nep-inv New Economics Papers
on Investment
Issue of 2023‒07‒17
sixteen papers chosen by
Daniela Cialfi
Università degli Studi di Teramo

  1. Minimum Wages and Homelessness By Hill, Seth J
  2. Gender differences in job mobility and pay progression in the UK By Harkness, Susan; Popova, Daria; Avram, Silvia
  3. Baseline survey report of the Strengthen PSNP Institutions and Resilience phase II (SPIR II) resilience food security activity in Ethiopia By Gilligan, Daniel O.; Hirvonen, Kalle; Leight, Jessica; Tambet, Heleene; Tesfaye, Haleluya
  4. Smart-Green Industrial Complexes: Policy Analysis and Implications By Choi, Junseok; Lee, Juneyoung
  5. The Age of Economic Security: The Future of Strategic Industries and Korea's Response By Kyung, Heekwon
  6. Competition and moral behavior: A meta-analysis of forty-five crowd-sourced experimental designs By Huber, Christoph; Dreber, Anna; Huber, Jürgen; Johannesson, Magnus; Kirchler, Michael; Weitzel, Utz; Abellán, Miguel; Adayeva, Xeniya; Ay, Fehime Ceren; Barron, Kai; Berry, Zachariah; Bönte, Werner; Brütt, Katharina; Bulutay, Muhammed; Campos-Mercade, Pol; Cardella, Eric; Claassen, Maria Almudena; Cornelissen, Gert; Dawson, Ian G. J.; Delnoij, Joyce; Demiral, Elif E.; Dimant, Eugen; Doerflinger, Johannes Theodor; Dold, Malte; Emery, Cécile; Fiala, Lenka; Fiedler, Susann; Freddi, Eleonora; Fries, Tilman; Gasiorowska, Agata; Glogowsky, Ulrich; Gorny, Paul M.; Gretton, Jeremy David; Grohmann, Antonia; Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Handgraaf, Michel; Hanoch, Yaniv; Hart, Einav; Hennig, Max; Hudja, Stanton; Hütter, Mandy; Hyndman, Kyle; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Isler, Ozan; Jeworrek, Sabrina; Jolles, Daniel; Juanchich, Marie; KC, Raghabendra Pratap; Khadjavi, Menusch; Kugler, Tamar; Li, Shuwen; Lucas, Brian; Mak, Vincent; Mechtel, Mario; Merkle, Christoph; Meyers, Ethan Andrew; Mollerstrom, Johanna; Nesterov, Alexander; Neyse, Levent; Nieken, Petra; Nussberger, Anne-Marie; Palumbo, Helena; Peters, Kim; Pirrone, Angelo; Qin, Xiangdong; Rahal, Rima Maria; Rau, Holger; Rincke, Johannes; Ronzani, Piero; Roth, Yefim; Saral, Ali Seyhun; Schmitz, Jan; Schneider, Florian; Schram, Arthur; Schudy, Simeon; Schweitzer, Maurice E.; Schwieren, Christiane; Scopelliti, Irene; Sirota, Miroslav; Sonnemans, Joep; Soraperra, Ivan; Spantig, Lisa; Steimanis, Ivo; Steinmetz, Janina; Suetens, Sigrid; Theodoropoulou, Andriana; Urbig, Diemo; Vorlaufer, Tobias; Waibel, Joschka; Woods, Daniel; Yakobi, Ofir; Yilmaz, Onurcan; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Zeisberger, Stefan; Holzmeister, Felix
  7. The Determinants of Economic Growth in Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic since the Transition By Baran, Katarzyna
  9. The catalytic role of IMF programs to Low Income Countries By Alessandro Schiavone; Claudia Maurini
  10. Logros en equidad del sistema de salud y la reforma en Colombia By Jairo Núnez Méndez (Dir. proy.); Juan F. Castillo (Colab.); Nicolás Lasso (Colab.)
  11. Slow Streets and Dockless Travel: Using a Natural Experiment for Insight into the Role of Supportive Infrastructure on Non-Motorized Travel By Boarnet, Marlon G; Lee, Seula; Gross, James; Thigpen, Calvin
  12. Estimating health care costs at scale in low‐ and middle‐income countries: Mathematical notations and frameworks for the application of cost functions By Marc d’Elbée; Fern Terris-Prestholt; Andrew Briggs; Ulla Kou Griffiths; Joseph Larmarange; Graham Francis Medley; Gabriella Beatriz Gomez
  13. Allocating remaining carbon budgets and mitigation costs By Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio; Giménez-Gómez, José Manuel; Sánchez-Soriano, Joaquín; Vilella Bach, Misericòrdia
  14. How to distribute the ERDF funds through a combination of egalitarian allocations: the CELmin By Salekpay, Foroogh; Giménez-Gómez, José Manuel
  15. Sovereign bond and CDS market contagion: A story from the Eurozone crisis By Georgios Bampinas; Theodore Panagiotidis; Panagiotis N. Politsidis
  16. Sustainable Dairy Farming: Evaluating the Economic Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Using Simulation Models By Chase, Alexander R.

  1. By: Hill, Seth J (University of California San Diego)
    Abstract: America's cities continue to struggle with homelessness. Here I offer a factor, the minimum wage, that adds to existing individual and structural explanations. If there are negative distributional consequences of minimum wages, they most likely harm the lowest-skill workers many of whom already face housing insecurity. To evaluate this argument, I study minimum wage changes in American cities and states 2006 to 2019. Using difference-in-differences methods for staggered treatments I find that minimum wage increases lead to increased point-in-time homeless population counts. Further analysis suggests disemployment and rental housing prices, but not migration, as mechanisms. Scholars and policymakers who aim to understand and combat homelessness should consider labor market opportunities. Distributional consequences of minimum wage laws also merit further inquiry.
    Date: 2023–06–05
  2. By: Harkness, Susan; Popova, Daria; Avram, Silvia
    Abstract: Understanding disparities in the rates at which men and women’s wages grow over the life course is critical to explaining the gender pay gap. Using panel data from 2009 to 2019 for the United Kingdom, we examine how differences in the rates and types of job mobility of men and women – with and without children - influence the evolution of wages. We contrast the rates and wage returns associated with different types of job moves, including moving employer for family reason, moving for wage or career-related reasons, and changing jobs but remaining with the same employer. Despite overall levels of mobility being similar for men and women, we find important differences in the types of mobility they experience, with mothers most likely to switch employers for family related reasons and least likely to move for wage or career reasons, or to change jobs with the same employer. We find that, while job changes with the same employer and career related employer changes have large positive wage returns, changing employers for family related reasons is associated with significant wage losses. Our findings show that differences in the types of mobility experienced by mothers compared to other workers provide an important part of the explanation for their lower wage growth and play a crucial role in explaining the emergence of the motherhood wage gap in the years after birth.
    Date: 2023–03–21
  3. By: Gilligan, Daniel O.; Hirvonen, Kalle; Leight, Jessica; Tambet, Heleene; Tesfaye, Haleluya
    Abstract: The objective of this report is to present results from the baseline survey conducted as part of the Implementer-Led Evaluation and Learning (IMPEL) evaluation of SPIR II, a randomized controlled trial launched in 2022. The second phase of the Strengthen PSNP Institutions and Resilience (SPIR) Resilience Food Security Activity (RFSA) aims to enhance livelihoods, increase resilience to shocks, and improve food security and nutrition for rural households vulnerable to food insecurity in Ethiopia. The RFSA is situated within Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP), one of the largest safety net programs in Africa. Funded by USAID’s Bureau for Humanitarian Assistance (BHA), SPIR II is implemented by World Vision International (lead), CARE, and ORDA in the Amhara and Oromia regions of Ethiopia. The IMPEL SPIR II impact evaluation employs an experimental design with three arms, comparing two treatment combinations of livelihood and nutrition graduation model programming provided to PSNP beneficiaries relative to a control group receiving only PSNP transfers. The treatment assignment is randomized at kebele level in 234 kebeles. In the first arm (the control group), PSNP is implemented by the government with SPIR II support for the provision of cash and food transfers only (no supplemental programming). In the second arm, SPIR II programming is rolled out to PSNP beneficiary households in conjunction with nurturing care groups (NCGs) targeting enhanced infant and young child nutritional practices. In the third arm, PSNP beneficiary households receive SPIR II programming and NCGs, supplemented with additional targeted cash grants to pregnant and lactating women.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; social protection; food security; resilience; households; poverty; children; nutrition; gender; women; credit
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Choi, Junseok (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade); Lee, Juneyoung (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: In response to the rapidly changing industrial landscape amid the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), net-zero race, and aging industrial infrastructure, the Korean government has designated 15 outdated industrial complexes as Smart-Green Industrial Complexes (SGICs) since 2019. Despite the Yoon Suk-yeol government has declared its commitment to SGIC policy continuation, a dearth of research has produced only scant evidence of the policy’s continued implementation. As three years have passed since the introduction of the SGIC policy, it is now time to analyze its effects and establish a strategy to enhance SGICs nationwide. This study analyzes the necessity of the SGIC policy from microeconomic and environmental-economic perspectives. Smartization, in theory, helps firms maximize productivity and profits by enabling them to produce more goods and services at the same cost (or less), contributing to the Pareto-optimization of the economy as a whole. Furthermore, SGICs provide tenant firms with energy-saving infrastructure, contributing to emissions reductions and allowing firms to share in the benefits of agglomeration. Firms at designated SGICs experienced a 6.13 percent increase in output, a 6.88 percent increase in exports, and an 8.91 percent increase in labor productivity from the first quarter of 2019 (Q1 2019) to Q2 2022. Our propensity score matching (PSM) and difference-in-difference (DID) analysis also confirms (at a significance level of one percent), that small and medium-size (SMEs) tenant firms subject to independent auditing generated roughly 2.5 percentage points more in average annual revenue and one percentage point more in operating margin (that is, the operating income-to-revenue ratio) than comparable enterprises not located in SGICs. Based on these findings, we propose a network structure for the efficient operation of SGICs, including not only the 10 leading industries the Korean government actively encourages joining SGICs but also other SGIC-related projects at public agencies. Our menu of necessary policy support measures presents a roadmap for the evolution of SGICs along with key performance indicators (KPIs) for effective performance management at these complexes. Finally, we recommend that the Korean government match the investments made by cluster unions from the Industrial Complex Environment Improvement Fund to encourage private sector investment.
    Keywords: industrial complexes; industrial clusters; industrial agglomeration; agglomeration effects; Industry 4.0; smart industrial complexes; smart-green industrial complexes; productivity; Pareto-optimization; network effects; industrial complex policy; Korea
    JEL: D22 D23 D24 D25 L52 L53 L59 O31 O38
    Date: 2023–01–31
  5. By: Kyung, Heekwon (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: The escalating hegemonic rivalry between the United States and China will exert profound, long-term impacts on the global geopolitical landscape as well as South Korea’s strategic industries. This report examines the implications for policy carried by these political developments for semiconductors, future cars, and biopharmaceuticals — Korea’s three key strategic industries — based on input from 45 experts. The suggestions for policy will seek to establish an advantage for Korean industries that they might leverage to dominate the global competition. The semiconductor industry will require robust government support to maintain and strengthen its advanced manufacturing base, while the future car industry will need government support to flexibly and rapidly adapt to changes in the industrial ecosystem and develop world-class software service platforms. The biopharmaceutical industry will require support to develop innovative new products both in Korea and abroad and enhance its manufacturing competitiveness in the face of new risks and opportunities presented by geopolitics and an evolving demand structure. Other important manufacturing industries in Korea, such as shipbuilding, steel, communication equipment, electronic appliances (the Internet of Things), and displays, will also require a prompt and strategic policy response to meet the challenges and take advantage of opportunities being ushered in by a political environment in flux and rapidly changing market conditions.
    Keywords: US-China rivalry; economic security; economic nationalism; protectionism; economic blocs; geopolitical risk; semiconductors; chips; software; steel; IoT; displays; telecommunications; manufacturing; exports; trade; Korea
    JEL: F13 F50 F51 F52 F55 H56
    Date: 2023–01–31
  6. By: Huber, Christoph; Dreber, Anna; Huber, Jürgen; Johannesson, Magnus; Kirchler, Michael; Weitzel, Utz; Abellán, Miguel; Adayeva, Xeniya; Ay, Fehime Ceren; Barron, Kai; Berry, Zachariah; Bönte, Werner; Brütt, Katharina; Bulutay, Muhammed; Campos-Mercade, Pol; Cardella, Eric; Claassen, Maria Almudena; Cornelissen, Gert; Dawson, Ian G. J.; Delnoij, Joyce; Demiral, Elif E.; Dimant, Eugen; Doerflinger, Johannes Theodor; Dold, Malte; Emery, Cécile; Fiala, Lenka; Fiedler, Susann; Freddi, Eleonora; Fries, Tilman; Gasiorowska, Agata; Glogowsky, Ulrich; Gorny, Paul M.; Gretton, Jeremy David; Grohmann, Antonia; Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Handgraaf, Michel; Hanoch, Yaniv; Hart, Einav; Hennig, Max; Hudja, Stanton; Hütter, Mandy; Hyndman, Kyle; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Isler, Ozan; Jeworrek, Sabrina; Jolles, Daniel; Juanchich, Marie; KC, Raghabendra Pratap; Khadjavi, Menusch; Kugler, Tamar; Li, Shuwen; Lucas, Brian; Mak, Vincent; Mechtel, Mario; Merkle, Christoph; Meyers, Ethan Andrew; Mollerstrom, Johanna; Nesterov, Alexander; Neyse, Levent; Nieken, Petra; Nussberger, Anne-Marie; Palumbo, Helena; Peters, Kim; Pirrone, Angelo; Qin, Xiangdong; Rahal, Rima Maria; Rau, Holger; Rincke, Johannes; Ronzani, Piero; Roth, Yefim; Saral, Ali Seyhun; Schmitz, Jan; Schneider, Florian; Schram, Arthur; Schudy, Simeon; Schweitzer, Maurice E.; Schwieren, Christiane; Scopelliti, Irene; Sirota, Miroslav; Sonnemans, Joep; Soraperra, Ivan; Spantig, Lisa; Steimanis, Ivo; Steinmetz, Janina; Suetens, Sigrid; Theodoropoulou, Andriana; Urbig, Diemo; Vorlaufer, Tobias; Waibel, Joschka; Woods, Daniel; Yakobi, Ofir; Yilmaz, Onurcan; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Zeisberger, Stefan; Holzmeister, Felix
    Abstract: Does competition affect moral behavior? This fundamental question has been debated among leading scholars for centuries, and more recently, it has been tested in experimental studies yielding a body of rather inconclusive empirical evidence. A potential source of ambivalent empirical results on the same hypothesis is design heterogeneity—variation in true effect sizes across various reasonable experimental research protocols. To provide further evidence on whether competition affects moral behavior and to examine whether the generalizability of a single experimental study is jeopardized by design heterogeneity, we invited independent research teams to contribute experimental designs to a crowd-sourced project. In a large-scale online data collection, 18, 123 experimental participants were randomly allocated to 45 randomly selected experimental designs out of 95 submitted designs. We find a small adverse effect of competition on moral behavior in a meta-analysis of the pooled data. The crowd-sourced design of our study allows for a clean identification and estimation of the variation in effect sizes above and beyond what could be expected due to sampling variance. We find substantial design heterogeneity—estimated to be about 1.6 times as large as the average standard error of effect size estimates of the 45 research designs—indicating that the informativeness and generalizability of results based on a single experimental design are limited. Drawing strong conclusions about the underlying hypotheses in the presence of substantive design heterogeneity requires moving toward much larger data collections on various experimental designs testing the same hypothesis.
    Keywords: competition, moral behavior, metascience, generalizability, experimental design
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Baran, Katarzyna
    Abstract: This dissertation aims to analyse the economic growth determinants in four Central Eastern European countries (CEE-4) - Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic - since their transition from centrally planned to free market economies. The time span of research encompasses the years from 1995 (when these countries passed beyond their lowest output levels since the economic transformation) till 2018. The CEE-4 countries have been chosen based on their direct geographical proximity with Western Europe, in particular with its most advanced economy - Germany, and their adoption of different approaches to conducting market reforms. The thesis closely examines the linkages between geographical location, trade and financial flows in the region prior to and after the accession to the European Union (EU), and the outcome of complex reforms for economic growth in the CEE-4. Following the introduction in Chapter 1, in order to obtain a general overview of the sources of economic growth in the CEE-4 countries the Solow growth accounting and the non-parametric approach have been presented in Chapter 2. The findings obtained from the above decomposition methods provide support for a hypothesis that technological progress together with strong capital accumulation were the dominant factors behind the economic growth and convergence process in the CEE-4 countries in the post-transition years. Chapter 3 investigates financial interlinkages of the CEE-4 with Western Europe. It provides a valuable assessment of a distinctive “development model” pursued by the CEE-4 region since the transition, of which financial integration - in the form of large capital inflows and an increasing presence of foreign banks - has been an integral part. It has allowed the CEE-4 economies to enter a growth path driven by domestic demand financed substantially by foreign savings. The study provides an assessment of the impact of the global financial crisis and European debt crisis on capital flows into the CEE-4 region. The main contribution of this chapter has been an in-depth empirical study of factors affecting credit growth in Central Eastern and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE) in the years 2012-2016 based on the Bank Lending Survey (BLS) of the European Investment Bank. It allows to account for cross-border effects, namely home-host country macroeconomic conditions and parent-subsidiary banks’ characteristics and health, while controlling systematically for the answers from the BLS. The purpose of Chapter 4 has been an analysis of the business cycles synchronisation of the CEE-4 countries with economic cycles of Germany iii and the Euro area. The analysis of the interdependencies between the business cycles is important in monitoring the effectiveness of pursued economic policies in the CEE-4 region since the transition. Studying the degree of synchronization of the CEE-4 business cycles is also vital in connection with the future introduction of the Euro in Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. To this end, the time series analysis methods have been introduced in this study, which focus on an analysis in the domain of both time (cross-correlation analysis) and frequency (cross-spectral analysis). This allows obtaining a more comprehensive picture of the dependencies between the business cycles of the CEE-4 countries and the economic cycle of Germany and the Euro zone. The analysis shows that fluctuations in economic activity in the CEE-4 countries have become over time, to a relatively large extent, synchronized with the business cycles of Germany and the whole Euro area. Chapter 5 examines the impact of macroeconomic and institutional factors on economic growth in the CEE-4 countries since the transition. The building of a market economy in the region required deep macroeconomic reforms and the creation of a wide range of institutions and business practices needed to support those reforms. To examine significant changes which have occurred in the last two decades in the region, a wide range of macroeconomic and demographic variables as well as key institutional indicators have been analysed. For this purpose, a new approach has been employed based on the Bayesian Model Sampling (BMS), which implements Bayesian Model Averaging for linear regression models. This comprehensive study also provides an empirical analysis of growth determinants in the CEE-4 region in comparison to the Euro area-12 group as well as within the EU-28 block.
    Date: 2023
  8. By: Abdelmajid Lamsiah (USMBA - Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah); Badr Bentalha (ENCGF - Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion De Fès - USMBA - Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah)
    Abstract: Diversity is Morocco's brand par excellence, whether it be ideological, cultural, or economic. This diversity is tightly related to the values of dialogue and consensus for the sake of continuity and coexistence. Morocco's "one and indivisible national identity" (Morocco's Constitution of 2011) operates through practical standards, far from any propaganda. The Jewish community's visibility is undeniable, and it subscribes to the value of belonging to Morocco. Moroccan Jews' socio-economic and cultural determinism evinces their pragmatic philosophy whenever it comes to Moroccan national interest. The exploratory target of this study is to stand on the involvement of Moroccan Jews in the fulfilment of King Mohammed VI's ambitious economic project and then assess their complementarity to promote Moroccan foreign economy. In a more transparent manner, the power notion underlying Moroccan Jews is then embedded in their ability to handle economic matters intelligently. The pertinent questions are: to what extent do Moroccan Jews bring forth their powerful economic skills? By what mechanisms do they play a leading role on regional and trans-regional scales using economic intelligence? The study is suggested to fill a gap in Moroccan literature concerning Moroccan Jews' economic intelligence by conducting analysis through targeted case studies. The findings of this research clearly show the strong belonging of Moroccan Jews to the Alaouite Monarch and their distinguished sense of patriotism. Their economic contribution was demonstrated on multiple occasions.
    Abstract: La diversité est une marque privilégiée du Maroc, qu'elle soit idéologique, culturelle ou économique. Cette diversité est étroitement liée aux valeurs de dialogue et de consensus dans un souci de continuité et de coexistence. L'identité nationale une et indivisible du Maroc (Constitution marocaine de 2011) fonctionne selon des normes pratiques, loin de toute propagande. La visibilité de la communauté juive est indéniable et souscrit à la valeur de l'appartenance au Maroc. Le déterminisme socio-économique et culturel des Juifs marocains témoigne de leur philosophie pragmatique lorsqu'il s'agit de l'intérêt national marocain. L'objectif exploratoire de cette étude est de comprendre l'implication des Juifs marocains dans la réalisation du projet économique du Roi Mohammed VI, puis d'évaluer leur complémentarité pour promouvoir l'économie extérieure marocaine. De manière plus transparente, la notion de pouvoir sous-jacente aux Juifs marocains est alors ancrée dans leur capacité à gérer intelligemment les questions économiques. La question principale est de savoir dans quelle mesure les Juifs marocains mettent en avant leurs puissantes compétences économiques ? Par quels mécanismes jouent-ils un rôle de premier plan à l'échelle régionale et transrégionale en utilisant l'intelligence économique ? L'étude proposée vise à combler un vide dans la littérature marocaine concernant l'intelligence économique des Juifs marocains en menant une analyse à travers des études de cas. Les résultats de cette recherche montrent clairement la forte appartenance des Juifs marocains au monarque alaouite et leur sens distingué du patriotisme. Leur contribution économique a été démontrée à de multiples occasions.
    Keywords: Moroccan Jews, economic intelligence, the belonging concept, case study, patriotism
    Date: 2023–05–25
  9. By: Alessandro Schiavone (Bank of Italy); Claudia Maurini (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether IMF programmes have had a catalytic effect on flows of development aid to low-income countries (LICs) between 2002 and 2019. We use an entropy balancing methodology to obtain correct estimates, taking account of the characteristics of the countries assisted by the IMF. The findings suggest that IMF programmes catalyse development aid to LICs and, according to our baseline estimates, for each year of programme activity this catalytic effect amounts to 1.6 per cent of the GDP of assisted LICs. These findings apply to both multilateral and bilateral donors. However, the effect is significantly smaller for countries that fail to fulfil the IMF conditionality by not meeting the quantitative performance criteria subject to programme review. Official donors, especially multilateral ones, adopt a selective approach, allocating more development aid to relatively poorer, more institutionally reliable, and more politically stable countries.
    Keywords: International Monetary Fund, catalysis, official development assistance (ODA)
    JEL: F33 F35 F53 F63 O19
    Date: 2023–06
  10. By: Jairo Núnez Méndez (Dir. proy.); Juan F. Castillo (Colab.); Nicolás Lasso (Colab.)
    Abstract: Este documento presenta una descripción de los logros del sistema de salud actual en Colombia, junto con algunos problemas y propuestas, en un contexto en el cual el gobierno nacional presentó el proyecto de ley con la reforma a la salud que modificaría varios aspectos del sistema. En primer lugar, es posible afirmar que el sistema de salud actual ha contribuido a tener coberturas casi universales de aseguramiento, un menor gasto por parte de los afiliados e, incluso, la protección financiera de los hogares. Además, realizando un seguimiento a la Encuesta de Calidad de Vida desde 1997 hasta 2019, se observa que ha aumentado las visitas al médico por prevención, hay una mejor percepción de la calidad del sistema y una mejor percepción del estado de salud. Sin embargo, también se identifican algunos problemas como desigualdades en oferta y acceso al sistema, insuficiencia de recursos en el sistema y debilidades en la estructura institucional del sector, los cuales pueden explicarse por falta de avance en los modelos de atención, falta de infraestructura física y de talento humano en salud y baja capacidad operativa de las entidades del sector. En este sentido, se plantean una serie de propuestas que tienen en cuenta el tamano de los municipios de acuerdo con el número de habitantes que van desde la implementación adecuada de los modelos de atención integral y atención primaria en salud hasta cambios normativos que garanticen la sostenibilidad financiera del sistema.******Abstract: This document presents a description of the achievements of the Colombian healthcare system and some problems and proposals, in a context in which the government presented the health reform that would modify various aspects. In the first place, it is possible to affirm that the healthcare system has contributed to having almost universal insurance coverage, lower spending by affiliates and, even, financial protection for households. In addition, analyzing the Quality of Life Survey from 1997 to 2019, it is observed that visits to the doctor for prevention have increased, there is a better perception of the system quality and a better perception of the health condition. However, some problems are also identified, such as inequalities in supply and access, insufficient resources in the system, and weaknesses in the institutional structure of the sector, which can be explained by lack of progress in care models, lack of physical infrastructure and human talent in health and low operational capacity in the sector. Also, some recommendations are proposed considering the size of the municipalities according to the number of inhabitants, ranging from the proper implementation of the integrated care and primary health care models to regulatory changes that guarantee the financial system sustainability.
    Keywords: Sistema de Salud, Acceso a la Salud, Desigualdad, Sostenibilidad Fnanciera, Modelos de Atención en Salud, Healthcare System, Health Access, Inequality, Financial Sustainability, Health Care Models
    JEL: I13 I14
    Date: 2023–06–06
  11. By: Boarnet, Marlon G; Lee, Seula; Gross, James; Thigpen, Calvin
    Abstract: In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, cities across the globe converted street space to non-automobile uses. This project studies four of these slow street programs in the U.S.: in Los Angeles, Portland, Oakland, and San Francisco. In each city, the slow streets (implemented in late spring to early fall 2020) are used as a treatment and compared to non-implemented control groups. The dependent variable is counts of dockless scooter trips passing a mid-block screenline for time periods both before and after slow street implementation. Those dockless scooter counts were obtained from historical data provided by Lime, a dockless scooter provider in each of the study cities. Two methodological approaches were used: differences-in differences (DID) and panel regression analysis with block fixed effects. For the DID analysis, the researchers used networks of candidate slow streets that were not implemented as the control group. Such control networks were available in Los Angeles, Oakland, and SanFrancisco. For the panel analysis, they used slow street segments implemented later in the study period as control segments for earlier implemented slow street segments, including fixed effects for blocks and for time periods in the panel regressions. The findings show statistically significant associations between increased dockless scooter trips and slow street implementation in each study city, using both DID and panel analyses. The associations are robust to different specifications. The authors calculate the magnitude of the slow street treatment effect by dividing the estimated treatment effect by a 2019 baseline of dockless trip counts. In the DID analysis, they find that slow street implementation increased dockless scooter trip counts from 22.16% to 74.5%, relative to a 2019 (before slow streets) baseline. In the panel analysis, the increase in dockless trip counts on slow streets ranged from 10.77% to 16.75%, relative to a 2019 baseline. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Dockless Travel, Slow Streets, COVID-19, Micromobility, Bike Infrastructure, Active Transport
    Date: 2023–06–01
  12. By: Marc d’Elbée (BPH - Bordeaux population health - UB - Université de Bordeaux - Institut de Santé Publique, d'Épidémiologie et de Développement (ISPED) - INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, CEPED - UMR_D 196 - Centre population et développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UPCité - Université Paris Cité, LSHTM - London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine); Fern Terris-Prestholt (LSHTM - London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine); Andrew Briggs (LSHTM - London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine); Ulla Kou Griffiths (LSHTM - London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , UNICEF Headquarters); Joseph Larmarange (CEPED - UMR_D 196 - Centre population et développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UPCité - Université Paris Cité); Graham Francis Medley (LSHTM - London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine); Gabriella Beatriz Gomez (LSHTM - London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , IAVI Global Headquarters [New-York, NY, USA])
    Abstract: Appropriate costing and economic modeling are major factors for the successful scale-up of health interventions. Various cost functions are currently being used to estimate costs of health interventions at scale in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) potentially resulting in disparate cost projections. The aim of this study is to gain understanding of current methods used and provide guidance to inform the use of cost functions that is fit for purpose. We reviewed seven databases covering the economic and global health literature to identify studies reporting a quantitative analysis of costs informing the projected scale-up of a health intervention in LMICs between 2003 and 2019. Of the 8725 articles identified, 40 met the inclusion criteria. We classified studies according to the type of cost functions applied-accounting or econometric-and described the intended use of cost projections. Based on these findings, we developed new mathematical notations and cost function frameworks for the analysis of healthcare costs at scale in LMICs setting. These notations estimate variable returns to scale in cost projection methods, which is currently ignored in most studies. The frameworks help to balance simplicity versus accuracy and increase the overall transparency in reporting of methods.
    Keywords: cost functions, econometrics, health economics, low- and middle-income countries, microeconomics, production costs
    Date: 2023–06–18
  13. By: Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio; Giménez-Gómez, José Manuel; Sánchez-Soriano, Joaquín; Vilella Bach, Misericòrdia
    Abstract: The concept of carbon budgets has become a key and effective tool in terms of communicating the existing environmental challenge and monitoring environmental policy, in the context of the Paris agreement. In this sense, the literature has addressed different mechanisms to distribute them by countries/groups according to reasonable distribution principles, among which fairness and efficiency play an essential role. Given the problem of agreeing on indicators by countries, the paper proposes the use of claims models as a basis for this distribution, which avoid using indicators and only have to agree on elements defining the distribution rules. In this sense and based on a reference of the available global Carbon Budget (Mercator) for 2018-2050, and the CO2 forecasts taken from the intermediate scenario SSP2-45 (Middle of the road) considered by the IPCC (2021), different distribution rules are addressed proposed by the literature (equality, proportional, and α-min) and are evaluated for the available groups of countries. Two relevant exercises are proposed beyond the initial distribution based on the previous theoretical rules: first, evaluate the cost of these distributions in terms of the welfare of each group (in particular, in terms of GDP); and two, use the GDP costs themselves to propose new distribution rules that are cost-efficient. The results imply having not only a global cost-efficient distribution proposal but also an annual path. We understand that the work is useful not only in terms of its methodological proposal but also as an alternative guide that structures future distribution policies. Keywords: allocation methods; claims; carbon budgets; climate change mitigation; equity JEL classification: D7; H4; H8; Q58; Q54
    Keywords: Anhídrid carbònic, Canvis climàtics--Mitigació, 502 - Natura. Estudi, conservació i protecció de la natura,
    Date: 2022
  14. By: Salekpay, Foroogh; Giménez-Gómez, José Manuel
    Abstract: As Solís-Baltodano et al. (2021) figure out, almost a third of the total European Union budget– has been set aside for the Cohesion Policy during the 2014-2020 period. The distribution of this budget is made through three main structural and investment funds, trying to provoke the convergence in the level of development of EU countries. Specifically, the authors, by analysing this situation as a claims problem (O’Neill, 1982), find out the claims solution that performs better than the others by reducing inequality promoting convergence to a greater degree (the constrained equal losses rule). Nonetheless, when using this egalitarian division of losses, regions may receive no amount of funds. This paper defines a new way to distribute the limited resources of the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). We propose a compromise between the egalitarian approaches, i.e., we combine the egalitarian division of the funds with an egalitarian division of the losses (what regions do not get). In doing so, our proposal combines the constrained equal losses solution with the ensuring of a minimum amount to each region (sustainable bound). Finally, we provide an axiomatic analysis of the new solution and we apply it to the ERDF problem. Keywords: European Regional Development Fund; Conflicting claims problems; Egalitarian distribution; Constrained equal losses
    Keywords: Fons Europeu de Desenvolupament Regional, 504 - Ciències del medi ambient,
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Georgios Bampinas (Department of Economics and Regional Development, Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, Greece); Theodore Panagiotidis (Department of Economics, University of Macedonia, Greece); Panagiotis N. Politsidis (Finance Department, Audencia Business School, France)
    Abstract: We examine the asymmetric and nonlinear nature of the cross- and intra-market linkages of eleven EMU sovereign bond and CDS markets during 2006-2018. By adopting the excess correlation concept of Bekaert et al. (2005) and the local Gaussian correlation approach of Tjøstheim and Hufthammer (2013), we find that contagion phenomena occurred during two major phases. The first, extends from late 2009 to mid 2011 and concerns the outright contagion transmission from EMU South bond markets towards all European CDS markets. The second, is during the revived fears of a Greek exit in November 2011 and is characterized by contagion from (i) CDS spreads in the EMU South towards bond yields in the same bloc and Belgium, and (ii) from Italian and Spanish CDS spreads towards all European CDS spreads. Consistent with their “too big to bail out” status, Italy and Spain emerge as pivotal for the evolution of sovereign credit risk across the Eurozone. Our examination of the relevant mechanisms, highlights the importance of credit risk over liquidity risk, and the containment effect of the naked CDS ban.
    Keywords: sovereign bond market, sovereign CDS market, nonlinear dependence, contagion, local Gaussian correlation
    JEL: G01 G14 G15 C1 C58
    Date: 2023–06
  16. By: Chase, Alexander R.
    Abstract: The dairy industry's commitment to achieving net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050 has placed significant pressure on dairy farms, as emissions from field-to-farm gate account for the majority (78%–83%) of total emissions. This research employed the Integrated Farm System Management (IFSM) software modeling tool using Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology to analyze field-to-farm gate emissions associated with various mitigation options across five heterogeneous dairy farms. A total of 70 economic models were estimated with the goal of informing stakeholders and policymakers on maintaining dairy farm economic viability while reducing GHG emissions. The IFSM modeling indicates that dairy farms have multiple mitigation options available, with the most significant reduction in GHG emissions achieved through adding pasture grazing and changing feed requirements with carbon footprint reductions from 2.7% to 26.7%. When employed alongside anaerobic digestion (AD) systems, these mitigation options resulted in a reduction in emissions ranging from 16.0% to 37.3%, albeit with a corresponding decrease in return to management (RTM) of 0.4% to 14.8%. In contrast, the most profitable approaches without utilizing AD systems, such as the use of larger Holsteins for increased milk production or increased cropland utilization, were found to yield higher profits ranging from 1.3% to 19.5% but showed a limited reduction in the carbon footprint of milk by 0.0% to 6.7%. Results demonstrate that the largest consistent increase in dairy farm profitability did not result in significant reductions in the carbon footprint of milk, and the largest mitigation options did not provide a guarantee of being cost-neutral or better.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2023–07

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