nep-inv New Economics Papers
on Investment
Issue of 2023‒11‒27
thirteen papers chosen by
Daniela Cialfi, Università degli Studi di Teramo

  1. Does Wage Theft Vary by Demographic Group? Evidence from Minimum Wage Increases By Clemens, Jeffrey; Strain, Michael R.
  2. Individual Welfare Analysis: A tale of consumption, time use and preference heterogeneity By Tim Obermeier
  3. Entwicklung eines Modells zur Quantifizierung landwirtschaftlicher Stickstoffbilanzen in Rheinland-Pfalz - AGRUM-RP By Zinnbauer, Maximilian; Eysholdt, Max; Kreins, Peter
  4. Spatial Analysis of Youth Unemployment in Indonesia: Minimum Wages and Industrial Mix By Mayrano Andrianus Sitinjak; Diny Ghuzini
  5. Predictors of entrepreneurial attitude among administrators of selected community colleges and universities in Leyte By Jereco Jims J. Agapito; Liza Lorena C Jala; Rosemarie Cruz-Español; Anthony G Esguerra
  6. Evaluation of the diabetes care cascade and compliance with WHO global coverage targets in Iran based on STEPS survey 2021 By Azadnajafabad, Sina; Ahmadi, Naser; Rezaei, Negar; Rashidi, Mohammad-Mahdi; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Mohammadi, Esmaeil; Abbasi-Kangevari, Mohsen; Naderian, Mohammadreza; Ghasemi, Erfan; Farzi, Yosef; Kazemi, Ameneh; Dilmaghani-Marand, Arezou; Yoosefi, Moein; Rezaei, Shahabeddin; Nasserinejad, Maryam; Fattahi, Nima; Rezaei, Nazila; Haghshenas, Rosa; Foroutan Mehr, Elmira; Koolaji, Sogol; Razi, Farideh; Djalalinia, Shirin; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad
  7. Kinh tế báo chí: Yếu tố con người trong hệ sinh thái truyền thông của thời đại công nghệ 4.0 By Ho, Tung Manh; Nguyen, Viet-Ha T.
  8. Testing Models of Complexity Aversion By Konstantinos Georgalos; Nathan Nabil
  9. Que nous ont appris les réformes passées sur les choix d’âge de départ en retraite et l’emploi des seniors en France? Fondements microéconomiques, bouclage macroéconomique et évaluations des réformes By Langot, François
  10. Methods used to estimate the poverty impact of increases in international food prices By Minot, Nicholas; Martin, Will
  11. ESTIMATES OF DISTORTIONS OF THE ECONOMIES OF THE EAEU COUNTRIES FROM EXISTING NON-TARIFF BARRIERS (first stage) By Eremin, Vladimir (Ерёмин, Владимир); Sedalishchev, Vladimir (Седалищев, Владимир)
  12. Tenant Satisfaction and Commercial Building Performance By Minyi Hu; Nils Kok; Juan Palacios
  13. China’s footprint in global financial markets By Lodge, David; Manu, Ana-Simona; Van Robays, Ine

  1. By: Clemens, Jeffrey (University of California, San Diego); Strain, Michael R. (American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: Using Current Population Survey data, we assess whether and to what extent the burden of "wage theft" - wage payments below the statutory minimum wage - falls disproportionately on various demographic groups following minimum wage increases. For most racial and ethnic groups at most ages we find that underpayment rises similarly as a fraction of realized wage gains in the wake of minimum wage increases. We also present evidence that the burden of underpayment falls disproportionately on relatively young African American workers and that underpayment increases more for Hispanic workers among the full working-age population.
    Keywords: minimum wage, subminimum wage, compliance, noncompliance, enforcement, underpayment
    JEL: J08 J38 K42
    Date: 2023–10
  2. By: Tim Obermeier
    Abstract: How accurately does household income reflect the well-being of the individuals living within the household? Looking at household income does not take unequal consumption sharing within families, the value of time use (leisure and housework) and preference heterogeneity into account. I build a model of family decision-making and the marriage market which jointly captures these aspects and estimate the model based on British time use data. I use the estimated model to study poverty and inequality based on the individual-level Money Metric Welfare Index (MMWI). The main result is that only 59% of individuals who are poor in terms of the MMWI (a??welfare-poora??) are also income-poor, suggesting that the conventional focus on income misses a substantial fraction of the welfare poor. I find that accounting for unobserved preference heterogeneity is an important factor in assessing individual welfare. From an aggregate perspective, inequality within families accounts for 18% of overall welfare inequality, and heterogeneity in economies of scale across households account for 23% of welfare inequality. Finally, to illustrate the policy relevance of individual welfare measures, I study how minimum wage increases affect welfare-poverty in this framework. JEL classification: E21, I32, D13, D63
    Keywords: Individual Welfare, Preference Heterogeneity, Inequality, Marriage Market, Intra-Household Inequality, Minimum Wage
    Date: 2023–10–18
  3. By: Zinnbauer, Maximilian; Eysholdt, Max; Kreins, Peter
    Abstract: Die in der Nitratrichtlinie vorgegebenen Ziele für die Qualität des Grundwassers konnten bislang weder in Deutschland insgesamt noch in Rheinland-Pfalz (RP) flächendeckend erreicht werden (BMU und BMEL, 2020). In RP befanden sich 2019/2020 35 der insgesamt 117 Grundwasserkörper in schlechtem chemischem Zustand, was etwa 40 % der Landesfläche entspricht (MKUEM Rheinland-Pfalz, 2022). Davon sind 31 Grundwasserkörper in schlechtem chemischem Zustand aufgrund von Nitrat. Sowohl die Wasserrahmenrichtlinie als auch die 2021 in Kraft getretene Erstfassung der Allgemeinen Verwaltungsvorschrift zur Ausweisung mit Nitrat belasteter Gebiete (AVV GeA) benötigt räumlich differenzierte Informationen zur Maßnahmenplanung und zur Gebietsabgrenzung. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurde ein Instrument entwickelt, das landwirtschaftliche Stickstoffemissionen räumlich hochaufgelöst auf Gemeindeebene und auch innerhalb der Gemeinde quantifiziert. Die Ergebnisse stellen die Stickstoffbilanzen für den Betrachtungszeitraum 2016-2019 detailliert dar. Diese Informationen können als Ent- scheidungshilfe für politische Prozesse, als Grundlage für das Umwelt-Monitoring und als Informationsgrundlage für das landwirtschaftliche Stickstoffmanagement genutzt werden. Die Ergebnisse ermöglichen die Identifikation von Hot-Spots und von unbelasteten Gebieten und erlauben Rückschlüsse auf die Ursachen der landwirtschaftlichen Stickstoffemissionen. In Kombination mit zusätzlichen geografischen, naturräumlichen Informationen lassen sich regionale Austragspotenziale abschätzen (Nitratauswaschung).
    Abstract: The targets for groundwater quality set out in the Nitrates Directive have not yet been achieved across the board, neither in Germany as a whole nor in Rhineland-Palatinate (RP) (BMU and BMEL, 2020). In RP, 35 of the total 117 groundwater bodies were in poor chemical condition in 2019/2020, corresponding to about 40 % of the state's area (MKUEM Rheinland-Pfalz, 2022). 31 groundwater bodies are in poor chemical condition due to nitrate. Both the Water Framework Directive and the first version of the General Administrative Regulation for the Designation of Nitrate Polluted Areas (AVV GeA), which was passed in 2021, require spatially differentiated information for the planning of mitigation measures and the delineation of polluted areas. Against this background, a tool was developed that quantifies agricultural nitrogen emissions with high spatial resolution, at the municipality level and also within the municipality. The results provide detailed nitrogen budgets for the period 2016 to 2019. This information can be used as a decision support tool for policy processes, as basis for environmental monitoring, and to inform agricultural nitrogen management. The results enable the identification of pollution hot spots as well as uncontaminated areas and allow conclusions to be drawn about the causes of agricultural nitrogen emissions. In combination with additional geohydrological information, regional discharge potentials can be estimated (nitrate leaching).
    Keywords: Landwirtschaft, Stickstoff, Gewässerschutz, regionale Analysen, Modellierung, Rheinland-Pfalz, agriculture, nitrogen, water protection, regional analyses, modeling, Rhineland-Palatinate
    JEL: Q10 Q15 Q18 Q24 Q25
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Mayrano Andrianus Sitinjak (Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Empat Lawang); Diny Ghuzini (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada)
    Abstract: This study examines the spatial distribution of youth unemployment rates (15–24 years old) and the impact of wages and industrial composition on these rates in Indonesian provinces. The persistently high youth unemployment rate and uneven distribution of youth labor across provinces have motivated this research. Data from 2010 to 2018, sourced from Sakernas and other BPS publications, were analyzed for 33 Indonesian provinces. This study employed Moran's index and spatial panel data regression methods. The findings reveal a clustered spatial pattern of youth unemployment rates among provinces. The best-fitting model, identified as the Spatial Durbin Model (SDM) with random effects, indicates that increasing the minimum wage ratio significantly contributes to higher youth unemployment rates. Conversely, higher real wages lead to a slight decrease, whereas greater industrial sector absorption reduces youth unemployment. However, increased absorption in the service sector amplifies youth unemployment.
    Keywords: Youth Unemployment, Minimum Wages, Industrial Mix, Spatial Panel
    JEL: C23 J30 J46
    Date: 2023–08
  5. By: Jereco Jims J. Agapito (University of the Visayas); Liza Lorena C Jala (University of the Visayas); Rosemarie Cruz-Español (University of the Visayas); Anthony G Esguerra (University of the Visayas)
    Abstract: The school administrators adopted an "Entrepreneurial Attitude" approach to run the school profitably. Furthermore, administrators who embrace successful entrepreneur techniques were able to attain and establish an effective school, as the literature says. Using a descriptive survey method, this study determined the factors that affect the entrepreneurial attitudes of school administrators and faculty in selected universities and colleges in the 4th congressional district of Leyte through model generation. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that cognition is the most dominant and significant predictor of entrepreneurial attitude, which generated two models. An emergent model can enhance the lens to see a better picture of what school administrators should prioritize in improving their school management strategy. A simple model equation can be a foundation for enhancing someone's entrepreneurial attitude. A critical takeaway from the simple equation model was that enhancing someone's cognition can help school administrators transform their entrepreneurial mindset and attitude.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial attitude, school administrators, hierarchical regression, aptitude, boundaries, cognition, Leyte, Philippines
    Date: 2022–12–30
  6. By: Azadnajafabad, Sina; Ahmadi, Naser; Rezaei, Negar; Rashidi, Mohammad-Mahdi; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Mohammadi, Esmaeil; Abbasi-Kangevari, Mohsen; Naderian, Mohammadreza; Ghasemi, Erfan; Farzi, Yosef; Kazemi, Ameneh; Dilmaghani-Marand, Arezou; Yoosefi, Moein; Rezaei, Shahabeddin; Nasserinejad, Maryam; Fattahi, Nima; Rezaei, Nazila; Haghshenas, Rosa; Foroutan Mehr, Elmira; Koolaji, Sogol; Razi, Farideh; Djalalinia, Shirin; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad
    Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the diabetes mellitus (DM) and prediabetes epidemiology, care cascade, and compliance with global coverage targets. We recruited the results of the nationally representative Iran STEPS Survey 2021. Diabetes and prediabetes were two main outcomes. Diabetes awareness, treatment coverage, and glycemic control were calculated for all population with diabetes to investigate the care cascade. Four global coverage targets for diabetes developed by the World Health Organization were adopted to assess the DM diagnosis and control status. Among 18, 119 participants, the national prevalence of DM and prediabetes were 14.2% (95% confidence interval 13.4–14.9) and 24.8% (23.9–25.7), respectively. The prevalence of DM treatment coverage was 65.0% (62.4–67.7), while the prevalence of good (HbA1C
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Ho, Tung Manh; Nguyen, Viet-Ha T.
    Abstract: Trong bối cảnh của thời đại mới với sự phát triển vượt bậc của công nghệ thông tin, các cơ quan báo chí đang phải đối mặt với sự sụt giảm về doanh thu. Những vấn đề liên quan đến tài chính và nguồn thu của báo chí được đề cập trong bài viết này dưới khái niệm của kinh tế báo chí. Việc làm rõ các thành phần cấu thành của kinh tế báo chí cũng như vị trí của kinh tế báo chí trong hệ sinh thái truyền thông sẽ giúp các nhà hoạch định chính sách có cái nhìn toàn diện về sự phát triển trong thời đại mới. (Bài báo đã được đăng trên Tạp chí Thông Tin và Truyền thông của Bộ TT & TT: u-to-con-nguoi-trong-he-sinh-thai-truyen -thong-cua-thoi-dai-cong-nghe-4-0-59564. html)
    Date: 2023–11–03
  8. By: Konstantinos Georgalos; Nathan Nabil
    Abstract: In this paper we aim to investigate how the complexity of a decision-task may change an agents strategic behaviour as a result of increased cognitive fatigue. In this framework, complexity is defined as a function of the number of outcomes in a lottery. Using Bayesian inference techniques, we quantitatively specify and estimate adaptive toolbox models of cognition, which we rigorously test against popular expectation based models; modified to account for complexity aversion. We find that for the majority of the subjects, a toolbox model performs best both in-sample, and with regards to its predictive capacity out-of-sample, suggesting that individuals result to heuristics when the complexity of a task overwhelms their cognitive load.
    Keywords: Complexity aversion, Toolbox models, Heuristics, Risky choice, Bayesian modelling
    JEL: C91 D91 D81
    Date: 2023
  9. By: Langot, François
    Abstract: Depuis plus de 30 ans, des réformes du système de retraite français ont permis d'assurer sa soutenabilité financière dans un environnement démographique changeant. En plus de la pérennité des retraites à la française, elles ont réduit l'exclusion prématurée des seniors de l'emploi. Cet article vise à remettre en perspective ces deux résultats, sur la base des réformes des retraites en France. Premièrement, le recul de l'âge du taux plein créée un premier dividende en réduisant le nombre de retraités et en augmentant le nombre de cotisants au delà de l'âge du taux, diminuant une première fois les déficits des caisses de retraite. Deuxièmement, le recul de l'âge de la retraite \og cause\fg{} un accroissement de l'emploi des seniors avant l'âge du taux plein et augmente donc le nombre de cotisants, ce qui génère alors un second dividende pour les caisses de retraite et pour l'ensemble de l'économie. Pour reculer l'âge effectif de départ en retraite, on montre que les mesures incitatives telles que des surcotes sont un instrument puissant pour un recul volontaire l'âge de retraite, et non imposé comme dans le cas du recul de l'âge légal. Les effets positifs du recul de l'âge de la retraite sur l'emploi des seniors sont fragiles car ils reposent sur l'absence de mesures qui viendraient briser l'anticipation d'un allongement de l'horizon de travail des seniors, telles que les différentes mesures spécifiques aidant au non-emploi en fin de cycle de vie.
    Keywords: Retraite, emploi des seniors
    Date: 2023–09
  10. By: Minot, Nicholas; Martin, Will
    Abstract: The prices of agricultural commodities have increased on international markets since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic in early 2020 and spiked after the invasion of Ukraine by Russia in February 2022. The price increases were particularly notable in the case of wheat, maize, and sorghum, which are staple foods in many developing countries. This prompted a wave of research to better understand the effect of these price changes on income and poverty in low-income countries. IFPRI carried out a set of country studies to explore the poverty impact of higher staple grain prices on six countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Kenya, and Ethiopia (see Martin and Minot, 2023a, 2023b, and 2023c and Minot and Martin, 2023a, 2023b, and 2023c). This brief describes the methods and data used in those studies.
    Keywords: MALI; BURKINA FASO; KENYA; EAST AFRICA; NIGER; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; NIGERIA; ETHIOPIA; agricultural products; markets; Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; prices; wheat; maize; sorghum; staple foods; developing countries; income; poverty
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Eremin, Vladimir (Ерёмин, Владимир) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Sedalishchev, Vladimir (Седалищев, Владимир) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: Inevitably, non-tariff barriers (NTBs) that exist in trade between countries generate rents associated with them, which can either be distributed in some ratio between trading partners or dissipate, thereby leading to a loss of resources. The valuation of these rents and their distribution is not an easy task, because the effect of NTBs in their entirety is usually difficult to quantify due to the different nature of the trade restrictions that make up NTBs. Nevertheless, in the light of the global trend towards tariff liberalization that has been going on for more than a hundred years, this task sometimes becomes more important in the study of trade than classical studies of the impact of import and/or export tariffs, since NTB rents can multiply tariff revenue. One of the possible tools for modeling the impact of NTBs on the economies of various countries (and in particular on the domestic prices of goods), taking into account the existing trade relations between states, are static CGE trading models (from the English Computable General Equilibrium models - computable general equilibrium models). One of the objectives of this study is to prepare our own database based on the most recent available statistical data, similar in structure to the GTAP 10 database, but with a smaller number of regions and supplemented with information about the ad valorem equivalents of the goods we are interested in in the context of trading partners. As the results in this study, the following aspects of the work carried out can be distinguished, such as a review of the literature on existing approaches to assessing the imbalances of economies generated by NTM, as well as an analysis of trade in goods and services between the EAEU countries and their main partners, which is necessary for interpreting the results of the numerical modeling stage, a scheme for preparing input data for calibration of the used CGE models.
    Keywords: global economy, international trade, CGE, trade policy, Russian Federation, foreign economic strategy, computable general equilibrium models, GTAP database, export restrictions, global matrices of social accounts, EAEU, non-tariff barriers
    JEL: F02 F13
    Date: 2023–10–19
  12. By: Minyi Hu; Nils Kok; Juan Palacios
    Abstract: Customer satisfaction is a leading indicator of their demand and the companies' performance, however, limited evidence research on how the satisfaction of tenant-customers of commercial offices, could contribute economic value to the building. The tenant survey provides us with the opportunity to research this question. Using the Kingsley tenant survey dataset collected from 2, 965 U.S. office buildings and 55, 951 corporate tenants, matched to the building characteristics data and financial performance data from the Costar database, and green certificate data from USGBC, we estimate the impact of tenant satisfaction on tenant's following leasing decision and the performance of the building. We document that 1 point higher overall satisfaction (on a scale of 1 to 5) is positively related to 8.36% higher willingness to renew the lease, 11.03% higher building recommendation, and 19.40% lower probability of actually moving out. In addition, analysis of the financial performance found that after controlling for the current period performance, 10% higher building level average overall satisfaction is related to 0.17% higher growth of gross rents, 0.66% higher growth effective gross rent, and 2.32% lower growth of vacancy rate. Besides, this beneficial effect is more significant for those tenants who have already stayed in the building for a long time, for the properties that are located in the submarkets with high occupancy rates, and for properties that have lower initial satisfaction levels. Further analysis using the mediation model documents that putting in sustainability and better property management company could improvement to tenants’ satisfaction and the performance of the building. Our research provides a shred of evidence for the financial implication of good customer relationship management in the real estate sector.
    Keywords: Commercial building performance; Property Management; Tenant decision; Tenant Satisfaction
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2023–01–01
  13. By: Lodge, David; Manu, Ana-Simona; Van Robays, Ine
    Abstract: Using daily data since 2017, we disentangle China-specific structural shocks driving Chinese financial markets and examine spillovers across global markets. The novelty of this paper consists of simultaneously identifying China shocks with shocksemanating from the United States and shocks to global risk sentiment – two major forces driving global financial markets – to ensure that China spillover estimates do not reflect common factors. Our results show that shocks originating in China havematerial impacts on global equity markets, although spillovers are much smaller than those following shocks in the United States, or those triggered by shifts in global risk sentiment. By contrast, shocks from China account for a significant proportion of variation in global commodity prices, more on a par with those of the United States. Nevertheless, spillovers from China can be significantly amplified in an environment of heightened global volatility, or when the shocks are large. JEL Classification: E44, E52, G15
    Keywords: China shocks, commodities, global financial markets, spillovers
    Date: 2023–11

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