nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2010‒12‒23
six papers chosen by
Roland Kirstein
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg

  1. What is small? Small and medium enterprises facing patenting activities By Abraham Garcia; Dominique Foray
  2. The Effectiveness of University Knowledge Spill-Overs: Performance Differences between University Spin-Offs and Corporate Spin-Offs By Wennberg, Karl; Wiklund, Johan; Wright, Mike
  3. Coyuntura económica y variación en la valoración financiera de una marca By Pérez Mantecón, María; Barajas, Angel
  4. Agglomerative Forces and Cluster Shapes By William R. Kerr; Scott Duke Kominers
  5. Trade Disputes Between China and the United States: Growing Pains so Far, Worse Ahead? By Gary Clyde Hufbauer; Jared C. Woollacott
  6. Research councils facing new science and technology By van der Most , Frank; van der Meulen , Barend

  1. By: Abraham Garcia (JRC-IPTS); Dominique Foray (EPFL / CDM-MTEI-CEMI)
    Abstract: The effect of a firm's size is analysed in relation with the probability of applying for a patent. We worked on the identification of a firm's minimum size, a threshold needed to formally protect an innovation by legal means. Below this minimum size the costs associated with protection are so high that firms prefer informal protection of their innovations. The literature concludes that as size increases so does the propensity to patent. This research finds similar results for pool regressions. In an attempt to understand the relationship between size and patent activity better, the population of firms is divided into two groups. On a first stage a firm was considered small if it had below 250 employees and large if it had more; a moving threshold was applied on a second stage. The results show that for some economies the minimum threshold needed for filing a patent is well below 250 employees.
    Keywords: SME, patents, IPRs
    JEL: C01
    Date: 2010–12
  2. By: Wennberg, Karl (The Ratio Institute and Stockholm School of Economics); Wiklund, Johan (Whitman School of Management and Jönköping International Business School, Sweden); Wright, Mike (Centre for Management Buy-out Research, Nottingham University Business School and University of Ghent)
    Abstract: While much prior research has focused upon how the Technology Transfer Offices and other contextual characteristics shape the level of university spin-offs (USO), there is little research on entrepreneurial potential among individual academics, and to the best of our knowledge, no comparative studies with other types of spin-offs exist to date. In this paper we suggest that knowledge transfer from academic research may flow indirectly to entrepreneurship by individuals with a university education background who become involved in new venture creation by means of corporate spin-offs (CSO) after gaining industrial experience, rather than leaving university employment to found a new venture as an academic spinoff. In fact, the commercial knowledge gained by industry experience is potentially more valuable for entrepreneurial performance compared to the academic knowledge gained by additional research experience at a university. This leads us to posit that not only will the average performance of CSOs be higher than comparable USOs, but the gains from founder’s prior experiences will also be higher among CSOs. We investigate these propositions in a comparative study tracking the complete population of USOs and CSOs among the Swedish knowledge-intensive sectors between 1994 and 2002.
    Keywords: Spill-Overs
    JEL: L53 M13 O32 O34
    Date: 2010–12–16
  3. By: Pérez Mantecón, María; Barajas, Angel
    Abstract: It is increasingly common to use concepts such as intangible assets or intellectual capital. It has been frequent buying and selling companies for prices much higher value than book value. In this context, it seems relevant to study how to determine the brand financial value (global brand)-understood as a set of visual elements, intellectual property rights and all organizational elements that have a business- as well as its role increasing the market price of the company. The theoretical development is illustrated by a case study in particular: Adolfo Domínguez. It is noted that the assessments, using the same pattern but changing some parameters, vary in a range between about 43 and more than 61 million Euros. It is therefore concluded that, even in the most objective models appear subjective and economic circumstances that influence the market by providing higher valuations in good times and lower valuations in times of crisis.
    Keywords: Brand value; Hirose; Economic conditions; finance
    JEL: M31 L67 G3
    Date: 2010–11–25
  4. By: William R. Kerr (Harvard Business School, Entrepreneurial Management Unit); Scott Duke Kominers (Harvard Business School)
    Abstract: We model spatial clusters of similar firms. Our model highlights how agglomerative forces lead to localized, individual connections among firms, while interaction costs generate a defined distance over which attraction forces operate. Overlapping firm interactions yield agglomeration clusters that are much larger than the underlying agglomerative forces themselves. Empirically, we demonstrate that our model's assumptions are present in the structure of technology and labor flows within Silicon Valley and its surrounding areas. Our model further identifies how the lengths over which agglomerative forces operate influence the shapes and sizes of industrial clusters; we confirm these predictions using variations across both technology clusters and industry agglomeration.
    Keywords: Agglomeration, Clusters, Industrial Organization, Silicon Valley, Entrepreneurship, Labor Markets, Technology Flows, Patents, Natural Advantages.
    JEL: J2 J6 L1 L2 L6 O3 R1 R3
    Date: 2010–12
  5. By: Gary Clyde Hufbauer (Peterson Institute for International Economics); Jared C. Woollacott (Peterson Institute for International Economics)
    Abstract: This study covers the history of Sino-US trade relations with a particular focus on the past decade, during which time each has been a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Providing a brief history of 19th and 20th century economic relations, this paper examines in detail the trade disputes that have arisen between China and the United States over the past decade, giving dollar estimates for the trade flows at issue. Each country has partaken in their share of protectionist measures, however, US measures have been characteristically defensive, protecting declining industries, while Chinese measures have been characteristically offensive, promoting nascent industries. We also cover administrative and legislation actions within each country that have yet to be the subject of formal complaint at the WTO. This includes an original and comprehensive quantitative summary of US Section 337 intellectual property rights cases. While we view the frictions in Sino-US trade a logical consequence of the rapid increase in flows between the two countries, we caution that each country work within the WTO framework and respect any adverse decisions it delivers so that a protracted protectionist conflict does not emerge. We see the current currency battle as one potential catalyst for such conflict if US and Chinese policymakers fail to manage it judiciously.
    Keywords: Agreement, Anti Dumping, Antidumping, Commodity Agreements, Dumping, Duty, Export Promoting, Export Restrictions, Exports, Free Trade, GATT, GATT WTO, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Import, Import Restricted, Import Subsidies, Import Subsidy, Intellectual Property Rights, International Agreement, International Trade Agreements, International Trade Organizations, Liberalization, MFN, Multilateralism, Non Tariff, Nontariff Barrier, Openness, Optimal Trade Policy, Protectionism, Protectionist, Quotas, Sanctions, Services, Smoot Hawley, Subsidies, Tariff, Trade, Trade Agreements, International Trade.
    JEL: F13 F53 N71 N72 N75
    Date: 2010–12
  6. By: van der Most , Frank (CIRCLE, Lund University); van der Meulen , Barend (Dept. for Science Systems Assessment, Rathenau Institute)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the question how research councils respond to emerging fields of science. Taking nanotechnology as its case, we compare the cases of responses of research councils in Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland during the period 1990 - 2008. The case studies are based on extensive document study and 25 in depth interviews with relevant actors. The analysis is framed by Resource ependence Theory, which is found to overlook aspects related to long term changes and interactions between organizations and their environment. But when this dimension is added, it provides an explanation for the observed conservative response of research councils: research councils are constrained by a web of resource dependencies as it slowly develops over time and gets embedded in national research landscapes, in part as a result of research councils' own actions. We identify a four stage pattern which describes their conservative response.
    Keywords: research councils; research funding; emerging science and technology; interdisciplinary research; resource dependence theory; nanotechnology
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2010–11–03

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