nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2008‒11‒18
eight papers chosen by
Roland Kirstein
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg

  1. The Impact of M&A on Technology Sourcing Strategies By Elena Cefis
  2. Bridging Science to Economy: The Role of Science and Technologic Parks in Innovation Strategies in “Follower” Regions By Alexandre Almeida; Cristina Santos; Mário Rui Silva
  3. Do Stronger Intellectual Property Rights Protection Induce More Bilateral Trade? Evidence from China's Imports By Awokuse, Titus; Yin, Hong
  4. Getting cited: does open access help? By Patrick Gaulé; Nicolas Maystre
  5. The effects of R&D tax credits on patenting and innovations By Ådne Cappelen, Arvid Raknerud and Marina Rybalka
  6. Increasing Canada's International Competitiveness: Is There a Link between Skilled Immigrants and Innovation? By Partridge, Jamie; Furtan, Hartley
  7. Assessing the assignation of public subsidies: Do the experts choose the most efficient R&D projects? By Nestor Duch-Brown; José García-Quevedo; Daniel Montolio
  8. A Historical Perspective on Patents and Industry Growth in Finland - Connections and Lags By Tuomo Nikulainen

  1. By: Elena Cefis
    Abstract: The paper investigates the effects of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) on corporate research and development (R&D) strategies using Community Innovation Survey (CIS) data on the Dutch manufacturing sector. The focus of the research is whether M&A affect corporate innovation strategies, favouring in-house R&D and innovation expenses versus external technological sourcing. The results show that M&A activities have a positive and significant impact on innovation investments by firms, and particularly on R&D intensity and total expenditure on innovation. M&A affect corporate innovation strategies, favouring in-house R&D versus external technological sourcing. Firm post-merger behaviour favours the consolidation of the knowledge, competences and capabilities that have been acquired by merging with or by buying another firm, confirming that the reasons for a merger or acquisition are most often related to firms' innovative performance. Following involvement in a M&A, firms tend primarily to focus on fully integration of their resource bases in order to enable them to produce and sell innovative products that are new to the market.
    Keywords: Technology sourcing; Innovation; M&A; Heckman two-stage; Bi-Tobit.
    JEL: D21 O31 O32 L22
    Date: 2008–11–11
  2. By: Alexandre Almeida (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); Cristina Santos (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); Mário Rui Silva (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto)
    Abstract: The concept of Regional Innovation System (RIS) builds upon an integrated perspective of innovation, acknowledging the contribution of knowledge production subsystem, regulatory context and enterprises to a region’s innovative performance. Science and Technology parks can act as a platform to the production of knowledge and its transfer to the economy in the form of spin-offs or simple knowledge spillovers, enhanced by the co-location of R&D university centers and high technology enterprises on site. Although reflecting mainly a science push perspective, they may constitute central nodes in an infrastructural system of competitiveness that articulates other entrepreneurial location sites and bridges Universities to the economy in a more efficient and effective way, being crucial to increasing technology transfer and interchange speed, promoting the technological upgrading of the regional economy. In this paper we discuss the importance of Science and Technology Parks in the building up of a Regional Innovation System, promoting the technological intensification of the economy, a more effective knowledge transfer and sharing and the construction of competitive advantages, with particular importance in follower regions facing structural deficiencies. We oppose to the predominant closed paradigm, which understands science parks’ role in a narrow and “enclavist”, arguing in favor of an open and “integrative” paradigm where the interconnection to other infrastructures and agents boosts the park’s performance and upgrades the regional economies competitiveness infra-structures and innovation capability. We further stress the importance of science parks in signaling capabilities and hence attracting R&D external initiatives, namely, R&D FDI.
    Keywords: Science Parks, New technology-based firms, Innovation, Regional Policy
    JEL: O31 O33 O38 R58
    Date: 2008–11
  3. By: Awokuse, Titus; Yin, Hong
    Abstract: Most of the previous studies on the effect of IPR protection on international trade have been from the perspective of major industrialized nations. However, much of the current debate on the effects of IPR protection involves large developing countries with high threat of imitation. This study contributes to the literature by analyzing the impact of the strengthening of patent laws in China on its bilateral trade flows. We estimate the effects of patent rights protection on China€ٳ imports at the aggregate and detailed product categories for both OECD (developed) and non-OECD (developing) countries. The empirical results suggest that increased patent rights protection stimulate China€ٳ imports, particularly in the knowledge-intensive product categories. Furthermore, while the evidence in support of the market expansion effect is significant for imports from OECD countries, it is rather weak and mostly insignificant for imports from non-OECD countries.
    Keywords: Intellectual property rights, patent laws, international trade, International Relations/Trade, F13, 034,
    Date: 2008
  4. By: Patrick Gaulé (Chaire en Economie et Management de l'Innovation, Collège du Management de la Technologie, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - Departement of Economics, University of Geneva); Nicolas Maystre (Departement of Economics, University of Geneva)
    Abstract: We reexamine the widely held belief that free availability of scientific articles increases the number of citations they receive. Since open access is relatively more attractive to authors of higher quality papers, regressing citations on open access and other controls yields upward-biased estimates. Using an instrumental variable approach, we find no significant effect of open access. Instead, self-selection of higher quality articles into open access explains at least part of the observed open access citation advantage.
    Keywords: scholarly publishing, open access, free access
    JEL: O33 O38
    Date: 2008–07
  5. By: Ådne Cappelen, Arvid Raknerud and Marina Rybalka (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Norwegian business spending on R&D is low by OECD standards. To stimulate business R&D, in 2002 the Norwegian government introduced a tax-based incentive, SkatteFUNN. We analyze the effects of SkatteFUNN on the likelihood of innovating and patenting. Using a rich database for Norwegian firms, we find that projects receiving tax credits result in the development of new production processes and to some extent the development of new products for the firm. Firms that collaborate with other firms are more likely to be successful in their innovation activities. However, the scheme does not appear to contribute to innovations in the form of new products for the market or patenting.
    Keywords: Tax credits; R&D; Patenting; Innovation; Self-selection
    JEL: C33 C52 D24 O38
    Date: 2008–11
  6. By: Partridge, Jamie; Furtan, Hartley
    Abstract: We use an augmented national ideas production function to examine skilled immigrants' impact on Canadian innovation at the provincial level. Empirically, this model was tested using Canadian data by province on innovation flow over an 11 year time period, where innovation flow is defined in terms of international (U.S.) patents. It was found that skilled immigrants, who are proficient in either English or French, have a significant and positive impact on innovation flow in their home province. Further, in examining skilled immigrants by source region, it was found that skilled immigrants from developed countries have the greatest impact on their home province's innovation flow. This is true of North American/European skilled immigrants for all skill-level categories including language proficiency, education, and immigrant class. For immigrants from developing countries, only highly educated Eastern Europeans and Low Income Asians classified as "Independent Workers" are both significant and positively related to their home province's innovation flow.
    Keywords: Canada, endogenous technological change, innovation, national ideas, production function, patents, skilled immigrants, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2008
  7. By: Nestor Duch-Brown (IEB, Universitat de Barcelona); José García-Quevedo (IEB, Universitat de Barcelona); Daniel Montolio (IEB, Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: The implementation of public programs to support business R&D projects requires the establishment of a selection process. This selection process faces various difficulties, which include the measurement of the impact of the R&D projects as well as selection process optimization among projects with multiple, and sometimes incomparable, performance indicators. To this end, public agencies generally use the peer review method, which, while presenting some advantages, also demonstrates significant drawbacks. Private firms, on the other hand, tend toward more quantitative methods, such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), in their pursuit of R&D investment optimization. In this paper, the performance of a public agency peer review method of project selection is compared with an alternative DEA method.
    Keywords: Subsidies, R&D, DEA, Multi Criteria Decision Analysis, “peer review”
    JEL: O32 C61 H25
    Date: 2008–11
  8. By: Tuomo Nikulainen
    Abstract: ABSTRACT : This paper aims to establish how the innovative activity in Finland has changed over time in the transition from a resource-driven economy to a knowledge-driven economy. The paper first takes a historical perspective on innovation and industrial activity in Finland through a descriptive analysis. The aim is to identify technological trends in both specific technological areas as well as in different industries. Patent data provides a long time-series of innovative activity from 1842 to 2005 covering 164 years overall. This data is complemented with industry data from 1948 to 2007. The industry data allows a comparative descriptive analysis between the main industries and their respective technological development. The descriptive analysis is complemented with a statistical analysis, in which the interaction between growth in industrial volumes and growth in patent stock is empirically examined taking into account the industry specificities and lag-structures. This approach reveals whether patenting activity, used to approximate innovative activities, can be used to predict the growth of industrial activity. This aspect has received surprisingly little attention in prior research. The regression analyses show that there is a positive connection between industry growth and patent growth. In addition, the patent growth lags, both backward and forward in time, are positively connected to the industrial growth. This finding suggests that there might exist a positive cycle where innovation induces industry growth, which in turn induces innovative activities. Furthermore, patent growth seems to have a weak positive impact on industry growth with a lag of 13 years. This indicates that patent growth might provide weak signals of future industry growth
    Keywords: patents, industry growth, lags, technological change
    JEL: L60 O11 O14 O33
    Date: 2008–11–03

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