nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2007‒10‒13
nine papers chosen by
Roland Kirstein
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg

  1. R&D Internationalization, R&D Collaboration and Public Knowledge Institutions in Small Economies: Evidence from Finland and the Netherlands By Cees van Beers; Elina Berghäll; Tom Poot
  2. Patent-secret mix in complex product firms By Cugno Franco; Ottoz Elisabetta
  3. Per un pugno di dollari: A first look at the price elasticity of patents. By Gaétan de Rassenfosse; Bruno Van Pottelsberghe
  4. R&D-EXPERIENCE AND INNOVATION SUCCESS By Pilar Beneito; Amparo Sanchis Llopis; María Engracia. Rochina Barrachina
  5. The Link between Environmental Innovation, Patents, and Environmental Management By Marcus Wagner
  6. Innovation Sources and Productivity: A Quantile Regression Analysis. By Agustí Segarra-Blasco
  7. Sharing science, building bridges, and enhancing impact: Public-Private Partnerships in the CGIAR By Spielman,David J.; Hartwich,Frank; von Grebmer, Klaus
  8. Netzwerke und Leistungseliten in Forschung und Entwicklung By Christiane Götze
  9. Innovation, Ownership and Profitability By James H. Love; Stephen Roper; Jun Du

  1. By: Cees van Beers; Elina Berghäll; Tom Poot
    Abstract: This paper investigates innovating firms’ determinants of R&D collaboration with domestic universities and public knowledge institutes in Finland and the Netherlands. Three questions – relevant for innovation policies - constitute the central part of this paper. First, are innovating foreign firms less or more involved in R&D co-operation with domestic public knowledge institutions than innovating domestic firms? Second, do innovating firms that are open to their external knowledge environment have a higher probability to co-operate with public partners than firms that are not or less open? Third, are public knowledge institutions in Finland and the Netherlands attractive R&D partners to innovative firms? Based on data from Community Innovation Surveys we find that foreign firms in the Netherlands are less likely to co-operate with domestic public knowledge institutions than domestic firms, while in Finland no significant difference can be detected. With regard to the second question our findings show that openness of innovating firms is an important determinant of R&D collaboration in both countries. Finally, the empirical results show that knowledge of public partners is considered useful by innovating firms to transform own ideas into concrete innovations in Finland, but not in the Netherlands. However, the type of knowledge – fundamental or applied - is important for R&D collaboration with Dutch public partners, but not for co-operating with Finnish public partners. This raises the issue whether Finnish innovation policies with a strong focus on R&D co-operation provide incentives for domestic public partners to put more emphasis on applied research.
    Keywords: Multinational enterprises; innovation; R&D collaboration; public knowledge institutions; national innovation systems
    JEL: O32 O38
    Date: 2007
  2. By: Cugno Franco (University of Turin); Ottoz Elisabetta (University of Turin)
    Abstract: Different protection mechanisms may be employed at the same time for a given innovation when the innovation is comprised of separately protectable components. If patents and trade secrets can be mixed in protecting single innovations, a trengthening in patent breadth may induce a lower level of patenting, as innovators are more prone to rely on secrecy.
    Date: 2007–10
  3. By: Gaétan de Rassenfosse (Centre Emile Bernheim, Solvay Business School, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels and ECARES, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels.); Bruno Van Pottelsberghe (Centre Emile Bernheim, Solvay Business School, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels and DULBEA, Université Libre de Bruxelles and ECARES, Université Libre de Bruxelles.)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of patent filing fees requested by the member states of the European Patent Convention (EPC). We provide a first empirical evidence showing that the fee elasticity of the demand for priority applications is negative and significant. Given the strong variation in absolute fees and in fees per capita across countries, this result witnesses a suboptimal treatment of inventors across European countries and suggests that fees should be considered as an integral part of an IP policy, especially in the current context of worrying backlogs. In addition, we show that the transfer rate of domestic priority filings to the EPO increases with the duration of membership to the EPO and the GDP per capita of a country, suggesting that member states experience a learning curve within the EPC. The high heterogeneity in the transfer rates casts some doubts on the practice that consists in relying on filings at the EPO or at the USPTO to assess innovative performance of countries.
    Keywords: fees, patent filing, price elasticity.
    JEL: O30 O31 O38 O57
    Date: 2007–10
  4. By: Pilar Beneito (Universitat de València); Amparo Sanchis Llopis (Universitat de València); María Engracia. Rochina Barrachina (Universitat de València)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the role of firms' R&D-experience in their innovative success using a representative sample of Spanish firms for the period 1990-2002. Using count data models and within an innovation production function approach, we investigate the influence of firms' R&D-experience in the achievement of innovative results. To estimate R&D-experience, partially unobserved, we estimate a duration model and use the obtained results and a non-parametric procedure to impute R&D-experience when unobserved. We obtain that R&D effectiveness increases along the R&D history of the firm. En este trabajo se analiza el papel de la experiencia en actividades de I+D sobre el éxito innovador de las empresas utilizando una muestra representativa de empresas españolas para el periodo 1990-2002. Mediante modelos de recuento (count-data models) y partiendo de la especificación de una función de producción de innovaciones, investigamos la influencia de la experiencia en I+D en la obtención de resultados innovadores. Para estimar la experiencia en I+D, que es parcialmente inobservable, estimamos un modelo de duración y utilizamos los resultados obtenidos en este modelo y un procedimiento no paramétrico para imputar la experiencia en I+D a aquellas empresas para las que no se observa. Nuestros resultados muestran que la efectividad de la inversión en I+D aumenta con el historial innovador de la empresa.
    Keywords: Innovación, acumulación del conocimiento, experiencia en I+D, modelos de duración, modelos de recuento innovation, accumulation of knowledge, R&D-experience, duration models, count data models.
    JEL: O30 O34 C23 C10
    Date: 2007–10
  5. By: Marcus Wagner
    Abstract: This paper analyses empirically the relationship between environmental innovations, environmental management and patenting. In particular it tests a number of propositions on how environmental management systems and the interaction with environmentally more or less concerned stakeholders are associated with the probability of firms to pursue innovation in general (measured as patenting behaviour) and specifically environmental innovation (measured as firm self-assessment and based on patent data). In applying a negative binomial as well as binary discrete choice models the relationship is studied using data on German manufacturing firms. As a novel and important insight, the study finds that environmental innovation can be meaningfully identified using patent data and that environmental innovation defined this way is less ubiquitous than self-reported environmental innovation. It also reveals that the implementation level of environmental management systems has a positive effect exclusively on environmental process innovation, whereas it is negatively associated with the level of a firm’s general patenting activities. For environmental product innovation and patented environmental innovations a positive relationship with environ-mentally concerned and a negative link with environmentally neutral stakeholders is found.
    Keywords: Environmental innovations; patents
    JEL: O31 Q56
    Date: 2007
  6. By: Agustí Segarra-Blasco (Grup de Recerca en Indústria i Territori(GRIT), Departament d'Economia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili.)
    Abstract: This paper explores the effects of two main sources of innovation —intramural and external R&D— on the productivity level in a sample of 3,267 Catalan firms. The data set used is based on the official innovation survey of Catalonia which was a part of the Spanish sample of CIS4, covering the years 2002-2004. We compare empirical results by applying usual OLS and quantile regression techniques both in manufacturing and services industries. In quantile regression, results suggest different patterns at both innovation sources as we move across conditional quantiles. The elasticity of intramural R&D activities on productivity decreased when we move up the high productivity levels both in manufacturing and services sectors, while the effects of external R&D rise in high-technology industries but are more ambiguous in low-technology and services industries.
    Keywords: Innovation sources, R&D, Productivity, Quantile Regression
    JEL: O30 C10 O14
    Date: 2007–10
  7. By: Spielman,David J.; Hartwich,Frank; von Grebmer, Klaus
    Abstract: "This study, which examines the role of public–private partnerships in international agricultural research, is intended to provide policymakers, research managers, and business decisionmakers with an understanding of how such partnerships operate and how they potentially contribute to food security and poverty reduction in developing countries. The study examines public–private partnerships in light of persistent market failure, institutional constraints, and systemic weaknesses, which impede the exchange of potentially pro-poor knowledge and technology. The study focuses on three key issues: whether public–private partnerships contribute to reducing the cost of research, whether they add value to research by facilitating innovation, and whether they enhance the impact of research on smallholders and other marginalized groups in developing-country agriculture. The study examines 75 projects undertaken by the research centers and programs of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) in partnership with various types of private firms. Data and information were obtained through document analysis, semi-structured interviews with key informants, and an email survey of CGIAR centers. The resulting analysis provides a characterization of public–private partnerships in the CGIAR and describes the factors that contribute to their success. These finding are important to improving both public policy and organizational practices in the international agricultural research system." - from authors' abstract.
    Keywords: Agricultural R&D, CGIAR, Innovation, Public-private partnerships,
    Date: 2007
  8. By: Christiane Götze (Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Lehrstuhl für ABWL und Produktion/Industriebetriebslehre)
    Abstract: Erkenntnisse über Netzwerkstrukturen in F+E und über ihre technologisch herausragenden Mitarbeiter fußen bisher ausschließlich auf Ergebnissen qualitativer Untersuchungen. Der Versuch einer stärkeren quantitativen Fundierung für das strategische Human Resource Management in diesem Bereich steht bisher aus. Der vorliegende Beitrag ist vor diesem Hintergrund bestrebt, die entstandene Lücke mittels Kombination der Methoden der Patent- und der Netzwerkanalyse zu schließen. Er zeigt anhand der Untersuchung einer Patentstichprobe aus der Herzschrittmachertechnologie, dass sich ein Großteil der Leistung in Forschung und Entwicklung nicht nur auf einige wenige Köpfe konzentriert, sondern vor allem, dass sich diese Leistungsträger signifikant von ihren Miterfindern unterscheiden. Sie weisen umfangreichere Netzwerkkontakte auf, befinden sich eher auf Mittlerpositionen und tendieren dazu, häufiger mit denselben Erfindern zusammen zu arbeiten. Einige Erkenntnisse qualitativ orientierter Studien können somit bestätigt, andere müssen verworfen werden. <BR><B>Summary</B> Scientific research concerning R+D network structures and the characteristics of their top-performing inventors has thus far mainly been based on qualitative studies. A stronger empirical foundation for Strategic Human Resource Management in this field is still pending. This paper fills this vacancy by combining the two methods of patent and network analysis. It shows by means of a patent sample from cardiac pacemaker technology, that the majority of technological performance is not only concentrated on just a few individuals, but that they even more importantly show characteristics dissimilar to their fellow inventors. The top-performing inventors possess substantially more contacts within the network, are more likely to take a mediator position, and work in conjunction with the same actors more frequently. Some findings of qualitative studies can thus be confirmed, whereas others must be rejected.
    Keywords: Netzwerk, F+E, Patente, Erfinder, Personal
    Date: 2007–09–21
  9. By: James H. Love; Stephen Roper; Jun Du
    Abstract: This paper considers the relationship between innovation, ownership and profitability for a panel of manufacturing plants in Ireland and Northern Ireland. Previous literature suggests that innovators are persistently more profitable than non-innovators, but little is known about how this link is moderated by external versus domestic ownership. We consider the link between innovation and profits separately for innovators and non-innovators, and for indigenous innovators and non-innovators and externally-owned plants. We also consider the determinants of innovation over the distribution of plant-level profitability, and find that the determinants of profitability – including innovation and external ownership – vary over the distribution from low to high profitability plants. We find support for the view that innovators and non-innovators have different profitability determinants, and that the profitability of externally-owned plants depends on very different factors to that of indigenously-owned enterprises.
    Keywords: Innovation; Ownership; Profitability; Ireland; Northern Ireland
    JEL: O32 F14 L60
    Date: 2007

This nep-ipr issue is ©2007 by Roland Kirstein. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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