nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2008‒06‒27
seven papers chosen by
Roland Kirstein
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg

  1. The Value of European Patents By Gambardella, Alfonso; Harhoff, Dietmar; Verspagen, Bart
  2. Business method patents and U.S. financial services By Robert M. Hunt
  3. Academic Patenting in Europe: New Evidence from the KEINS Database. By Francesco Lissoni; Patrick Llerena; Maureen McKelvey; Bulat Sanditov
  4. Matrices of science and technology interactions: implications for development By Leonardo Costa Ribeiro; Ricardo Machado Ruiz; Américo Tristão Bernardes; Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque
  5. The OECD REGPAT Database: A Presentation By Stéphane Maraut; Hélène Dernis; Colin Webb; Vincenzo Spiezia; Dominique Guellec
  6. Show me the code: Spatial analysis and open source By Rey, S.J.
  7. International R&D Spillovers and Institutions By Coe, David T; Helpman, Elhanan; Hoffmaister, Alexander

  1. By: Gambardella, Alfonso; Harhoff, Dietmar; Verspagen, Bart
    Abstract: This paper employs data from an extensive European survey to produce one of the first systematic assessments of the private economic value of patents. The estimated mean of our patent value distribution is higher than 3 million Euros, the median is about one-tenth, and the mode is around a few thousand Euros. This is in line with previous findings about the skewed distribution of patent values. Our measure is significantly correlated with the number of patent citations, references, claims, and countries in which the patent is applied. Citations explain value as much as the other three indicators combined, and the right tail of citations is correlated with the right tail of our value measure. Yet, the four indicators only explain 2.7% of the variance of patent value. Thus, while the use of these indicators as proxies for value, particularly citations, may be justified, predictions based on these indicators carry significant noise. After using country, technology, and patent class fixed effects, we only explain 11.3% of the variation in patent value. The "measure of our ignorance" about patent value is still sizable, which calls for additional research to fill the gap.
    Keywords: intellectual property rights; patent citations; patent claims; patent references; patent value; patent value indicators; patents
    JEL: L20 O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2008–06
  2. By: Robert M. Hunt
    Abstract: A decade after the State Street decision, more than 1,000 business method patents are granted each year. Yet only one in ten are obtained by a financial institution. Most business method patents are also software patents. ; Have these patents increased innovation in financial services? To address this question the author constructs new indicators of R&D intensity based on the occupational composition of financial industries. The financial sector appears more research intensive than official statistics would suggest but less than the private economy taken as a whole. There is considerable variation across industries but little apparent trend. There does not appear to be an obvious effect from business method patents on the sector’s research intensity. ; This working paper supersedes Working Paper No. 07-21
    Keywords: Patents ; Financial services industry
    Date: 2008
  3. By: Francesco Lissoni; Patrick Llerena; Maureen McKelvey; Bulat Sanditov
    Abstract: The paper provides summary statistics from the KEINS database on academic patenting in France, Italy, and Sweden. It shows that academic scientists in those countries have signed many more patents than previously estimated. This re‐evaluation of academic patenting comes by considering all patents signed by academic scientists active in 2004, both those assigned to universities and the many more held by business companies, governmental organizations, and public laboratories. Specific institutional features of the university and research systems in the three countries contribute to explain these ownership patterns, which are remarkably different from those observed in the US. In the light of these new data, European universities’ contribution to domestic patenting appears not to be much less intense than that of their US counterparts.
    Date: 2008
  4. By: Leonardo Costa Ribeiro (Cedeplar-UFMG); Ricardo Machado Ruiz (Cedeplar-UFMG); Américo Tristão Bernardes (UFOP); Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: Scientific and other non-patent references (NPRs) in patents are important tools to analyze interactions between science and technology. This paper organizes a database with 514,894 USPTO patents granted globally in 1974, 1982, 1990, 1998 and 2006. There are 165,762 patents with at least one reference to science and engineering (S&E) literature, and there are 1,375,503 references. In 2006 there are 83 countries with USPTO patent citing S&E literature. Through a lexical analysis 71.1% of this S&E literature is classified by S&E fields. These data underscore the elaboration of global and national tri-dimensional matrices (by OST technological domains, ISI science and engineering fields and number of references). Descriptive statistics investigate how science and technology linkages differ over time across countries and across levels of development. This paper highlights how the existence (or not) of a pattern of structured growth differentiates mature and immature systems of innovation.
    Keywords: science and technology linkages, stages of economic development, systems of innovation
    JEL: O O3
    Date: 2008–06
  5. By: Stéphane Maraut; Hélène Dernis; Colin Webb; Vincenzo Spiezia; Dominique Guellec
    Abstract: The OECD REGPAT database presents patent data that have been linked to regions according to the addresses of the applicants and inventors. The data have been 'regionalised' at a very detailed level so that more than 2 000 regions are covered across OECD countries. REGPAT allows patent data to be used in connection with other regional data such as GDP or labour force statistics, and other patent-based information such as citations, technical fields and patent holder's characteristics (industry, university, etc.), thus providing researchers with the means to develop a rich set of new indicators and undertake a broad range of analyses to address issues relating to the regional dimension of innovation. By making regionalised patent data available to all students interested in the field, the OECD aims to stimulate research and contribute to a better understanding of the regional dimension of innovation. In addition, the methodology used for the construction of REGPAT is published, to give users the opportunity to suggest modifications and thus contribute to improvements in the quality of REGPAT. The full technical description of the REGPAT database as accessible to users is provided in annex. Patent data provide unique insights into the outcome and characteristics of inventive activities, including at regional level. They have limitations however, like all data sources, and should be handled with methodological care. <P>Base de données REGPAT de l’OCDE : Présentation <BR>La base REGPAT de l'OCDE présente des données relatives aux brevets appariées à des régions en fonction des adresses des demandeurs et inventeurs. Le niveau de détail de cette « régionalisation » est très poussé, de sorte que plus de 2 000 régions de toute la zone OCDE sont couvertes. REGPAT permet d'utiliser les données concernant les brevets en relation avec d'autres données régionales telles que le PIB ou les statistiques sur la main-d'oeuvre, et avec d'autres informations propres aux brevets - citations, domaines techniques, caractéristiques du détenteur du brevet (secteur d'activité, université, etc.) ; les chercheurs peuvent ainsi agencer à leur guise un ensemble élargi d'indicateurs nouveaux et se livrer à des analyses très diverses portant sur les questions liées à la dimension régionale de l'innovation. En mettant des données régionalisées sur les brevets à la disposition de tous les analystes qui s'intéressent à ce domaine, l'OCDE a pour objectif de stimuler la recherche et de concourir à mieux faire appréhender cette dimension. Par ailleurs, la méthodologie présidant à la construction de REGPAT est rendue publique, de sorte que ses utilisateurs peuvent suggérer des modifications et, par là, contribuer à son amélioration qualitative. La description technique complète de la base telle qu'y accède l'usager est fournie en annexe. Les données relatives aux brevets livrent des enseignements sans équivalents sur les résultats et les caractéristiques des activités d'invention, y compris au niveau régional. Comme toutes les sources de données, elles comportent toutefois des limites et doivent être manipulées avec les précautions méthodologiques d'usage.
    Date: 2008–06–03
  6. By: Rey, S.J.
    Abstract: This paper considers the intersection of academic spatial analysis with the open source revolution. Its basic premise is that the potential for cross-fertilization between the two is rich, yet some misperceptions about these two communities pose challenges to realizing these opportunities. The paper provides a primer on the open source movement for academicians with an eye towards correcting these misperceptions. It identifies a number of ways in which increased adoption of open source practices in spatial analysis can enhance the development of the next generation of tools and the wider practice of scientific research and education.
    Keywords: open source; spatial analysis
    JEL: C21 C60
    Date: 2008–06–21
  7. By: Coe, David T; Helpman, Elhanan; Hoffmaister, Alexander
    Abstract: The empirical analysis in "International R&D Spillovers" (Coe and Helpman, 1995) is first revisited by applying modern panel cointegration estimation techniques to an expanded data set that we have constructed for the purpose of this study. The new estimates confirm the key results reported in Coe and Helpman about the impact of domestic and foreign R&D capital stocks on TFP. In addition, we show that domestic and foreign R&D capital stocks have measurable impacts on TFP even after controlling for the impact of human capital. Furthermore, we extend the analysis to include institutional variables, such as legal origin and patent protection, in order to allow for parameter heterogeneity based on a country’s institutional characteristics. The results suggest that institutional differences are important determinants of total factor productivity and that they impact the degree of R&D spillovers.
    Keywords: Institutions; Productivity; R&D; Spillovers
    JEL: O31 O40 O43
    Date: 2008–06

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