nep-inv New Economics Papers
on Investment
Issue of 2023‒08‒28
23 papers chosen by
Daniela Cialfi, Università degli Studi di Teramo

  1. COVID-19 Wage Subsidy: Outcome evaluation By Dean Hyslop; Dave Maré; Shannon Minehan
  2. Why Are Unemployment Insurance Claims So Low? By Christopher J. O'Leary; Kenneth J. Kline; Thomas A. Stengle; Stephen A. Wandner
  3. The Heterogeneous Effects of Social Cues on Day Time and Night Time Electricity Usage, and Appliance Purchase: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Armenia By Yermone Sargsyan; Salim Turdaliev; Silvester van Koten
  4. Taxing the Gender Gap: Labor Market Effects of A Payroll Tax Cut for Women in Italy By Enrico Rubolino
  5. The Pillars of Shared Prosperity: Insights From State versus Elite Extraction And From a New Instrument By Andres Irarrazaval
  6. COVID-19 Wage Subsidy: Outcome evaluation - Value for Money By Caroline Fyfe; Dave Maré; Phoebe Taptiklis
  7. GOVERNANCE QUALITY AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL: METHODIC APPROACH TO EVALUATION By Dobrolyubova, Elena (Добролюбова, Елена); Starostina, Aleksandra (Старостина, Александра)
  8. Unleashing Potential: Model-Based Reform Benchmarking for EU Member States By Philipp Pfeiffer; Janos Varga; Jan in ‘t Veld
  9. "The Wavelet Multi-Scale Analysis of Exchange Rate Exposure: An Application to Malaysian Consumer Products and Services Sector " By Hishamuddin Abdul Wahab
  10. Place-Based Energy Inequality for Ethnicities in Nepal By Rabindra Nepal; Rohan Best; Madeline Taylor
  11. Temperature variability and long-run economic development By Linsenmeier, Manuel
  12. Conceptualising Loyalty Benefits as the Relational benefits perceived by Malaysian Automotive manufacturers By S.Sarifah Radiah Shariff
  13. INFORMAL ECONOMY WORKERS: WELLBEING AND NEED OF SOCIAL ASSISTANCE By Tsatsura Elena A. (Цацура Елена); Grishina Elena E. (Гришина Елена)
  14. Agrarumweltleistungen durch ergebnisbasierte und kollektive Vertragslösungen - Erkenntnisse aus Befragungen in Österreich und Deutschland By Runge, Tania; Eichhorn, Theresa; Schaller, Lena
  15. Patterns of better breast cancer care in countries with higher human development index and healthcare expenditure: Insights from GLOBOCAN 2020 By Azadnajafabad, Sina; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Mohammadi, Esmaeil; Delazar, Sina; Rashedi, Sina; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Mansourian, Morteza
  16. Transforming the system to face grand challenges by experimenting with "pragmatic" utopias: the case of the "Zero Long-Term Unemployment Territories". By Mathias Guérineau; Julien Kleszczowski; Julie C. Mayer
  17. Taking Stock of Organizations with Impact Evaluation Capacity Headquartered in sub-Saharan Africa: A New Database and Landscaping Analysis By Julia Kaufman; Justin Hurley; Janeen Madan Keller; Erin Collinson
  18. BEHAVIORAL PRACTICES OF THE POPULATION TO PROTECT ITS HEALTH By Pokida A.N. (Покида Андрей); Gazieva I.A. (Газиева Инна); Zybunovskaya N.V. (Зыбуновская Наталья)
  19. Public service delivery system in State Universities and Colleges: Controversies and best practices across frontline services By Sulasula, Josephine; Moreno, Frede
  20. Análisis de los modelos de gobernanza de datos en el sector público: una mirada desde Bogotá, Buenos Aires, Ciudad de México y São Paulo By Cabello, Sebastián M.
  21. The causal effect of family physician program on the prevalence, screening, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in an Eastern Mediterranean Region: a causal difference-in-differences analysis By Mohammadi, Neda; Alizadeh, Ahad; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Ghasemi, Erfan; Ahmadi, Naser; Yaseri, Mehdi; Rezaei, Negar; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali
  22. Selection-Neglect in the NFT Bubble By Dong Huang; William N. Goetzmann
  23. Datalism and Data Monopolies in the Era of A.I.: A Research Agenda By Catherine E. A. Mulligan; Phil Godsiff

  1. By: Dean Hyslop (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Dave Maré (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Shannon Minehan (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial disruption in social and economic activity since March 2020. The New Zealand Government reacted early, introducing stringent lockdowns to restrict the spread of the virus. At the same time, it introduced a series of economic policies designed to support the health response, the largest of which was the COVID-19 Wage Subsidy Scheme (WSS). The WSS was a high-trust policy that provided subsidy payments to firms who expected to have a substantial drop in revenues because of the pandemic. The objectives of the WSS were to avoid widespread layoffs, help firms maintain employment relationships with their workers, and maintain workers’ incomes to help meet their essential needs during lockdown periods. This paper analyses the impacts of the WSS on both firm and worker level economic outcomes. We adopt a ‘doubly-robust’ estimation approach, that uses propensity score methods both to match subsidy receiving firms to similar non-subsidised firms, and to weight the outcomes analysis. Our analysis focuses on the first four WSS-waves: the March 2020 (Original), Extension, Resurgence, and March 2021 waves. First, we analyse whether the WSS reached the intended people and businesses. For the March 2020 wave, subsidised firms experienced substantially greater revenue declines than unsubsidised firms: the modal reduction in revenue for subsidised firms was about 50%. We also observe larger revenue losses relative to a year earlier for subsidised firms in the Extension and Resurgence waves, but revenue changes for the March 2021 wave are confounded by the March 2020 effects. As the subsidy payments were tied to firms, it was less effective in supporting more precarious jobs and workers. Second, we analyse the effects of the WSS on firm survival and resilience over the short (6 months) and medium (12 months) term. We estimate that receiving WSS payments had a positive effect on firm survival rates over the following 12 months for three of the four WSS waves. However subsidised firms experienced slower subsequent employment growth than non-subsidised firms. Third, we analyse the effects of the wage subsidy scheme on worker level outcomes. We estimate positive effects of WSS receipt on job retention over both the short term (6-months) and medium term (12-months) for the March 2020, Extension and March 2021 waves; and roughly zero effects for the Resurgence wave. We also find positive employment effects for workers over the short term for the March 2020, Extension and March 2021 waves, and over the medium term for the March 2020 and Extension waves; and slightly negative effects for the Resurgence wave. However, conditional on being employed, we estimate that workers who received March 2020 wage subsidy payments experienced slower subsequent monthly earnings growth than comparable non-subsidised workers. The estimates for the later waves are more mixed. We find no compelling evidence that the WSS supported non-viable firms, although the higher survival rate and lower employment growth of subsidised firms suggests that the WSS may have kept firms with poorer growth prospects in operation. We also find no systematic evidence that firms did not comply with their obligations to pass on subsidy payments to workers and endeavour to pay them at least 80% of their usual earnings. However, we find that some subsidy receiving firms paid workers at either the part-time or full-time subsidy rate, or at 80% of their prior earnings, during periods of subsidy receipt. This was relatively more likely to occur during the original (March 2020) subsidy wave, and to a lesser degree the Extension-wave.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Wage subsidy, firm survival, employment growth, earnings compliance, job-retention, employment continuity, earnings growth
    JEL: H25 J08 J20 J63
    Date: 2023–08
  2. By: Christopher J. O'Leary (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research); Kenneth J. Kline (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research); Thomas A. Stengle (Retired); Stephen A. Wandner (National Academy of Social Insurance)
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the reasons why unemployment insurance (UI) claims have declined so dramatically over the past three decades. The fall in the UI claims rate is concerning because it suggests a reduced countercyclical effectiveness of the UI program. Additionally, weekly initial UI claims are regarded as an important leading indicator of aggregate economic activity, so their meaning has changed. We use a Oaxaca (1973) decomposition approach to identify the main factors for the decline in claims. The procedure suggests what the level of claims would have been later in the period, had values of variables or parameters of the system been at levels observed earlier in the period. Our analysis of state-year data over the past three decades suggests that the decline in UI claims stems from changes in the industrial and occupational mix of employment interacting with changes in UI program features set by individual states. Employment declines in manufacturing and increases in the health-care and education workforce, along with lower potential UI duration and lower wage replacement rates, contribute to the decline in claims. This decline could be offset by federal rules for states to improve benefit access, replacement rates, and durations. Such changes could improve the relevance of UI to the labor market and help restore UI as meaningful social insurance against job loss and as an automatic stabilizer of the macroeconomy.
    Keywords: unemployment insurance (UI), applications for benefits, first claims, wage replacement rate, potential duration of benefits, industrial mix of employment, occupational mix of employment
    JEL: J65 J68 H76
    Date: 2023–04
  3. By: Yermone Sargsyan (Charles University, Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic); Salim Turdaliev (Charles University, Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic); Silvester van Koten (UJEP, Faculty of Social and Economic Studies, Usti nad Labem & CERGE-EI Prague, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: This study investigates the effectiveness of "nudges" through monthly peer comparison reports on household energy consumption in Yerevan, Armenia. We collected data from 300 households for a total of 8 months. While monthly peer comparison reports show no significant effect on energy consumption, we find strong and statistically significant heterogeneous treatment effects. Specifically, we find that households utilizing electricity as their primary heating source, households where the respondent is an educated female, and households with respondents aged 56 and above experienced a decrease in electricity usage as a result of the peer comparison reports. Moreover, we discover that high electricity consumers reduce their consumption significantly after receiving the reports. However, we also observe a small "boomerang" effect, whereby households in the lower quartile of electricity consumption slightly increase their usage in response to the reports. Furthermore, we find that the bulk of the reduction in electricity consumption comes from daytime consumption when the marginal cost of electricity is higher. Additionally, we explore the heterogeneous treatment effects of nudges on the investment in the physical stock of appliances.
    Keywords: demand side management, nudges, household energy consumption, peer comparison, developing country, heterogeneous treatment effects, electrical appliances
    JEL: Q4 Q53 Q48 Q58 C93
    Date: 2023–07
  4. By: Enrico Rubolino (University of Lausanne, Department of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: This paper studies the labor market effects of a large payroll tax cut for female hires in Italy. Starting in January 2013, the payroll tax rate paid by the employer for female hires was reduced by 50 percent for a period of 12 months for temporary jobs and 18 months for permanent jobs. Eligibility for the tax cut depends on the time elapsed in nonemployment status and varies discontinuously by the worker’s municipality of residence, age, and occupation. Combining social security data on the universe of Italian private-sector workers with several empirical approaches, I find that the tax cut increases female employment and spurs business performance, especially where gender biases are more severe. By contrast, the tax cut does not raise workers’ net wages. A cost-benefit analysis implies that the net cost of the policy is around one-fourth of the budgetary cost. These findings provide the first empirical evidence that differentiating payroll taxes by gender helps to reduce the gender employment gap, but not the gender pay gap.
    Keywords: Local gender gaps; female employment; payroll tax; tax incidence
    JEL: H22 J21 J31
    Date: 2023–07
  5. By: Andres Irarrazaval
    Abstract: What are the origins of shared prosperity? By synthesizing the literature on development, institutions and state capacity, this paper develops a new instrumental variable (IV) approach to identify the pivotal mechanisms explaining cross-country income and inequality differences. Exploiting the interaction between climate zones (using latitude) and native state history faced by European colonizers as an IV, this research explains 70-80% of colonial settlements in 1900 and subsequent institutional and economic development. This novel IV strategy also addresses the flaws of previous attempts, suffering from measurement error, weak instrument bias, and narrow research frameworks. That is, to identify better the causality chains going from colonial institutions to current outcomes. The results support the neoinstitutionalists' thesis, stressing executive checks for development (by checking elite capture), but challenge the key role given to market over state institutions. Prosperity and equality appear chiefly driven by state capacity, rather than by market rules or property rights. Across Africa, Latin America, and Asia, despite convergence to more "pro-market" and "inclusive" economic systems in the 20th century, both underdevelopment and high elite extraction persist via a state capacity trap. In the Periphery, persistently limited executive checks have undermined forming the state’s credible commitments to public probity necessary for building tax capacity. Then, this limits these nations' ability to (I) support markets and private sector development via an ample public goods provision, and (II) check elite extraction via progressive taxes and transfers ensuring significant redistribution. These stand out as the two pillars of shared prosperity.
    Date: 2023–08
  6. By: Caroline Fyfe (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Dave Maré (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Phoebe Taptiklis (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: The value for money of the COVID-19 Wage Subsidy Support programme (WSS) was evaluated using cost-benefit analysis from a societal perspective, that encompassed the New Zealand economy as a whole. The subsidy was treated as a transfer (from the government into the wider NZ economy) and negative transfers - government money repaid or not spent, i.e.– subsidy repayments and unemployment support avoided - were subtracted from this. As the analysis was undertaken from a societal perspective, transfers were included as both a cost and a benefit, but with a 20% deadweight burden of raising tax revenue added to the cost side. The cost of administering the wage subsidy was also included. The quantified benefits of the wage subsidy were increased output associated with people remaining in employment, and the value of the wellbeing they experienced from avoiding unemployment. Outcomes were calculated by employment months gained over the short (6 month) and medium (12 month) term. The March 2020 wave had a favourable benefit-to-cost ratio of 1.20 after 6 months and 1.45 after 12 months. The 12-month ratio was 1.14 for the Extension wave, 0.83 for the Resurgence wave, and 1.63 for the March 2021 wave. Overall the COVID-19 wage subsidy represented value for money. It allowed more workers to remain in employment and more sole traders to remain in business, than was predicted would occur without a wage subsidy. To understand whether the effectiveness of the wage subsidy as an intervention remained stable over time, it is recommended that an evaluation be undertaken on the August 2021 wage subsidy. The value for money analysis could only identify direct benefits of the wage subsidy and so was limited to examining microeconomic outcomes. An investigation of fiscal interventions to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the New Zealand economy is recommended to determine their effectiveness at a macroeconomic level.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Wage subsidy, value for money, employment retention, sole trader survival, cost benefit analysis
    JEL: J08 J20
    Date: 2023–08
  7. By: Dobrolyubova, Elena (Добролюбова, Елена) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Starostina, Aleksandra (Старостина, Александра) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The need for systemic efforts to improve governance quality at the regional level makes the subject of the study highly relevant to the policy agenda. The goal of the study is to develop and test a methodological approach to measuring the quality of governance at the regional level. The subject of the study includes governance performance at the regional level in Russia. The authors apply general analytical scientific methods such as quantitative, qualitative, and comparative analysis. The study is based on a review of statistical, administrative data, as well as regulatory documents, regional strategic documents, and related implementation performance reports. The study results include a review of existing approaches to measuring governance quality at the regional level, a methodological approach to evaluating the quality of governance and the results of its application. The study concludes that there is significant variation in terms of governance quality both within one region (i.e., over various quality parameters) and among regions. The dynamics of governance quality indicators also varies among regions, with some territories demonstrating improvements and others deterioration. The interregional variation cannot be explained exclusively by difference in the resources available. The regions with better governance quality demonstrate better social and economic performance. Improving quality of public governance would call for adapting reform approaches to specific regional needs. The novelty of the paper is related, first of all, to adaptation of governance performance indicators and testing the system based on the regional data, undertaking a comprehensive evaluation of the justification, effectiveness, and efficiency of the governance in Russian regions. It is recommended to use the methodology proposed in the paper for preparing and implementing governance improvement programs at the regional level.
    Keywords: Governance, public services, governance justification, evaluation of effectiveness, evaluation of efficiency, subject of the Russian Federation
    JEL: H11 H43 H83
    Date: 2022–09
  8. By: Philipp Pfeiffer; Janos Varga; Jan in ‘t Veld
    Abstract: Supply-side policies take centre stage in the EU’s post-pandemic recovery plans. This paper employs a benchmarking approach to quantify the potential impact of structural reforms in the EU Member States. Based on a comprehensive collection of structural indicators and the QUEST-RD model, we evaluate reforms in five policy areas: (i) market competition and regulation; (ii) taxation; (iii) skills and education; (iv) labour markets; and (v) research and development. For each indicator and Member State, we simulate the closing of half of the gap with the EU’s best performers, implying ambitious reforms for countries with significant distance to the frontier. For these stylised reforms, we find significant potential gains in employment and output, raising EU GDP by around 2% and 8% after five and twenty years, respectively. In the long run, the policies can increase EU GDP by over 20%. The policies also reduce economic disparities between countries, given different scope for reform. For countries with sizable distance to the best performers, increases in potential GDP could exceed 40% when halving the gap across all indicators. Among the reforms considered here, human capital investment emerges as central for enhancing growth potential. In addition, we find synergies across reforms and countries and assess the sensitivity to alternative assumptions on technology dynamics in our model.
    JEL: E02 E24 E61 F43 O41
    Date: 2023–07
  9. By: Hishamuddin Abdul Wahab (Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia Author-2-Name: Nurul Afaaf Mohd. Nasir Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: " Objective - Past efforts in assessing foreign exchange rate exposure assume homogeneity in the level of exposure across time horizons which seems to be impractical due to the dynamic nature of comovement between firm value and exchange rate. Methodology – Given this, the study aimed to investigate the multi-scale relationships between changes in exchange rates and firm values of 56 multinational corporations in the consumer products and services sector from January 2000 to December 2020. Findings – The novelty of the study lies upon the application of Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transformation (MODWT) method which allows decomposition of a single time series domain into different time domains. The fragmentation into multiple time domains allows the measurement of scale-dependent foreign exchange exposure. As a result, the study discovered a non-monotonic trend for wavelet scale j of currency exposure across time scales. In particular, there was a gradual increase in the magnitude of beta exchange exposure and the proportion of exposed firms from low to high time scales. This finding suggested that firm value is more sensitive to changes in the exchange rate within a widened time domain. Novelty – The study demonstrated on how the wavelet technique can be used to measure foreign exchange risk and aided firm managers and market participants in managing foreign exchange risk for a specific time interval. Type of Paper - Empirical"
    Keywords: Currency exposure; multi-horizon exchange rate; Malaysian Sectors; Wavelet Analysis; MODWT.
    JEL: E42 F31 F39
    Date: 2023–07–30
  10. By: Rabindra Nepal; Rohan Best; Madeline Taylor
    Abstract: This paper assesses ethnic differences for four energy outcomes using a survey of 6, 000 households in Nepal. These four outcomes are avoiding open wick lamps, having a solar lighting system, living in a neighbourhood with street lighting, and having a connection to the national grid. We find large differences across ethnic groups, with the Madhesi group having distinct energy outcomes, for each of the four dimensions. However, progressively more detailed locational variables explain much of the difference. Our interactive analysis then suggests that some of the remaining variation is explained by socioeconomic variables of having a financial account, school attendance, or membership of a women’s group. However, ethnic inequality for the most place-based outcome, of living in an area with street lighting, is not reduced by education or women’s group membership. Our results therefore suggest that ethnic inequality in place-based energy outcomes may not be addressed by policies promoting education and community group participation. Policies to increase the proportions of households with access to financial accounts may have broader effectiveness in reducing ethnic energy inequality across many energy dimensions.
    Keywords: ethnicity, financial account, grid, open wick lamp, solar lighting system, street light
    JEL: D14 O13 Q40 Q53
    Date: 2023–07
  11. By: Linsenmeier, Manuel
    Abstract: This study examines the effects of temperature variability on long-run economic development. To identify causal effects, a novel econometric strategy is employed, based on spatial first-differences. Economic activity is proxied by satellite data on nightlights. Drawing on climate science, the study distinguishes between temperature variability on three time scales: day-to-day, seasonal, and interannual variability. The results indicate that day-to-day temperature variability has a statistically significant, negative effect on economic activity, while seasonal variability has a smaller but also negative effect. The effect of interannual variability is positive at low temperatures, but negative at high temperatures. Furthermore, the results suggest that daily temperature levels have a non-linear effect on economic activity with an optimal temperature around 15 degrees Celsius. However, most of the estimated effects of variability cannot be explained with this non-linearity and instead seem to be due to larger uncertainty about future temperature realisations. The empirical effects can be found in both urban and rural areas, and they cannot be explained by the distribution of agriculture. The results indicate that projected changes of temperature variability might add to the costs of anthropogenic climate change especially in relatively warm and currently relatively poor regions.
    Keywords: climate; temperature; nightlights; day-to-day variability; seasonal variability; interannual variability; 2300776; UKRI fund
    JEL: Q54 Q56 R11 R12 R14 O13
    Date: 2023–09–01
  12. By: S.Sarifah Radiah Shariff ("School of Mathematical Sciences, College of Computing, Informatics and Media, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia" Author-2-Name: Muhamad Faiz Sazali Author-2-Workplace-Name: "School of Mathematical Sciences, College of Computing, Informatics and Media, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia" Author-3-Name: Ahmad Nazim Aimran Author-3-Workplace-Name: School of Mathematical Sciences, College of Computing, Informatics and Media, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia Author-4-Name: "Nadzira Aina Mohamad" Author-4-Workplace-Name: School of Mathematical Sciences, College of Computing, Informatics and Media, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: " Objective - In the automotive industry, many companies look at strategic advantages in logistics to reduce costs. An enormous challenge faced by the Logistics Service Providers (LSPs) in Malaysia's automotive industry is preserving successful customer relationships. Methodology/Technique - Therefore, evaluating the most perceived criteria by logistics players in the automotive business is paramount. In this study, the companies are chosen to examine the relative importance of the three identified benefits, Special Treatment, Value Added (VAL), and Collaborative Benefits (COL), by data collected from manufacturing firms in the automotive industry. In addition, a new benefit, Loyalty Benefit (LOY), was added to the framework. Finding - The first stage of the survey involved the operational levels, i.e., The team leaders and below, to check on the relevance of the questionnaire. The second stage involved the management level or decision makers. Novelty - The contribution of the paper includes adding theoretical insight into the relationship concept that has been applied by manufacturers and LSPs and will help LSPs to perceive and understand what the manufacturers expect and how to provide the level of services that meet their expectations. Type of Paper - Empirical"
    Keywords: Loyalty Benefits; Logistics Service Provider; Linear Regression Writing and Investigation – M.F.S; Supervision, Methodology and Funding – S.S.R.S.; Methodology and Analysis – A.N.A; Data Collection and Analysis – N.A.M
    Date: 2023–06–30
  13. By: Tsatsura Elena A. (Цацура Елена) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Grishina Elena E. (Гришина Елена) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The challenges for the socio-economic situation in the country have been growing since 2020. The issues of prompt, accessible and sufficient state support for different population groups affected by the current crisis come to the fore, which emphasizes the relevance of this work. The goal of the study is to analyze the prevalence of employment in the informal economy, the financial situation of workers employed in the informal economy, their social support coverage and the need for additional social assistance. The objectives of the study are to analyze the prevalence of informal employment and employment in the informal sector, including among various socio-demographic groups of workers, as well as to analyze the financial situation, social support coverage and the need for additional social assistance for informally employed workers and workers in the informal sector. The methods used include the analysis of data from the Rosstat Labor Force Survey for 2019, 2020 and 2021, as well as the analysis of data from RANEPA surveys conducted in December 2021 and September 2022. The object of the study is those employed in the informal economy in Russia. The subject of the study is the prevalence of employment in the informal economy, the financial situation of workers employed in the informal economy, the social support coverage and the need for additional social assistance. The results of the study show that the share of people working in the informal economy as their main place of work in 2019-2020 amounted to 18-19% of the total number of employees. Among those employed in the informal economy, there is a higher share of men, young workers, people with a lower level of education, employed as blue-collar workers, in the service sector, trade, agriculture and construction. Informally employed employees face increased risks of monetary and deprivation poverty, are more likely to be forced to spend savings, and have high risks of losing their jobs and reducing labor incomes. At the same time, individual entrepreneurs and the self-employed are in a better position than the working population as a whole. The results obtained contribute to the development of ideas about the financial situation of the workers employed in the informal economy.
    Keywords: informal economy, informal workers, social support, support measures, economic crisis, needy, poor
    JEL: I31 I38 J46
    Date: 2022–10
  14. By: Runge, Tania; Eichhorn, Theresa; Schaller, Lena
    Abstract: In this report we present the survey results from Germany and Austria on two agri-environmental measures that are not yet well established in practice in these countries, namely result-based and collective environmental protection. Farmers and stakeholders were surveyed separately. The two questionnaires per country were conducted in spring 2021 at a time when the European legal framework for the CAP after 2022 was already known. In this framework, both result-based payment and collective implementation are offered as options for agri-environmental and climate measures (AECM). At the time of the survey, the respective national arrangements of the CAP had not yet been published. Agri-environmental measures compensate farmers for environmental and climate services on a contractual basis. Farmers will only decide to participate on a voluntary basis if the measures are attractive to them. Within the framework of Agri-environmental measures compensate farmers for environmental and climate services on a contractual basis. However, farmers will only decide to participate on a voluntary basis if the measures are attractive to them. In order to find out which contractual characteristics positively influence the willingness to participate in the two types of contracts examined here, farmers in Austria and in Germany were surveyed online. In addition, the opinions on the practicability and economic efficiency of the result-based and collective contracts were surveyed. A total of 152 surveys from Austria and 146 from Germany were analysed. Since a large number of stakeholders are involved in the conception, implementation and/or monitoring of AECM, stakeholders in Austria and Germany were also interviewed in writing. Stakeholders were also asked to indicate which external factors, beyond the control of the farmers themselves, they believe inhibit or encourage participation in result-based or collective contracts. For this purpose, the PESTLE2 approach, originally developed for strategic business decisions, was adapted to this question. In this way, it was possible to explore in detail which political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental factors play a role in result-based or collective contracts. 34 questionnaires from stakeholders in Austria and 51 from Germany were analysed. Both Austrian and German farmers prefer the result-based contract type for future participation over other new types of contracts such as collective, value chain-oriented contracts and land leases with environmental requirements. Specific contract characteristics are of crucial importance here. The proportion of farmers who indicated that they were likely or very likely to participate in result-based contracts was significantly higher than for the collective contract. The result-based contract was also rated better than the collective contract in terms of practical feasibility and economic efficiency by farmers as well as stakeholders from both countries. There are differences in the countries especially in the assessment of the Austrian stakeholders regarding the practical feasibility of the collective contract. There was particularly little agreement here. In both countries, stakeholders rate the economic efficiency of collective agreements significantly higher than farmers. Environmental aspects that stakeholders and farmers say can be improved well with a result-based contract type are "biodiversity" and "landscape and scenery", but "soil quality" was also mentioned relatively often. In collective contracts, all parties mentioned "landscape and scenery" most frequently, followed by "biodiversity". Moreover, German stakeholders can well imagine that collective contracts are suitable for improving "water quality". In terms of the external factors that the stakeholders surveyed believe to influence farmers' adoption and participation in result-based and collective contracts, the responses cover a wide range of hindering and facilitating factors. For result-based contracts, economic factors were most frequently mentioned, especially a comprehensible premium calculation as well as adequate financial remuneration; for collective approaches, it was social factors. The calculation of premiums in result-based contracts was considered difficult, as environmental results are not always immediately visible or attributable to individual farmers. In addition, (extreme) weather events can affect environmental outcomes, putting payments to farmers at risk. To overcome such difficulties, combinations of basic payments and additional performance payments or staggered payments for reaching intermediate targets have been proposed. In collective approaches, a positive group dynamic is seen as crucial for success. "Together" and "we-feeling" were mentioned as core prerequisites for a good functioning. Trust within the group of farmers as well as with the authorities and other actors involved is also seen as conducive. As a major obstacle to collective approaches, several participants mentioned the additional coordination and communication effort that requires adequate funding. Clear rules and a clearly defined distribution of tasks were also emphasised, among other things to avoid free-rider behaviour. In summary, the comparative examination of the attitudes and opinions of German and Austrian farmers made it possible to identify contract-specific commonalities and differences between the two countries. Differences become apparent, inter alia, in the future willingness to participate and the assessment of the suitability of result-based or collective contracts for the protection of selected environmental goods.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2023
  15. By: Azadnajafabad, Sina; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Mohammadi, Esmaeil; Delazar, Sina; Rashedi, Sina; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Mansourian, Morteza
    Abstract: The huge burden of breast cancer (BC) necessitates the profound and accurate knowledge of the most recent cancer epidemiology and quality of care provided. We aimed to evaluate BC epidemiology and quality of care and examine the effects of socioeconomic development and healthcare expenditure on disparities in BC care. The results from the GLOBOCAN 2020 study were utilized to extract data on female BC, including incidence and mortality numbers, crude rates, and age-standardized rates [age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs)]. The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) was calculated for different locations and socioeconomic stratifications to examine disparities in BC care, with higher values reflecting poor quality of care and vice versa. In both descriptive and analytic approaches, the human development index (HDI) and the proportion of current healthcare expenditure (CHE) to gross domestic product (CHE/GDP%) were used to evaluate the values of MIR. Globally, 2, 261, 419 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 2, 244, 260–2, 278, 710) new cases of female BC were diagnosed in 2020, with a crude rate of 58.5/100, 000 population, and caused 684, 996 (675, 493–694, 633) deaths, with a crude rate of 17.7. The WHO region with the highest BC ASIR (69.7) was Europe, and the WHO region with the highest ASMR (19.1) was Africa. The very high HDI category had the highest BC ASIR (75.6), and low HDI areas had the highest ASMR (20.1). The overall calculated value of female BC MIR in 2020 was 0.30, with Africa having the highest value (0.48) and the low HDI category (0.53). A strong statistically significant inverse correlation was observed between the MIR and HDI values for countries/territories (Pearson's coefficient = −0.850, p -value
    Keywords: breast cancer, epidemiology, mortality, incidence, quality of care, health economics, HDI
    Date: 2023
  16. By: Mathias Guérineau (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - ONIRIS - École nationale vétérinaire, agroalimentaire et de l'alimentation Nantes-Atlantique - IMT Atlantique - IMT Atlantique - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - Nantes Univ - IAE Nantes - Nantes Université - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Nantes - Nantes Université - pôle Sociétés - Nantes Univ - Nantes Université - IUML - FR 3473 Institut universitaire Mer et Littoral - UM - Le Mans Université - UA - Université d'Angers - UBS - Université de Bretagne Sud - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Nantes Université - pôle Sciences et technologie - Nantes Univ - Nantes Université - Nantes Univ - ECN - École Centrale de Nantes - Nantes Univ - Nantes Université, i3-CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion i3 - X - École polytechnique - IP Paris - Institut Polytechnique de Paris - I3 - Institut interdisciplinaire de l’innovation - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Julien Kleszczowski (IAE Lille - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Lille - Université de Lille, Sciences et Technologies, i3-CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion i3 - X - École polytechnique - IP Paris - Institut Polytechnique de Paris - I3 - Institut interdisciplinaire de l’innovation - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Julie C. Mayer (i3-CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion i3 - X - École polytechnique - IP Paris - Institut Polytechnique de Paris - I3 - Institut interdisciplinaire de l’innovation - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, X - École polytechnique)
    Abstract: At a time when the societal challenges described by the notion of 'grand challenges' call for a radical rethinking of organised collective action, the literature is still struggling to generate normative practices and modes of action that lead to system transformation. This article draws on the perspective of transformative social innovation to define 'pragmatic utopia' as collective action that consists of experimenting with a utopia while transforming the system in an iterative and multivocal way. We study the case of the Territoire Zéro Chômeur de Longue Durée experiment as a pragmatic utopia aimed at eradicating unemployment through a radically different approach to employment. Our analysis shows that the ability of such a utopia to challenge the system and lay the foundations for a more structural transformation depends on the ability of the actors involved to manage the tensions arising from the complex, uncertain and evaluative nature of the major challenge being addressed.
    Abstract: Alors que les défis sociétaux qualifiés par la notion de "grands challenges" invitent à repenser radicalement l'action collective organisée, la littérature peine encore à générer de manière normative des pratiques et modalités d'action conduisant à la transformation des systèmes. Cet article s'appuie sur la perspective dite de l'innovation sociale transformatrice pour définir "l'utopie pragmatique", comme une action collective consistant à expérimenter une utopie tout en transformant le système de façon itérative et multi-vocale. Nous étudions le cas de l'expérimentation Territoire Zéro Chômeur de Longue Durée, en tant qu'utopie pragmatique visant à éradiquer le chômage, par une approche radicalement différente de l'emploi. Notre analyse montre que la capacité d'une telle utopie à interpeller le système et à poser les prémisses d'une transformation plus structurelle repose sur la capacité des acteurs à gérer les tensions émergeant de la nature complexe, incertaine et évaluative du grand challenge visé.
    Keywords: Grand Challenge, Utopia, expérimentation, social innovation, Utopie, innovation sociale
    Date: 2022–05–31
  17. By: Julia Kaufman (Center for Global Development); Justin Hurley (Center for Global Development); Janeen Madan Keller (Center for Global Development); Erin Collinson (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: The evidence-informed policy ecosystem has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Alongside an increase in the number of impact evaluations, the community of researchers and organizations in low- and middle-income countries conducting these studies continues to grow. Locally immersed researchers can help increase the policy use and utility of impact evaluation and related evidence, bringing critical insight on the priorities of policymakers and windows of opportunity to inform decision-making. Still, despite their vital role, many locally immersed research organizations encounter chronic funding challenges and other institutional and professional barriers. CGD conducted a landscaping exercise to better understand the current landscape of organizations headquartered in sub-Saharan Africa that boast impact evaluation capacity. The resulting database is intended as a resource for funders looking to advance locally led development; to help facilitate coordination and networking; and to advance opportunities for collaboration among researchers, program implementers, policymakers, and funders. We found that the number of organizations headquartered in sub-Saharan Africa with impact evaluation capacity has increased over recent years. We identified 181 unique African organizations with impact evaluation capacity, representing a 26 percent increase since 2019. These organizations are distributed across the region, with the largest concentration in East Africa. A significant portion has received or currently receives US government support, though often indirectly, providing potential openings for deepening partnerships with locally led organizations. Finally, a wide range of types of organizations have impact evaluation capacity—independent think tanks/NGOs, academic institutions, and government-embedded or adjacent entities.
    Date: 2023–08–07
  18. By: Pokida A.N. (Покида Андрей) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Gazieva I.A. (Газиева Инна) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Zybunovskaya N.V. (Зыбуновская Наталья) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: This scientific report presents a study conducted by the Research Center for Social and Political Monitoring of the RANEPA Institute for Social Sciences. The relevance of research. Protecting the public health is a priority of state policy. The quality of life of citizens, their labor potential, and the health of future generations depend on the state of health. The pandemic has changed the habitual way of life for the Russians, as it affected their ideas on how to maintain their health, exacerbated the contradiction between the values of a healthy lifestyle and the actual behavior of the citizens. In this regard, it is necessary to constantly diagnose the current situation in the sphere of self-preservation behavior of Russians. The goal of the study is to identify, analyze and evaluate changes in the key behavioral practices of various social and demographic groups of the Russian population aimed at improving the state of health; to assess the priority areas of state policy for the formation of a healthy lifestyle of the population. The object of the study is the behavioral practices of various social and demographic groups of the Russian population related to healthy lifestyles. The main research method is an all-Russian sociological survey based on a sample representing the territorial distribution of the Russian population, the ratio of residents in different types of settlements, as well as the main socio-demographic groups, and comparing the results with the results of earlier surveys. Based on the results of the study, this paper presents an analysis of changes in the main behavioral practices of various social and demographic groups of the Russian population, aimed at improving the state of public health. The study allows us to draw the following conclusions. Despite an increase in the demand for qualified medical care in case of a discomfort or illness, self-treatment remains a common practice. There is still a significant number of citizens who are deprived of necessary medical services and medicines due to a lack of money or the unavailability of suitable medical professionals in their area of residence. Most of the respondents believe that they have a healthy lifestyle, but over the past year, the proportion of citizens with this point of view does not show positive dynamics. Meanwhile, these statements by the respondents tend to differ from the actual behavior practice. Some of them, despite classifying themselves as leading a healthy lifestyle, continue smoking or using alcohol regularly. The scientific novelty of this study lies in the fact that it seeks to obtain up-to-date sociological information about the health condition of citizens in a changing epidemiological and socio-economic situation, the impact of various behavioral practices on their physical and social well-being. Recommendations based on the results of the study are related to the need to adjust management decisions related to promoting a healthy lifestyle of the population based on the findings of the study.
    Keywords: behavioral practices, physical health, psychological well-being, healthy lifestyle, medical care, bad habits, rational nutrition, public sociological survey
    JEL: I12
    Date: 2022–10
  19. By: Sulasula, Josephine; Moreno, Frede
    Abstract: This study examines the public service delivery system in State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) within the Zamboanga Peninsula Region, Philippines. Focusing on frontline services, the study explores the controversies surrounding these institutions while identifying best practices to enhance service quality and efficiency. The research incorporates both quantitative and qualitative data obtained from official reports, institutional documents, and interviews with key stakeholders. The findings reveal several contentious issues impeding optimal public service delivery in the region's SUCs. These include bureaucratic red tape, insufficient funding, inadequate infrastructure, and bureaucratic corruption. It is observed that these challenges have resulted in delayed and unsatisfactory service experiences for the public. On a positive note, the research identifies noteworthy best practices adopted by certain SUCs in the region, leading to improved service delivery. These practices encompass streamlined administrative processes, robust performance evaluation mechanisms, community engagement initiatives, and strategic collaborations with external stakeholders. The findings shed light on the complexities and disparities within the public service delivery system in Zamboanga Peninsula's SUCs, providing valuable insights for policymakers and administrators aiming to enhance frontline services. By implementing the best practices identified in this research, SUCs can overcome controversies and optimize their public service delivery, thereby positively impacting the overall higher education landscape in the region.
    Keywords: public service delivery, State Universities and Colleges (SUCs), Zamboanga Peninsula Region, frontline services, best practices, bureaucratic red tape, funding, infrastructure, corruption.
    JEL: A1 A10 H0 H7 H8 H83 L8 L88 M0 M00 M1 M10 M14 O38 Z0
    Date: 2023–07–26
  20. By: Cabello, Sebastián M.
    Abstract: La gobernanza de datos es un componente crítico de la política pública en la era digital. Esta solo puede llevarse a cabo plenamente a través de marcos sólidos de gobierno de datos que garanticen que estos se recopilan, procesan, almacenan y comparten de manera ética y segura, y de políticas y regulaciones claras que establezcan estándares para su gestión, acceso y uso. Al generar modelos sólidos de gobernanza de datos, los encargados de formular políticas pueden maximizar el potencial de estos para mejorar la toma de decisiones con base empírica, la prestación de servicios y, en última instancia, la vida de los ciudadanos. Este documento se enfoca en las experiencias de Bogotá, Buenos Aires, Ciudad de México y São Paulo, y analiza su marco organizacional, la integración e interoperabilidad del ecosistema de datos y los aspectos regulatorios de su disponibilidad y uso. El análisis es resultado de la revisión de información pública y de entrevistas a funcionarios encargados de liderar la gobernanza de datos en las ciudades. El documento concluye con recomendaciones para una efectiva implementación de un marco coherente de gobernanza de datos y con una reflexión sobre la importancia de seguir mejorando en este ámbito para aprovechar el potencial de los datos en la agenda pública de las ciudades.
    Date: 2023–07–20
  21. By: Mohammadi, Neda; Alizadeh, Ahad; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Ghasemi, Erfan; Ahmadi, Naser; Yaseri, Mehdi; Rezaei, Negar; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali
    Abstract: Hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) as part of non-communicable diseases are among the most common causes of death worldwide, especially in the WHO’s Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The family physician program (FPP) proposed by WHO is a health strategy to provide primary health care and improve the community’s awareness of non-communicable diseases. Since there was no clear focus on the causal effect of FPP on the prevalence, screening, and awareness of HTN and DM, the primary objective of this study is to determine the causal effect of FPP on these factors in Iran, which is an EMR country. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional design based on two independent surveys of 42, 776 adult participants in 2011 and 2016, of which 2301 individuals were selected from two regions where the family physician program was implemented (FPP) and where it wasn't (non-FPP). We used an Inverse Probability Weighting difference-in-differences and Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation analysis to estimate the average treatment effects on treated (ATT) using R version 4.1.1. The FPP implementation increased the screening (ATT = 36%, 95% CI: (27%, 45%), P -value
    Keywords: Family physician program, Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, Diference-in-diference, TMLE, Iran
    Date: 2023
  22. By: Dong Huang; William N. Goetzmann
    Abstract: Using transaction data from a large non-fungible token (NFT) trading platform, this paper examines how the behavioral bias of selection-neglect interacts with extrapolative beliefs, accelerating the boom and delaying the crash in the recent NFT bubble. We show that the price-volume relationship is consistent with extrapolative beliefs about increasing prices which were plausibly triggered by a macroeconomic shock. We test the hypothesis that agents prone to selection-neglect formed even more optimistic beliefs and traded more aggressively than their counterparts during the boom. When liquidity for NFTs declined, observed NFT prices were subject to severe selection bias due in part to seller loss aversion delaying the onset of the crash. Finally, we show that market participants with sophisticated bidding behavior were less subject to selection bias and performed better.
    JEL: G1 G12 G14 G4 G40 G41
    Date: 2023–07
  23. By: Catherine E. A. Mulligan; Phil Godsiff
    Abstract: The increasing use of data in various parts of the economic and social systems is creating a new form of monopoly: data monopolies. We illustrate that the companies using these strategies, Datalists, are challenging the existing definitions used within Monopoly Capital Theory (MCT). Datalists are pursuing a different type of monopoly control than traditional multinational corporations. They are pursuing monopolistic control over data to feed their productive processes, increasingly controlled by algorithms and Artificial Intelligence (AI). These productive processes use information about humans and the creative outputs of humans as the inputs but do not classify those humans as employees, so they are not paid or credited for their labour. This paper provides an overview of this evolution and its impact on monopoly theory. It concludes with an outline for a research agenda for economics in this space.
    Date: 2023–07

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