nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2010‒04‒17
twelve papers chosen by
Roland Kirstein
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg

  1. Returns to Inventors By Otto Toivanen; Lotta Väänänen
  2. The impact of efficiency parameters on firms¡¯innovative activities: Evidence from Korean firm-level data By Seong-Sang Lee; Yeonbae Kim
  3. How does knowledge matter patenting inventions? By Ana Pérez-Luño; Ramón Valle-Cabrera
  4. The Geography and Co-location of European Technology-specific Co-inventorship Networks By Julian P. Christ
  5. Improving the energy efficiency of buildings,The impact of environmental policy on technological innovation By Joëlle Noailly
  6. A compared R&D-based and patent-based cross impact analysis for identifying relationships between technologies By D. THORLEUCHTER; D. VAN DEN POEL; A. PRINZIE;
  7. Intangible resources, agglomeration effect of FDI intensity, and firm performance: Evidence from Chinese semiconductor firms By Qin Yang; Crystal X. Jiang; Sali Li
  8. Economic Adversity and Entrepreneurship-led Growth - Lessons from the Indian Software Sector By Athreye, Suma
  9. Marketing for technologies: S-D Logic and the Open Innovation paradigm By Fabrizio Cesaroni; Lola C. Duque
  10. Is there complementarity or substitutability between internal and external R&D strategies? By Hagedoorn, John; Wang, Ning
  11. Determinants of Firms Cooperation in Innovation By Flavio Lenz-Cesar; Almas Heshmati
  12. Property rights in the knowledge economy: an explanation of the crisis By Ugo Pagano; Maria Alessandra Rossi

  1. By: Otto Toivanen (University of Helsinki); Lotta Väänänen (University of Mannheim)
    Abstract: A key input to inventive activity is human capital. Hence it is important to understand the monetary incentives of inventors. We estimate the effect of patented inventions on individual earnings by linking data on U.S. patents and their inventors to Finnish employer-employee data. Returns are heterogeneous: Inventors get a temporary reward of 3% of annual earnings for a patent grant and for highly-cited patents a longer-lasting premium of 30% in earnings three years later. Similar medium-term premia accrue to inventors who initially hold the patent rights, although they forego earnings at the time of the grant.
    Keywords: citations, effort, incentives, inventors, intellectual property, patents, performance pay, return, wages
    JEL: O31 J31
    Date: 2010–03
  2. By: Seong-Sang Lee; Yeonbae Kim (Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program(TEMEP), Seoul National University)
    Abstract: With the premise that patent data are reliable indicators of innovativeness, the empirical analysis of R&D?patents relationship is useful for monitoring the efficiency of the innovation process. This paper extends the research on the relationship between R&D spending and patent counts by estimating the impact of efficiency parameters. A data set from 1255 firms with nonzero R&D expenditures in Korea was studied. Results show that the difference in firms¡¯ innovative performance is attributable to firm-specific characteristics, including propensity to patent and firm size, and differences in efficiency parameters. They also indicate that firms that conduct patent searches before starting R&D activities obtain an average of 13.9% more patents with an increase of one unit on the ¡®patent search¡¯ scale. Results also show the importance of the role of IP managers and revenue splitting policy for employee-inventors in the innovation process.
    Keywords: Incentive for employee-inventor, Innovation process, Innovative performance, IP manager, preliminary patent search, R&D-patents relationship
    Date: 2009–10
  3. By: Ana Pérez-Luño (Department of Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Ramón Valle-Cabrera (Department of Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: While there is robust empirical evidence that firm patenting is positively associated with various measures of overall performance and competitiveness, less is known about what determines the patenting choice. For this reason, this paper examines whether R&D expenditure and the type of knowledge used in the invention determine the decision to patent. With this aim, we use a sample of firms and the European Patent Office to analyse how the combination of R&D expenditure and knowledge codifiability, observability and simplicity influences the patent decision. Our results contribute to the literature and assist R&D managers by showing that both R&D and codified knowledge have a positive impact on the number of inventions patented by a firm, while observable knowledge has a negative impact on patents. Furthermore, we find that the effect of R&D expenditure on the propensity to patent inventions is negatively moderated by knowledge observability and simplicity.
    Keywords: : R&D, patents, knowledge, invent
    Date: 2010–03
  4. By: Julian P. Christ
    Abstract: This paper contributes with empirical findings to European co-inventorship location and geographical coincidence of co-patenting networks. Based on EPO co-patenting information for the reference period 2000-2004, we analyze the spatial configuration of 44 technology-specific co-inventorship networks. European co-inventorship (co-patenting) activity is spatially linked to 1259 European NUTS3 units (EU25+CH+NO) and their NUTS1 regions by inventor location. We extract 7.135.117 EPO co-patenting linkages from our own relational database that makes use of the OECD RegPAT (2009) Files. The matching between International Patent Classification (IPC) subclasses and 44 technology fields is based on the ISI-SPRU-OST-concordance. We confirm the hypothesis that the 44 co-inventorship networks differ in their overall size (nodes, linkages, self-loops) and that they are dominated by similar groupings of regions. The paper offers statistical evidence for the presence of highly localized European co-inventorship networks for all 44 technology fields, as the majority of linkages between NUTS3 units (counties and districts) are within the same NUTS1 regions. Accordingly, our findings helps to understand general presence of positive spatial autocorrelation in regional patent data. Our analysis explicitly accounts for different network centrality measures (betweenness, degree, eigenvector). Spearman rank correlation coefficients for all 44 technology fields confirm that most co-patenting networks co-locate in those regions that are central in several technology-specific co-patenting networks. These findings support the hypothesis that leading European regions are indeed multi-field network nodes and that most research collaboration is taking place in dense co-patenting networks.
    Keywords: co-patenting, co-inventorship, networks, linkages, co-location, RegPAT
    JEL: C8 O31 O33 R12
    Date: 2009–06
  5. By: Joëlle Noailly
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of alternative environmental policy instruments on technological innovations aiming to improve energy efficiency in buildings. The empirical analysis focuses on three main types of policy instruments, namely regulatory energy standards in buildings codes, energy taxes as captured by energy prices and specific governmental energy R&D expenditures. Technological innovation is measured using patent counts for specific technologies related to energy efficiency in buildings (e.g. insulation, high-efficiency boilers, energy-saving lightings). The estimates for seven European countries over the 1989-2004 period imply that a strengthening of 10% of the minimum insulation standards for walls would increase the likelihood to file additional patents by about 3%. In contrast, energy prices have no significant effect on the likelihood to patent. Governmental energy R&D support has a small positive significant effect on patenting activities.
    Keywords: Innovation; technological change; patents; energy-efficiency; buildings; environmental policy
    JEL: O31 O34 Q55
    Date: 2010–01
    Abstract: The planning of technological research and development (R&D) is demanding in areas with many relationships between technologies. To support decision makers of a government organization with R&D planning in these areas, a methodology to make the technology impact more transparent is introduced. The method shows current technology impact and impact trends from the R&D of an organization's competitors and compares these to the technology impact and impact trends from the organization's own R&D. This way, relative strength, relative weakness, plus parity of the organization's R&D activities in technology pairs can be identified. <br>A quantitative cross impact analysis (CIA) approach is used to estimate the impact across technologies. Our quantitative CIA approach contrasts to standard qualitative CIA approaches that estimate technology impact by means of literature surveys and expert interviews. In this paper, the impact is computed based on the R&D information regarding the respective organization on one hand, and based on patent data representative regarding R&D information of the organization's competitors on the other hand. As an illustration, the application field 'defence' is used, where many interrelations and interdependencies between defence-based technologies occur. Firstly, an R&D-based and patent-based Compared Cross Impact (CCI) among technologies is computed. Secondly, characteristics of the CCI are identified. Thirdly, the CCI data is presented as a network to show the overall structure and the complex relationships between the technologies. Finally, changes of the CCI are analyzed over time. The results show that the proposed methodology generates useful insights for government organizations to direct technology investments.
    Keywords: Compared cross impact, Cross impact analysis, Technological impact analysis, R&D, Patent analysis, Defence Taxonomy, Centroid Vector, Machine Learning, Multi Label Classification
    Date: 2010–01
  7. By: Qin Yang (Robert Morris University); Crystal X. Jiang (Bryant University); Sali Li (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the impact of intangible resources on firm performance in an emerging economy context. Intangible resources are considered essential to firms? competitive advantage; however, we argue that firms? intangible resources can be negatively related with performance in emerging economies, due to their weak intellectual property rights protection. Furthermore, we incorporate the resource-based view and geographical agglomeration perspective to propose that geographical locations with dense foreign direct investment can affect the appropriability of intangible resources, thereby moderating the relationship between intangible resources and firm performance. We find empirical evidence to support our argument by examining 70 semiconductor firms in China from 1999 to 2006 period.
    Keywords: intangible resources, intellectual property, agglomeration, foreign direct investment, emerging economy
    JEL: M0 M1 M2
    Date: 2010–03–04
  8. By: Athreye, Suma (UNU-MERIT, and Brunel University)
    Abstract: It is commonly believed that the business environment in developing countries does not allow productive technology-based entrepreneurship to flourish. In this paper, we draw on the experience of Indian software firms where entrepreneurial growth has belied these predictions. This paper argues that the business models chosen by Indian firms were those that best aligned the country's abundant labour resources and advantages to global demand. Many potentially higher value added opportunities struggled to attain success, but the qualitative value of experimental failures and the capability gaps they exposed was invaluable for collective managerial learning in the industry. Second, the paper also shows that the presence of growth opportunities and the success of firms stimulated institutional evolution to promote entrepreneurial growth. Last we show that the distinctive aggregate contribution of entrepreneurial firms was that they outperformed business houses and multinational subsidiaries in their more productive use of available capital resources whilst achieving similar levels of growth in output and employment. This paper draws upon an earlier shorter paper co-authored with Mike Hobday and titled 'Overcoming Development Adversity: How Entrepreneurs Led Software Development in India'.
    Keywords: technology entrepreneurship, institutions and economic development, Indian software, intellectual property rights
    JEL: L26 L86 O10 O34 I28
    Date: 2010
  9. By: Fabrizio Cesaroni; Lola C. Duque
    Abstract: Firms have been modifying their innovation management processes to generate, implement and exploit new technological knowledge. A gradual shift from a closed to an open model of innovation has been the recurring pattern of this change. Firms have to revise their overall strategic orientation to adapt their managerial procedures according to the Open Innovation (OI) paradigm. The New Service-Dominant (S-D) Logic can offer a useful guideline to firms in the implementation of an OI model. This paper presents the bases of the OI paradigm by means of the S-D Logic mindset. For each of the premises characterizing the S-D Logic, instances of firms that have implicitly adopted the OI paradigm are provided. We discuss how the S-D Logic can be put in practice within the context of the OI model
    Keywords: S-D Logic, Open Innovation, Value creation, Co-creation capabilities
    Date: 2010–01
  10. By: Hagedoorn, John (UNU-MERIT, and Maastricht University); Wang, Ning (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: The mixed picture of extant research on the relationship between internal and external R&D prompts us to ask such a question: under what conditions is there complementarity or substitutability between different R&D strategies? The goal of this paper is to contribute to the empirical literature by advancing and testing the contingency of the relationship between internal and external R&D strategies in shaping firms‘ innovative output. Using a panel sample of incumbent pharmaceutical firms covering the period 1986-2000, our empirical analysis suggests that the level of in-house R&D investments, which is characterized by decreasing marginal returns, is a contingency variable that critically influences the nature of the link between internal and external R&D strategies. In particular, internal R&D and external R&D, through either R&D alliances or R&D acquisitions, turn out to be complementary innovation activities at higher levels of in-house R&D investments, whereas at lower levels of in-house R&D efforts internal and external R&D are substitutive strategic options. These findings are robust to alternative specifications and estimation techniques, including a dynamic perspective on firm innovative performance.
    Keywords: Complementarity, Substitutability, Internal R&D, External R&D, Innovative Output, Pharmaceutical Industry, Biotechnology
    JEL: O32 L24
    Date: 2010
  11. By: Flavio Lenz-Cesar; Almas Heshmati (Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program(TEMEP), Seoul National University)
    Abstract: R&D cooperation has received great attention among industrialists, decision makers and researchers as it facilitates research collaboration, information sharing, reduced R&D cost, and affects R&D resource allocation, advancement and competitiveness of the national industry, employment and survival of firms. This paper introduces an econometric approach for identifying the factors that lead firms to cooperative innovation. The determinants of firms cooperation in innovation were defined according to empirical findings on a dataset from the internationally standardized Korean Innovation Survey 2005, captured in a multivariate probit regression model. The model identified the determinants on firms¡¯ likelihood to participate in cooperation with other organizations when conducting innovation activities. The aim of this model was to subsidize further research applying agent-based modeling to simulate innovation networks in the Korean manufacturing sector in order to test different policy strategies on fostering cooperation in innovation.
    Keywords: Collaborative R&D, multivariate probit models, Korean innovation survey
    JEL: C35 C71 D20 L20 O31
    Date: 2009–11
  12. By: Ugo Pagano; Maria Alessandra Rossi
    Abstract: Some of the roots underlying the recent crisis may be found in the global convergence towards a model characterized by strong property rights and an extremely limited role attributed to "open science". The modern economy has increasingly moved from an open science - open markets model toward a closed science - closed markets model. Paradoxically, while a non-rival resource like knowledge becomes the most relevant input, small firms and new entrants find it increasingly difficult to be competitive with large and well established organizations. Such a model is progressively increasing the costs of investment in new knowledge, with important negative consequences in terms of overall performance of the economy. We argue that in the knowledge economy, overcoming inequality and the economic crisis can be part of a single coherent policy. If some essential knowledge is moved from the private to the public sphere, this is has not only desirable inequality-decreasing consequences but can also contribute to re-launching the economy, creating the conditions for a sustained development. In a knowledge economy, a super-multiplier could couple the traditional effects of Keynesian spending in time of crisis with the multiplying virtues human knowledge, moved from the private to the public sphere.
    JEL: D21 F21 J24 L25 L43
    Date: 2010–03

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