nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2009‒01‒17
seven papers chosen by
Roland Kirstein
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg

  1. Organizing High-Tech R&D - Secrets of Successful Innovation Alliances By Elad Harison; Heli Koski
  2. Supporting Measures for Research & Development as a Stimulus for Technology Transfer and Academic Entrepreneurship in Estonia By Indrek Jakobson; Valter Ritso
  3. Can open sourcing lead to inferior standards? By Kristian Koerselman
  4. The Internationalization of Inventive Activity: A Gravity Model Using Patent Data By Picci, Lucio
  5. Effectiveness of R&D Tax Incentives in Small and Large Enterprises in Quebec By Baghana, Rufin; Mohnen, Pierre
  6. When a good science base is not enough to create competitive industries: Lockin and inertia in Russian systems of innovation By Irina Jormanainen; Rajneesh Narula
  7. The Tunisian Pharmaceutical Sector in Transformation: Inventory of Fixtures and Innovation Prospects By Nejla Yacoub

  1. By: Elad Harison; Heli Koski
    Abstract: ABSTRACT : We use the data compiled from the USPTO patent and patent citations concerning the patented knowledge intensive technologies in three areas : cryptography, image analysis and data processing/software. The data is restricted to those patents between the years 1980-2003 that have two or more assignees, i.e. we consider only joint patents. We find some evidence that technological or product market proximity of partners in R&D alliance matters but whether the closeness generates more or less valuable innovations depends on the technology field. Our data further suggest that the most valuable innovations are generated when there is a certain level of prior patenting experience of the individual innovation partners. Interestingly, the prior patenting experience of the pairs of firms filing the joint patent does not seem to matter. It thus seems that learning from the prior joint patenting that creates more value for innovations is rather firm-specific than alliance-specific. Our findings on prior joint patenting experience generally hint that not only strategic benefits, and those benefits related to the management of joint patenting, can be gained from the R&D alliance experience.
    Date: 2009–01–07
  2. By: Indrek Jakobson (Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration, Tallinn University of Technology); Valter Ritso (Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration, Tallinn University of Technology)
    Abstract: The main aim of the article is to emphasise the need for governmental support in the process of building knowledge-based economy. The authors focus on the knowledge creating process in the form on R&D activities and also on entrepreneurial process, mostly in participation with universities. That means an analytical description of the survey provided by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications of Estonia, outlining the major barriers to this process, proposes the main directions for development through business development of innovative and knowledge-based companies and also the survey conducted in Tallinn University of Technology about academic entrepreneurship. The authors are going to analyse companies’ cooperation with universities for better utilisation of their R&D possibilities, entrepreneurial attitude of universities and also to find out possibilities how further activate the stronger cooperation with universities in Estonia for better collaborative research. On the contrary, university as a partner for entrepreneurs is getting the possibilities to enhance the awareness of science-intensive entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Research and development (R&D), innovation, technology transfer, knowledge transfer, academic entrepreneurship, spin-off, supporting measure
    JEL: L26 I23 O32 O38
    Date: 2008
  3. By: Kristian Koerselman (Department of Economics and Statistics, bo Akademi University)
    Abstract: I investigate the effect of open source on standardization outcomes in a market with positive network externalities. In a closed source world, it seems reasonable to assume that the probability of a standard being chosen is positively correlated with its quality. Open source may weaken or invert this relationship by giving Bertrand competition losers a second chance. It however follows that though open source leads to more competition and more standardization, the chosen standard will be the same as when open source is not an option.
    Keywords: open source software, FLOSS, standardization, network externalities, competition
    JEL: H41 L12 L86 L96
    Date: 2008–01
  4. By: Picci, Lucio
    Abstract: This paper discusses the extent and the determinants of the internationalization of European inventive activity, between 1990 and 2004, using an innovative method to treat the information contained in the European Patent Office's Patstat database. The observed level of internationalization of inventive activities, while being rather low, has steadily increased over time. The amount of collaboration between actors residing in different countries is assessed by means of a "gravity model", as it is familiar in the literature on international trade. The amount of bilateral collaboration is positively affected by the presence of a common language and a common border, and by the common participation in the European Union. Participation in the Euro Zone is also found to have a (marginally) negative effect. International collaboration is negatively affected by distance, with estimated elasticities that are significantly smaller than the ones that characterize international trade. Contrary to the rumors about the "death of distance", this effect has become stronger in recent years.
    Keywords: Gravity models; R&D; patents; internationalization
    JEL: F15 C51 O30 C24
    Date: 2008–12–15
  5. By: Baghana, Rufin (Ministere des Finances, Quebec); Mohnen, Pierre (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and CIRANO)
    Abstract: In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of R&D tax incentives in Quebec, using manufacturing firm data from 1997 to 2003 originating from R&D surveys, annual surveys of manufactures and administrative data. The estimated price elasticity of R&D is -0.10 in the short run and -0.14 in the long run, with a slightly higher elasticities for small firms than for large firms. We show that there is a deadweight loss associated with level-based R&D tax incentives that is particularly acute for large firms. For small firms it is not sizeable enough to suppress the R&D additionality, at least not during quite a number of years after the initial tax change. Incremental R&D tax credits do not suffer from this deadweight loss and are from that perspective preferable to level-based tax incentives.
    Keywords: R&D, tax credits, tax incentives, price elasticity, research and development, manufacturing industry, Quebec, Canada
    JEL: O32 O38 H25 H50 C23
    Date: 2009
  6. By: Irina Jormanainen (Department of International Business, Helsinki School of Economics.); Rajneesh Narula (School of Management, University of Reading)
    Abstract: Despite a well-developed science and technology base and considerable industrial capacity during the soviet era, Russia has largely failed to create a competitive industrial sector despite two decades of transition. This paper seeks to understand why Russia has not succeeded despite having relatively favourable initial conditions. We develop an understanding of its innovation system and the interplay between the firm and the nonfirm sector. We argue that – in any economy - when political and economic regimes were rapidly reformed, there is considerable structural inertia associated with complex interdependencies between the state, domestic firms and the formal and informal institutions that bind them together. In the case of Russia, this inertia has resulted in a system-wide lock-in, and industrial enterprises continued to engage in routines that generated a suboptimal outcome. Market forces did not result in the western-style innovation system, but a hybrid one, with numerous features of the soviet system. A significant segment of industry maintains a Soviet-style dependence on ‘top-down’ supply-driven allocation of resources and a reliance on external (but domestic) network of sources for innovation and capital. At the same time, ‘new’ firms and industries have also evolved which undertake their own R&D, and utilise foreign sources of capital and technology, and at least partly determine their production and innovative activities on the basis on market forces.
    Keywords: innovation systems, R&D, Russia, inertia, institutions, lock-in, transition, competitiveness
    Date: 2008
  7. By: Nejla Yacoub (labrii, ULCO)
    Abstract: Since the entrance of Tunisia to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 1995, the Tunisian pharmaceutical industry has recorded considerable changes. Notably, with the extension of patentability to pharmaceuticals, the sector is now at a dynamic stage of transformation, translated by a notable development of the industry of generics. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the mutations that have marked the Tunisian pharmaceutical industry over the last decade and study its potential of developing future innovation. In this purpose, the paper is divided into two main parts. In the first one, we are going to present the legal and economic changes in the Tunisian pharmaceutical sector and highlight the emphasis of the government on the production of generics. In the second part, the paper aims at studying the perspectives for innovation in Tunisia through the study of the innovation capabilities in the Tunisian pharmaceutical sector. The results show that in spite of some strengths of the Tunisian economy, the perspectives for pharmaceutical innovation remain handicapped by several financial and structural deficiencies of the national and pharmaceutical innovation systems. Depuis l’adhésion de la Tunisie à l’Organisation Mondiale du Commerce (OMC) en 1995, le secteur pharmaceutique tunisien enregistre des changements considérables. Il se situe aujourd’hui à un stade dynamique de transformations, traduites particulièrement par le développement notable de l’industrie des génériques. L’objectif de cet article consiste donc à analyser les mutations ayant marqué le secteur pharmaceutique tunisien durant la dernière décennie et d’étudier son potentiel d’innovation. Dans cette perspective, l’article s’articule autour de deux grandes parties. Dans la première, nous allons exposer les changements réglementaires et économiques du secteur pharmaceutique tunisien et mettre l’accent surtout sur l’incitation du gouvernement pour la production des génériques. Dans la seconde partie, nous nous proposons d’étudier les perspectives d’innovation en Tunisie à travers l’étude des capacités d’innovation locales dans le secteur pharmaceutique. Les résultats montrent qu’en dépit de certaines forces qui caractérisent l’économie tunisienne par comparaison à d’autres Pays En Développement (PED) similaires, les perspectives d’innovation pharmaceutique demeurent handicapées par nombreuses défaillances financières et structurelles liées aux systèmes national et pharmaceutique d’innovation.
    Keywords: generics, innovation, innovation system, patents, pharmaceuticals, Tunisia
    JEL: O55 O34 O32 L65
    Date: 2008–07

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