nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2008‒04‒21
twelve papers chosen by
Roland Kirstein
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg

  1. Revenue Sharing, Competitive Balance and the Contest Success Function By Marco Runkel
  2. The Dynamics of the Transfer and Renewal of Patents By Carlos J. Serrano
  3. Patent Protection, Market Uncertainty, and R&D Investment By Czarnitzki, Dirk; Toole, Andrew A.
  4. A Portrait of the Innovative Firm as a Small Patenting Entrepreneur By Andersson, Martin; Lööf, Hans
  5. Understanding Perpetual R&D Races By Yves Breitmoser; Jonathan H. W. Tan; Daniel John Zizzo
  6. Input Pricing in a Model with Upstream and Downstream Product Innovation By EL ELJ, Moez
  7. Copyright Protection In The Digital Era: A Malaysian Perspective By Nasir, Rosniwati; Ponnusamy, Vanitha; Lee, Kaw May
  8. Technology Portfolio and Market Value By Jens Schmidt-Ehmcke; Petra Zloczysti
  9. Commercialization of Intellectual Property (IP) for Small and Medium Enterprisers (SMEs) in India By Neeraj Parnami, Neeraj Parnami
  10. A percolation model of eco-innovation diffusion: the relationship between diffusion, learning economies and subsidies By Simona Cantono; Gerald Silverberg
  11. Serving low-income markets: Rethinking Multinational Corporations’ Strategies By SadreGhazi, Shuan; Duysters, Geert
  12. Innovation,Flexibility, Change-Premises of Organizational Development By Todorut, Amalia Venera

  1. By: Marco Runkel (Faculty of Economics and Management, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg)
    Abstract: This paper investigates revenue sharing in an asymmetric two team contest model of a sports league with Nash behavior of team owners. The innovation of the analysis is that it focuses on the role of the contest success function (CSF). In case of an inelastic talent supply, revenue sharing turns out to worsen competitive balance regardless of the shape of the CSF. For the case of an elastic talent supply, in contrast, the effect of revenue sharing on competitive balance depends on the specification of the CSF. We fully characterize the class of CSFs for which revenue sharing leaves unaltered competitive balance and identify CSFs ensuring that revenue sharing renders the contest closer.
    Keywords: Revenue Sharing, Competitive Balance, Contest Success Function
    JEL: D72 C72
    Date: 2008–04
  2. By: Carlos J. Serrano
    Abstract: This paper explores the dynamics of the transfer of U.S. patents and the significance of the initial missallocation of patent property rights. Here we find that the initial missallocation of patent property rights is large and differs substantially across patentees and technology fields. We also find that the probability of a patent being traded depends on a number of factors - the age of the patent, the number of citations received by a given age, the patent generality and whether the patent has been previously traded or not. We will also analyze and interpret this new evidence using a theoretical model of patent transfers and renewal.
    JEL: L1 O3
    Date: 2008–04
  3. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; Toole, Andrew A.
    Abstract: Real options investment theory predicts current investment falls as uncertainty about market returns increases. In the case of R&D investment, which is usually considered an irreversible form of investment, this effect should be quite pronounced. This paper tests the real options prediction about the R&D investment–uncertainty relationship and further considers how patent protection influences this relationship. Patent protection, by limiting the threat of market rivalry, should mitigate firm-specific uncertainty and stimulate current R&D investment. Our empirical results support both the prediction of real options theory and the mitigating effect of patent protection.
    Keywords: Real Options Theory, Uncertainty, R&D, Intellectual Property Protection, Censored Regression
    JEL: C25 O31 O33
    Date: 2008
  4. By: Andersson, Martin (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Lööf, Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper examines small innovative entrepreneurs by contrasting patenting firms against non-patenting firms. The empirical analysis is based on new and unique data on internal attributes, location and international trade characteristics for over 20 000 manufacturing firms in Sweden with 1-25 employees. Our main findings are that firms’ access to financial means, human capital and trade with R&D-intensive economies correlate highly significant with their propensity to be engaged in innovation activities, as evidenced by patent applications. Interestingly, when controlling for firm attributes we do not find any significant effect of the local milieu on innovativeness among micro and very small firms.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Innovation and Invention; Intellectual Property Rights; SMEs; Technology Transfer; Location; Agglomeration
    JEL: F43 L26 M13 O31 O34
    Date: 2008–04–09
  5. By: Yves Breitmoser (Institute of Microeconomics, European University Viadrina); Jonathan H. W. Tan (Institute of Microeconomics, European University Viadrina); Daniel John Zizzo (Centre for Competition Policy, University of East Anglia)
    Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study of dynamic indefinite horizon R and D races with uncertainty and multiple prizes. The theoretical predictions are highly sensitive: small parameter changes determine whether technological competition is sustained, or converges into a market structure with an entrenched leadership and lower aggregate R&D. The subjects' strategies are far less sensitive. In most treatments the R&D races tend to converge to entrenched leadership. Investment is highest when rivals are close. This stylized fact, and so the usefulness of neck-to-neck competition in general, is largely unrelated to rivalry concerns but can be explained using a quantal response extension of Markov perfection.
    Keywords: R&D race, innovation, dynamics, experiment
    JEL: C72 C91 O31
    Date: 2008–03
  6. By: EL ELJ, Moez
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the incentives for improving-quality R&D in a two-tier marketstructure where the quality of a differentiated good depends on the specific R&D of a downstream oligopoly and the R&D of an upstream monopoly. We show that input pricing is determining for the incentives for innovation in upstream and downstream industry. Fixed price agreements promote innovation in downstream and upstream industry by eliminating the opportunistic behaviour of the input supplier and are welfare enhancing. Theses agreements are all the more effective as the weight of the quality of the input in the consumer’s perception of the total quality of the final good is significant and as the goods are strongly differentiated.
    Keywords: Product Innovation; Vertical Market - Technological Spillovers - Input pricing
    JEL: L13 D43 O31
    Date: 2008–04–11
  7. By: Nasir, Rosniwati; Ponnusamy, Vanitha; Lee, Kaw May
    Abstract: This paper seeks to explore the significance of copyright protection in Malaysia’s business environment of the digital era. Copyright law is increasingly being challenged with the intensification of internet use now. Issues of piracy and infringement of rights raise concerns surrounding the enforcement of legal measures for protection of copyrights. Hence the paper aim to understand the role and function of copyright in the digital era, and assessing the Malaysian society’s awareness of cyberspace copyright protection. This is an interpretive research carried out by conducting interviews, on 3 different groups of respondents, which are the companies, the IP professionals and government officials. The findings indicate there is a difference amongst the three groups in the understanding and awareness of Intellectual Property Rights and copyright protection; and that Malaysian government is not actively and effectively promoting awareness of the copyright issues to the public. Also it is imperative for Malaysian authorities to enhance protection of copyright in cyberspace.
    JEL: O34
    Date: 2007–12–14
  8. By: Jens Schmidt-Ehmcke; Petra Zloczysti
    Abstract: This paper discusses the impact of a firm's technology portfolio on its market value. Two concepts are used to characterize a firm's portfolio: the number of technological fields and the degree of relatedness within the portfolio characterized by the amount of joint occurrences of patents in technological fields. Based on a theoretical framework using an expanded Tobin's q approach, it presents evidence for a negative influence of portfolio size on the market value caused by a diminishing potential to make use of economies of scale. This discount can be counterbalanced when the relevant fields share a common technological base which is measured by the degree of technological relatedness.
    Keywords: technological portfolio, relatedness, patent statistics, tobin's q, economies of scope
    JEL: L25 O31 O32
    Date: 2008
  9. By: Neeraj Parnami, Neeraj Parnami
    Abstract: Lots of people in this modern era take the Intellectual property (IP) as a magical word and they think that the game can be understood only by the experts or the trained people. Even there is no surprise that you may be asking yourself that why and how IP is going to provide an emerging platform in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) sector? Presently, the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in India are at a crossroad and there is an intense debate over the questions like what would be the future of these SMEs? How these SMEs can survive in the international trade arena? What role can the government play in making these SMEs more competitive? How can the Intellectual property (IP) generate wealth in the business? In order to know the answers of all these questions the paper is written and is concerned with the identification and analysis of current approaches of SMEs towards the Intellectual property (IP), the hurdles that they face; and the accessible & feasible solutions.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property; Small and Medium Enterprisers; SMEs; Commercialization.
    JEL: P00 A12 P14 B00 I22
    Date: 2008–02–10
  10. By: Simona Cantono (Department of Economics, University of Turin); Gerald Silverberg (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: An obstacle to the widespread adoption of environmentally friendly energy technologies such as stationary and mobile fuel cells is their high upfront costs. While much lower prices seem to be attainable in the future due to learning curve cost reductions that increase rapidly with the scale of diffusion of the technology, there is a chicken and egg problem, even when some consumers may be willing to pay more for green technologies. Drawing on recent percolation models of diffusion by Solomon et al. [7], Frenken et al. [8] and Höhnisch et al. [9], we develop a network model of new technology diffusion that combines contagion among consumers with heterogeneity of agent characteristics. Agents adopt when the price falls below their random reservation price drawn from a lognormal distribution, but only when one of their neighbors has already adopted. Combining with a learning curve for the price as a function of the cumulative number of adopters, this may lead to delayed adoption for a certain range of initial conditions. Using agent-based simulations we explore when a limited subsidy policy can trigger diffusion that would otherwise not happen. The introduction of a subsidy policy seems to be highly effective for a given high initial price level only for learning economies in a certain range. Outside this range, the diffusion of a new technology either never takes off despite the subsidies, or the subsidies are unnecessary. Perhaps not coincidentally, this range seems to correspond to the values observed for many successful innovations.
    Keywords: Innovation diffusion, learning economies, percolation, networks, heterogeneous agents, technology subsidies, environmental technologies
    JEL: C61 H23 O32 O33
    Date: 2008
  11. By: SadreGhazi, Shuan (UNU-MERIT); Duysters, Geert (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: In recent years a new debate is emerging about market-based approaches to serve lowincome communities, opportunities in such markets and the role of multinational corporations. This paper aims at providing an overview of low-income markets thereby analyzing challenges that multinational corporations face in addressing such markets. Various examples of low-income market approaches are examined and different firm strategies regarding R&D, production and distribution in such markets have been illustrated and discussed. It is argued why specific strategies, many of them new to multinationals, are to be devised when it comes to serving low-income communities.
    Keywords: Multinational corporations, Low-income markets, Bottom of the Pyramid, Business strategy
    JEL: F23 M19 O32 O19
    Date: 2008
  12. By: Todorut, Amalia Venera
    Abstract: The features of innovation, flexibility and change mutually influence one another. Provided that change is perceived as a feature leading to innovation, flexibility is the feature that enables it. Innovation cannot exist without change but nonetheless each and every change leads to innovation. Flexibility is a necessary condition but not sufficient for the innovation since it is influenced by change and balanced by flexibility. This fact suggests that the flexible companies lead to a more significant innovation comparatively to those inflexible. The innovations are more likely to develop when the organizational conditions allow flexibility. Concerning innovation, two types of flexibilities have been identified. The first type creates a routine allowing to companies to take advantage of opportunities leading to increasing the input capacity. The second type avoids the existent routine with the aim of creating new opportunities leading to high innovation. The type of innovation requested and that of flexibility are determined by the stability of the organization change and its environment.
    Keywords: innovation;flexibility;change; quality;strategy
    JEL: M11 D2
    Date: 2008–02

This nep-ipr issue is ©2008 by Roland Kirstein. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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