: C22 O31
    Date: 2011–09–03
  3. By: Lynne G. Zucker; Michael R. Darby; Jason Fong
    Abstract: Data availability is arguably the greatest impediment to advancing the science of science and innovation policy and practice (SciSIPP). This paper describes the contents, methodology and use of the public online COMETS (Connecting Outcome Measures in Entrepreneurship Technology and Science) database spanning all sciences, technologies, and high-tech industries; its sibling COMETSandSTARS database which adds more data at organization and individual scientist-inventor-entrepreneur level restricted by vendor licenses to onsite use at NBER and/or UCLA; and their prototype Nanobank covering only nano-scale sciences and technologies. Some or all of these databases include or will include: US patents (granted and applications); NIH, NSF, SBIR, STTR Grants; Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge; ISI Highly Cited; US doctoral dissertations; IPEDS/HEGIS universities; all firms and other organizations which ever publish in ISI listed journals beginning in 1981, are assigned US patents (from 1975), or are listed on a covered grant; additional nanotechnology firms based on web search. Ticker/CUSIP codes enable linking public firms to the major databases covering them. A major matching/disambiguation effort assigns unique identifiers for an organization or individual so that their appearances are linked within and across the constituent legacy databases. Extensive geographic coding enables analysis at country, region, state, county, or city levels as well as computation of distances between any two addresses. The databases provide very flexible sources of data for serious research on many issues in the science of science and technology.
    JEL: C81 J44 J61 J62 M13 O31 O33 O34 O38
    Date: 2011–09
  4. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; Lopes Bento, Cindy
    Abstract: Applying a variant of a non-parametric matching estimator, we consider European funding and national funding as heterogeneous treatments, distinguishing and simultaneously analyzing the effect these treatments have on innovation input and performance. In terms of input, getting funding from both sources yields the highest impact. If funding from only one source is received, EU grants have higher effects. In terms of output, holding innovation expenditures constant, funding from both sources display higher sales of market novelties and future patent applications at the firm level. If only one grant is obtained, we find superiority for national funding. --
    Keywords: Subsidies,Innovation,Policy Evaluation,Treatment Effects,Nonparametric matching estimation
    JEL: C14 H50 O38
    Date: 2011
  5. By: Barge-Gil, Andrés
    Abstract: Scholarly interest in the relationship between open strategies and innovation performance has been unfailing, and in recent years has even increased. The present paper focuses on inbound open strategies and reviews various approaches (transaction costs, competences, open innovation) dealing with firms´ decisions about these strategies. The different approaches result in different conclusions about the optimum level of openness. The different approaches are tested empirically taking account of the different degrees of openness (closed, semiopen, open, ultraopen) and their effects on sales of new–to-the-market products, and using a panel of Spanish firms from a CIS-type survey for 2004-2008. Our results show that closed and semiopen strategies are the most common among Spanish firms and that open strategies produce the best performance, while semiopen strategies are more effective than closed ones. These results hold across different subsamples based on firm size and industry, and are robust to different ways of defining the indicators and to different estimation methods.
    Keywords: open innovation strategies; collaboration; transaction costs; competences; CIS surveys; R&D; technology policy
    JEL: L2 D2 O3
    Date: 2011–07–06
  6. By: Azagra-Caro, Joaquín M.; Pardo, Rafael; Rama, Ruth
    Abstract: The use of universities and public research organisations as a source of information is increasing as firms adopt search strategies based on current models of information use. The theory of this paper is that in order to predict companies? perceptions of the usefulness of such knowledge, their practical experience in technological innovation becomes a determinant, not directly but by enabling certain internal changes which result in firms finding public research more useful. Using a sample of 1,031 Spanish manufacturing firms, we give an illustration of how practical experience in technological innovation produces encounters between three of their choices (to increase in size, the skills of the workforce and the abandonment of strategic innovation) and public research. In reality, the lack of such practical experience produces a ?disencounter? in which only monopolistic firms can take full advantage of public research. Some managerial and policy implications are discussed below.
    Keywords: Public-private R&D interaction; Spain
    JEL: O32
    Date: 2011–09–08

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