nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2008‒04‒12
seven papers chosen by
Roland Kirstein
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg

  1. A Policy Insight into the R&D-Patent Relationship By de Rassenfosse, Gaétan; van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno
  2. Preemptive Search and R&D Clustering Revisited By Patrick Van Cayseele
  3. A Note on The Drivers of R&D Intensity By Mathieu, Azèle; van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno
  4. Do Competitive Markets Stimulate Innovation?: An Empirical Analysis Based on Japanese Manufacturing Industry Data By INUI Tomohiko; KAWAKAMI Atsushi; MIYAGAWA Tsutomu
  5. R&D and Productivity: Estimating Production Functions when Productivity is Endogenous By Doraszelski, Ulrich; Jaumandreu, Jordi
  6. Science, Technology and Development: Emerging concepts and visions By Soete, Luc
  7. The making of national giants: technology and governments shaping the international expansion of oil companies from Brazil and China By Pereira de Carvalho, Flavia; Goldstein, Andrea

  1. By: de Rassenfosse, Gaétan; van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether patent counts can be taken as indicators of macroeconomic innovation performance. The empirical model explicitly accounts for the two components of patenting output: research productivity and patent propensity. The empirical analysis aims at explaining the `correct' number of priority filings in 34 countries. It confirms that the two components play a substantial role as witnessed by the impact of the design of several policies, namely education, intellectual property and science and technology policies. A major policy implication relates to the design of patent systems, which ultimately induces, or allows for, aggressive patenting strategies.
    Keywords: education policy; patent policy; propensity to patent; R&D productivity; S&T policy
    JEL: O30 O38
    Date: 2008–02
  2. By: Patrick Van Cayseele
    Abstract: The results obtained by Cardon and Sasaki (1998) on R&D clustering are derived under the specific assumption that firms only can own one patent. When multiple patents are allowed, R&D clustering will come about more frequently if search costs are substantial.
    Keywords: R&D clustering; persistence of monopoly
    JEL: L12
    Date: 2008–03
  3. By: Mathieu, Azèle; van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which technological specialization influences the observed R&D intensity of countries, and hence would bias the well-known country rankings that consist in comparing aggregate R&D intensity. The econometric analysis performed on a cross-country cross-industry panel dataset (21 industrial sectors, 10 countries, from 1991 to 2002) suggests that accounting for the technological specialization of countries drastically reduces the differences in relative R&D efforts observed at the country level. The only exception is Sweden (and the USA, but to a lower extent), which has an ‘above-than-average’ R&D intensity in most industries. Countries like Finland, Japan or Germany do not have an R&D intensity that is particularly higher than their industrial structure would predict.
    Keywords: high-tech industries; Lisbon agenda; R&D intensity; Science and technology policies
    JEL: E22 O31 O57
    Date: 2008–02
  4. By: INUI Tomohiko; KAWAKAMI Atsushi; MIYAGAWA Tsutomu
    Abstract: Going all the way back to Schumpeter (1934), economists have long discussed whether market competition stimulates innovation. To reconcile conflicting earlier empirical evidence, Aghion and Griffith (2005) developed a model showing that competition can have both a positive and a negative effect on innovation, depending on the degree of competition in the market. Following Aghion and Griffith's work, this paper empirically examines the effect of market competition - measured either by the Herfindahl Index or the Lerner Index - on productivity growth and R&D intensity using micro data for Japan's manufacturing sector. We found evidence of an inverted U-shaped relationship between competition and innovation when we use the Herfindahl Index as a measure of competition in the market. Especially for the period since 2000, the data lend strong support for the hypothesis of an inverted U-shaped curve. In addition, we examined the effect of new entrants on the innovative activity of incumbents. The results of our estimation using a regulation index as our measure of entry barriers suggest that the effect on incumbents' TFP growth depends on their technology level. When incumbents' technology level is close to the technology frontier in their industry, competition from new entrants induces these firms to make efforts to increase their productivity in order to escape from competition. On the other hand, such competition discourages innovation in firms far from the industrial technology frontier.
    Date: 2008–04
  5. By: Doraszelski, Ulrich; Jaumandreu, Jordi
    Abstract: We develop a simple estimator for production functions in the presence of endogenous productivity change that allows us to retrieve productivity and its relationship with R\&D at the firm level. By endogenizing the productivity process we build on the recent literature on structural estimation of production functions. Our dynamic investment model can be viewed as a generalization of the knowledge capital model (Griliches 1979) that has remained a cornerstone of the productivity literature for more than 25 years. We relax the assumptions on the R\&D process and examine the impact of the investment in knowledge on the productivity of firms. We illustrate our approach on an unbalanced panel of more than 1800 Spanish manufacturing firms in nine industries during the 1990s. Our findings indicate that the link between R&D and productivity is subject to a high degree of uncertainty, nonlinearity, and heterogeneity across firms. By accounting for uncertainty and nonlinearity, we extend the knowledge capital model. Moreover, capturing heterogeneity gives us the ability to assess the role of R&D in determining the differences in productivity across firms and the evolution of firm-level productivity over time.
    Keywords: production function estimation; productivity; R&D
    JEL: D2
    Date: 2008–01
  6. By: Soete, Luc (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of globalization on the allocation of public and private resources for research, knowledge creation and diffusion. We argue that while the concentration of research investments remains in a relatively small number of rich countries and regions, the focus of such activities is increasingly global. From this perspective the international business community is becoming increasingly concerned about the sustainability of its long term growth based on relatively low growth at the high end of the market in comparison to rising demand amongst lower income groups, located primarily in developing countries. Building on this analysis, the paper outlines a vision of innovation for development that could lead to a truly new research programme for innovation studies and the development of successful innovation-for-development strategies.
    Keywords: Economic Development, Science and Technology, Research and Development, Diffusion of Technology, Investment, Innovation, Developing Countries
    JEL: O14 O16 O19 O25 O32 O33
    Date: 2008
  7. By: Pereira de Carvalho, Flavia (UNU-MERIT); Goldstein, Andrea (OECD Development Centre)
    Abstract: This chapter analyses foreign direct investments (henceforth FDI) in the oil industry from two large emerging economies, Brazil and China, with the purpose to understand the role of Governments and technology in the internationalisation strategies of those firms. The chapter shows that the Brazilian oil company, Petrobras, internationalised in the 1970s in order to secure oil resources, and throughout time developed technological capabilities that explain its current success and worldwide expansion. Chinese firms have risen later and are making their outward moves in order to catch up technologically with the world's leading firms.
    Keywords: multinational corporations, emerging economies, oil companies, technology, technological exploitation, competitive advantages.
    JEL: F23 O25 O38 O57
    Date: 2008

This nep-ipr issue is ©2008 by Roland Kirstein. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.