nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2011‒02‒19
five papers chosen by
Roland Kirstein
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg

  1. Commercialization, Renewal and Quality of Patents By Svensson, Roger
  2. Rewarding innovation efficiently: Research spill-overs and exclusive IP rights By Vincenzo Denicol; Luigi A. Franzoni
  3. Stars and comets: an exploration of the patent universe By Carlo Menon
  4. Diferencias en la efectividad de los canales de interacción sobre los beneficios obtenidos por investigadores y empresas en México. By Gabriela Dutrénit; Carla De Fuentes; Arturo Torres
  5. Transferring new dynamic capabilities to SMEs: the role of ONERA – the French Aerospace LabTM in promoting asymmetries management By Florin Paun; Nick Von Tunzelmann; Philippe Richard

  1. By: Svensson, Roger (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: One of the major reasons why inventors are awarded patents by governments is they encourage R&D investments and commercialization of inventions. If the patent holder commercializes his invention, he has stronger incentives to retain the patent. The purpose here is to empirically analyze the relationship between commercialization and the renewal of patents. At the same time, I take into account defensive patent strategies (e.g. deterring competitors from utilizing the patent) and pointedly ask if there are any third factors (quality of the patent) that affect the commercialization and renewal decisions. Using a detailed database of Swedish patents, I utilize a survival model to estimate how commercialization influences the patent renewal decision. Basic results show commercialization and defensive strategies increase the probability a patent will be renewed, but also that quality influences commercialization and renewal decisions. When controlling for endogenous commercialization decision, there is still a strong positive relationship between commercialization and renewal of patents. Thus, given the quality of the patent, if the owner decides to commercialize the patent on the margin, this leads to longer survival of the patent. With regard to commercialization modes, there is some evidence licensed patents and patents commercialized in original and new firms – but not acquired patents – survive longer than non-commercialized patents. Looking more closely at the contracts of acquired and licensed patents, contracts with both variable and fixed fees – but not contracts with either variable or fixed fees – survive longer than non-commercialized patents. However, the analysis about modes and contract terms does not take into account the endogeneity problem.
    Keywords: Patents; Renewal; Commercialization; quality; Commercialization modes; Contract terms; Survival models
    JEL: L24 O31 O34
    Date: 2011–01–31
  2. By: Vincenzo Denicol (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Luigi A. Franzoni (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development ResearchInstitute of Economic Growth)
    Abstract: We investigate the conditions for the desirability of exclusive intellectual property rights for innovators as opposed to weak rights allowing for some degree of imitation and ex-post competition. The comparison between the two alternatives reduces to a specific "ratio test," which suggests that strong exclusive IP rights are preferable when competition from potential imitators is weak, the innovation attracts large R&D investments, and research spill-overs are small.
    Keywords: Kaplow test, research spill-overs, patents and trade secrets, independent invention defense, mandatory licensing
    JEL: K21
    Date: 2011–01
  3. By: Carlo Menon (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: The analysis of patent and citation data has become a popular source of evidence on localized knowledge spillovers and innovation. Nevertheless, one aspect has been overlooked: the patent distribution across inventors is extremely skewed, as many inventors -- the comets -- register one or few patents, while a small number of inventors -- the stars -- register many patents. This raises a number of questions relating to the geography of innovation: do different categories of inventors interact with the local economic environment in the same way? Are they equally distributed over space or do they tend to concentrate? Is spatial proximity beneficial for their activity? Using a rich database on US inventors, we provide evidence suggesting that the two categories of patents are associated with different kinds of cities. We then test whether the activity of stars is beneficial for local comets, finding that a 10% increase in the number of patents authored by star inventors leads to a 3% increase in the number of patents developed by comet inventors.
    Keywords: localized knowledge spillovers, patents, innovation
    JEL: R10 O31
    Date: 2011–01
  4. By: Gabriela Dutrénit (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco); Carla De Fuentes (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco); Arturo Torres (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco; Universidad de Ottawa, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Departamento de Economía.)
    Abstract: It is widely recognized that universities and public research centers, hereinafter referred to public research organizations (PROs) are producers and transmitters of knowledge, and as such can make important contributions both to increase the economic performance of firms and to solve societal problems.The process of knowledge transfer between PROs and industry occurs through multiple channels of interaction, however the effectiveness of different channels on the benefits perceived by both agents differs. Based on micro data of academic researchers and firms in Mexico, this paper explores what channels of interactions are the most effective for triggering different benefits received by researchers and firms involved in such interactions. We built two Heckman´s two-step estimation procedure models, one for researchers and one for firms. The first stage determines the drivers of interaction and then eliminates the selection bias, while the second identify the most important channels to benefit from interaction. Our findings suggest that researchers are knowledge driven rather than economic driven, as they valuate more Intellectual than Economic benefits. Firms perceive Production benefits as more important than Innovation benefits, which suggest that they tend to connect to PRO for short-term problem solving rather than to get insights for long-term innovative strategies. The Bi-directional channel (knowledge flows in both directions) is the most important in providing benefits for both researchers (intellectual benefits) and firms (Innovation and Production benefits). Dual benefits coming from this channel could contribute to building virtual circles for PRO-industry interaction. But other channels are only effective either for researchers (Traditional) or for firms (Services), which raise a policy issue about the need identified the drivers that explain the likelihood of firms and researchers to establish linkages. In the case of researchers, the drivers that explain the probability to connect with firms are: (i) skills (knowledge), academic collaboration and (iii) institutiponal affiliation. In the case of firms, the main are the following: (i) openness strategy (particularly open sources and suppliers) and fiscal incentives for R&D, and (ii) perception about the role of PRO for the creation and transfer of knowledge.
    Keywords: university-industry linkages; collaboration drivers; channels of interaction; benefits; innovation policy; developing countries; Mexico.
    JEL: L2
    Date: 2010–12
  5. By: Florin Paun (Laboratoire de recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale); Nick Von Tunzelmann (SPRU - University of Sussex); Philippe Richard (Chercheur Indépendant - Aucune)
    Abstract: The technology transfer process between a public laboratory and a company has been the subject of many publications and has been widely discussed in economic theory. This paper highlights several newly identified asymmetries occurring between the different agents taking part in the process, dealing specifically with the aerospace and defense sectors in France. These specificities concern the characteristics, capabilities and competencies (the ‘capacities') of French SMEs and public research laboratories. The theoretical corpus of the article draws partly upon the analyses of ‘dynamic and interactive capabilities' (and competencies), and for the rest upon empirical sources, being based on the recent experience of one of the most dynamic Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) in France: the case of ONERA (the National Office for Aerospace Studies and Research) and its dyadic relations with the SMEs. In such a cooperative, interactive innovation process, we will argue that certain collaborative tools or practices emerge, aimed at reducing information asymmetries or acting as compensation mechanisms for other types of asymmetries between the partners at a microeconomic level; especially in France where there is a gap between the public R&D laboratories and the SMEs in terms of Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). Some of these compensation mechanisms, particularly those related to the knowledge economy, could be adapted and reshaped for agents engaged in R&D and innovation in various other sectors, perhaps inducing positive amplification effects on innovation behavior, and thereby on economic growth at the macroeconomic level within the “national innovation system”. This research work initiated by the author further to his economic research works on “innovation actors' asymmetries” (Paun, F., 2009) and “hybridizing tendency of the innovation approaches” (Paun, F., 2010) is based on the empirical study about eighty SMEs partners of ONERA coordinated by Florin Paun as Deputy Director in charge with Industrial Innovation at ONERA in order to better understand the barriers perceived inside this relationship and with the aim to envisage systemic solutions for accelerating innovation. A specific questionnaire has been developed by Florin Paun and more then forty interviews have been thus conducted with scientists and industrial representatives involved in direct collaborations linked to technology or knowledge transfer.
    Keywords: French SMEs, technology transfer, information asymmetries, dynamic capabilities, innovation systems
    Date: 2010–10–07

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