nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2011‒01‒30
seven papers chosen by
Roland Kirstein
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg

  1. The use of intellectual property rights by French firms. By Gallié, Emilie-Pauline; Legros, Diego
  2. Diritti di proprietà intellettuale: sviluppi recenti e prospettive di riforma By Caregari, Davide
  3. Public Science and Public Innovation: Assessing the Relationship between Patenting at U.S. National Laboratories and the Bayh-Dole Act By Link, Albert; Siegel, Donald; Van Fleet, David
  4. Property Rights and Externalities: The Uneasy Case of Knowledge By Giovanni B. Ramello
  5. Economies of scale and scope of university research and technology transfer: a flexible multi-product approach By Néstor Duch-Brown; Martí Parellada-Sabata; Jose Polo-Otero
  6. Trade Induced Technical Change? The Impact of Chinese Imports on Innovation, IT and Productivity By Nicholas Bloom; Mirko Draca; John Van Reenen
  7. Vocational Training and Innovation. By Gallié, Emilie-Pauline; Legros, Diego

  1. By: Gallié, Emilie-Pauline; Legros, Diego
    Abstract: In attempting to appropriate their innovations, firms can choose from a range of mechanisms, including patents, trade secrets and lead-times. Yet, little is known about how firms choose different appropriability mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to determine how the use of intellectual property rights(IPs)by French firms is related to their characteristics, activities, competitive strategies and the industry sector in which they operate. Among their characteristics, we test the role of the human resource strategies in keeping employees. Our empirical model is based on the French 2004 Community Innovation Survey(CIS). Our results show that firms have different strategies in the choice of the means of protection according to their basic economic characteristics of firms, their activities and industry environment. They also put in evidence of the role of human resources strategies. Firms that finance R&D training prefer to use non-statutory means.
    Keywords: Appropriability; Intellectual property rights; Innovation; Human resources strategies; Multivariate probit;
    JEL: C35 O32 O34
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Caregari, Davide
    Abstract: This thesis deals with the influence of the international regime of intellectual property established by the Marrakesh Agreement (WTO) in 1995 on the world economy and more specifically on the 2007-2008 financial crisis. The establishment of a patent was first granted in the fifteenth century by the Republic of Venice and has gone through changes, reforms, and codifications until today. This tool no longer has only the function of protection and remuneration of the inventor, but it can in a globalized world context determine through adequate sets of rules (such as the WTO agreements) the development of some countries, the health condition of entire populations, the beginning ( or conversely the end) of severe recessions in major economies. Pagano-Rossi advance in "The crash of the knowledge economy" the hypothesis of a link between the growing privatization of knowledge in an international context, as a reason behind the difficulties in operating and investing in high-intensity intellectual, and the onset of the financial crisis of 2007-2008. The solutions suggested in order to unlock the knowledge "blocked" by the high price barriers are on the one side boosting open science (starting from the existing forms: open source, commons licenses, platforms for sharing educational material); on the other side industrial policy measures should be taken in order to make privately held assets publicly available, to put the potential productivity of the system into action. The Italian situation, specifically that of the region Friuli Venezia Giulia is taken into consideration. A policy made of four “main trends” is the solution put forward to meet the SMEs’(the entrepreneurial form that characterizes the regional and national productive system) demand for affordable technology. A “buyout and redistribution” kind of intervention is conceived for the existing assets, while current research and emerging technologies should be patented and licensed under non-exclusive contracts, following the American model of Allied Security Trust. The trade-off between static efficiency and dynamic efficiency must be rebalanced, providing innovating and virtuous companies with public incentives/benefit (where the buyout operation prevented them from getting a natural reward from the market itself). In the field of management of the research, priorities include the training of professionals for the piloting of projects and funding, a more market-oriented research (to overcome the lack of public funds in times of crisis), the enhancing of University-enterprises-institutions networks, to avoid he duplication of efforts and to maximize the resources and assets already available.
    Keywords: progresso; brevetti; trips; riforma; diritti; proprietà; industriale; intellettuale; crisi;
    JEL: O34 O3
    Date: 2010–12–16
  3. By: Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Siegel, Donald (SUNY Albany); Van Fleet, David (Arizona State University)
    Abstract: Most studies of the effects of the Bayh-Dole Act have focused on universities. In contrast, we analyze patenting activity at two prominent national laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology before and after the enactment of this legislation and the Stevenson-Wydler Act. It appears as though the enactment of Bayh-Dole and the Stevenson-Wydler Act were not sufficient to induce an increase in patenting at these labs. However, the establishment of financial incentive systems, embodied in passage of the Federal Technology Transfer Act, as well as the allocation of internal resources to support technology transfer, stimulated an increase in such activity.
    Keywords: U.S. National Laboratories; Patenting; Technology Transfer; Bayh-Dole Act; Stevenson-Wydler Act; Federal Technology Transfer Act
    JEL: H10 O30
    Date: 2011–01–16
  4. By: Giovanni B. Ramello
    Abstract: Drawing from Coase’s methodological lesson, this article discusses the specific case of knowledge, which was for a long time chiefly governed by exchange mechanisms lying outside the market, and has only recently been brought into the market. Its recent, heavy “colonization” by the property paradigm has progressively elicited criticism from commentators who, for various reasons, believe that the market can play only a limited role in pursuing efficiency in the knowledge domain. The article agrees with the enounced thesis and tries to provide an explanation of it that relates to the fact that in specific circumstances property-rights can produce distinct market failures that affect the social cost and can consequently prevent attainment of social welfare. In particular, the arguments set forth here concern three distinct externalities that arise when enforcing a property rights system over knowledge. First, the existence of a property right may itself alter individual preferences and social norms, thus causing specific changes in individuals' behaviour. Second, the idiosyncratic nature of knowledge, as a collective and inherently indivisible entity, means that its full propertization can be expected to produce significant harm. Third, property rights can cause endogenous drifts in the market structure arising from the exclusive power granted to the right holder: though generally intended as a necessary mechanism for extracting a price from the consumer, in the knowledge domain property rights can become a device for extracting rents from the market.
    Keywords: property rights, knowledge, invention, indivisibility, externalities, efficiency
    JEL: D23 K11 O31 D62 O34
    Date: 2011–01
  5. By: Néstor Duch-Brown (University of Barcelona & IEB); Martí Parellada-Sabata (University of Barcelona & IEB); Jose Polo-Otero (University of Barcelona & IEB & CYD foundation)
    Abstract: This paper empirically analyzes economies of scale and of scope in the production of research and technology transfer outputs in the Spanish public university system. We employ the flexible fixed cost quadratic function which relates total university R&D expenditure and the budget of the technology transfer offices with different outputs of research and technology transfer, from which we then compute the ray economies of scale, the specific economies of scale and the economies of scope. Our results indicate that ray economies of scale and research specific economies of scale hold up to 100% of current mean expenditure. The technology transfer product specific economies of scale hold up to 150% of current mean of the R&D expenditure. Our results also show that cost subadditivity acts a positive constraint, from which we infer the presence of economies of scope.
    Keywords: Multi-product cost function, economies of scale and scope, research and technology transfer
    JEL: I21 I23
    Date: 2010
  6. By: Nicholas Bloom; Mirko Draca; John Van Reenen
    Abstract: We examine the impact of Chinese import competition on patenting, IT, R&D and TFP using a panel of up to half a million firms over 1996-2007 across twelve European countries. We correct for endogeneity using the removal of product-specific quotas following China’s entry into the World Trade Organization. Chinese import competition had two effects: first, it led to increases in R&D, patenting, IT and TFP within firms; and second it reallocated employment between firms towards more innovative and technologically advanced firms. These within and between effects were about equal in magnitude, and appear to account for around 15% of European technology upgrading between 2000-2007. Rising Chinese import competition also led to falls in employment, profits, prices and the skill share. By contrast, import competition from developed countries had no effect on innovation. We develop a simple “trapped factor” model of innovation that is consistent with these empirical findings.
    JEL: F14 L25 L60 O33
    Date: 2011–01
  7. By: Gallié, Emilie-Pauline; Legros, Diego
    Abstract: Human capital is considered as one of the main inputs in economic growth. Human capital can generate endogenous growth thanks to a continuous process of knowledge and externalities accumulation (Aghion and Howitt, 1998). In that context, this paper explores the relationship between innovation and vocational training. Our methodological approach allows to contribute to the literature in three manners. First, we propose different indicators of vocational training. Second, we build a count data panel with a long time data series. This deals with the issue of non-random selection and potentially with measurement error from short panels. Finally, we explicitly allow for endogeneity and fixed effects using GMM techniques. Estimations are made on a panel data set relative to French industrial firms over the period 1986-1992. Our results indicate that whatever the indicators, vocational training has a positive impact on the technological innovation.
    Keywords: count panel data; linear feedback model; patents; R&D; training;
    JEL: C23 C25 J24 L60 O31
    Date: 2011

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