nep-int New Economics Papers
on International Trade
Issue of 2015‒08‒13
thirty-two papers chosen by
Luca Salvatici
Università degli studi Roma Tre

  1. Illegal trade in natural resources: Evidence from missing exports By Pierre-Louis Vezina
  2. American Beauty: trade flows and export costs of US movies   By JD. Tena; G. Meloni; D. Paolini
  3. Pro-competitive effects and harmful trade liberalization in multi-country world By Igor Bykadorov; Andrea Ellero; Stefania Funari; Sergey Kokovin; Pavel Molchanov
  4. Has trade openness reduced pollution in China? By Sandra PONCET; Laura HERING; José DE SOUSA
  5. Services Productivity, Trade Policy, and Manufacturing Exports By Bernard Hoekman; Benjamin Shepherd
  6. Extended gravity model of Polish trade. Empirical analysis with panel data methods By Tomasz Brodzicki; Katarzyna Sledziewska; Dorota Ciolek; Stanislaw Uminski
  7. [WTO Case Review Series No. 14] Thailand—Customs and Fiscal Measures on Cigarettes from the Philippines (DS371): More stringent discipline of GATT on internal regulation restricting competitive opportunities for imports (Japanese) By OBASE Takuma
  8. Export quality upgrading under credit constraints By Ciani, Andrea; Bartoli, Francesca
  9. A Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement for Services? By Bernard M. Hoekman; Petros C. Mavroidis
  10. Black Sea countries: Grain production & exports By Sizov, Andrey
  11. Global Implications of Prices on International Agriculture Trade & Policies By Carver, Jason
  12. Testing the Link between Accessible Export Finance and Insurance, and Regional Trade Growth in Africa and Asia: A Role for Regional Export Credit and Investment Guarantee Agency ECIGA) By Brunner, Hans-Peter
  13. Relational contracts and global sourcing By Kukharskyy, Bohdan
  14. Innovation and internationalization. Evidence for Poland from a firm-level survey By Tomasz Brodzicki
  15. The Resilient Trade Surplus, the Pharmaceutical Sector, and Exchange Rate Assessments in Switzerland By Philip Sauré
  16. Into the Abyss of Standard-Setting: An Analysis of Procedural and Substantive Guarantees within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) By Panagiotis Delimatsis
  17. Analyse der Terms-of-Trade Österreichs By Stefan Schiman; Andreas Reinstaller
  18. The Emergence of India as a Major Global Exporter By Reddy, Baskar
  19. Trade and the Spatial Distribution of Transport Infrastructure By Alexander Tarasov; Gabriel Felbermayr
  20. Eighteenth-century international trade statistics: Sources and methods By Loïc Charles; Guillaume Daudin
  21. China – Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duty Measures on Broiler Products from the United States By Thomas J. Prusa; Edwin Vermulst
  22. Carbon-motivated border tax adjustment: a proposal for the EU By Paola Rocchi; Iñaki Arto; Jordi Roca; Mònica Serrano
  23. Strategic export policy, monopoly carrier, and product differentiation By Takauchi, Kazuhiro
  24. The Armington Assumption and the Size of Optimal Tariffs By Chunding Li; Jing Wang; John Whalley
  25. Realizing an ASEAN Economic Community: Progress and Remaining Challenges By Menon , Jayant; Melendez, Anna Cassandra
  26. How Much Thicker Is the Canada?U.S. Border? The Cost of Crossing the Border by Truck in the Pre- and Post 9/11 Eras By Brown, W. Mark
  27. Latin American Regionalism in a Multipolar World By Jorge F. Garzón
  28. Globalisation and Conflicts: A Theoretical Approach By Bonginkosi Mamba; André C Jordaan; Matthew Clance
  29. A survey of empirical studies using transaction level data on exports and imports. By Wagner, Joachim
  30. Dispute Settlement in the WTO (Mind over Matter) By Petros C. Mavroidis
  31. State-owned Enterprise Reforms in the TPP Negotiation: Is it a win-win for Vietnam? By LE Thi Anh Nguyet
  32. TPP and T-TIP: Unlocking Economic Opportunity & Advancing American Leadership in Agriculture By Vetter, Darci

  1. By: Pierre-Louis Vezina
    Abstract: Countries restrict the export of natural resources to lower domestic prices, stimulate downstream industries, earn rents on international markets, or on environmental grounds.  This paper provides empirical evidence of evasion of such export barriers.  Using tools from the illicit trade literature, I show that exports of minerals, metals, or wood products are more likely to be missing from the exporter's statistics if they face export barriers such as prohibitions or taxes.  Furthermore, I show that this relationship is significantly higher in countries with high levels of corruption and bribes at customs.  The results have implications for the design of trade policies and environmental protection.
    Keywords: natural resources, illegal trade, trade barriers
    JEL: F13 O17 O19
    Date: 2015–02–13
  2. By: JD. Tena; G. Meloni; D. Paolini
    Abstract: Copyright industries face global fixed export costs, in terms of cultural and geographic distance together with formal trade barriers. Adjustment to these costs may occur along both the intensive and the extensive margin. We investigate this issue using a microeconomic approach that considers a hedonic model of revenues for US movie exports to evaluate - aggregation bias; simultaneity in the observation of imported movies and their revenues; and reliable estimations for country clusters. We find that product heterogeneity is a key element for both intensive and extensive margin adjustments at the country level.
    Keywords: trade, movie industry, export costs
    JEL: L82 F14
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Igor Bykadorov (MSSE NRU Higher School of Economics); Andrea Ellero (Dept. of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venice); Stefania Funari (Dept. of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venice); Sergey Kokovin (MSSE NRU Higher School of Economics); Pavel Molchanov (MSSE NRU Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: We study a multi-country trade model with two types of countries (big and small ones). The model generalizes the case of two countries analyzed in [3] and wonder whether there could be harm from trade. Monopolistic competition, iceberg type trade costs and variable elasticity of substitution (VES) are among the model assumptions. The effects of trade liberalization on price, production and welfare are analyzed, in cases of free trade and autarky.
    Keywords: Monopolistic competition trade model, variable elasticity of substitution, iceberg type trade costs, free trade, autarky.
    JEL: F12 L13 D43
    Date: 2015–08
  4. By: Sandra PONCET (Université de Paris I); Laura HERING (FERDI); José DE SOUSA (FERDI)
    Abstract: We use recent detailed Chinese data on trade and pollution emissions to assess the environmental consequences of China’s integration into the world economy. We rely on a panel dataset covering 235 Chinese cities over the 2003-2012 period to see whether the environmental repercussions from trade openness depend on whether the latter concerns processing or ordinary activities. In line with our theoretical predictions, we find a negative and signicant effect of trade on emissions that is larger for processing trade and activities undertaken by foreign firms: the environmental gains from either ordinary trade activities or domestic firms are much lower, even though these today represent the main drivers of China’s export and import growth. This result suggests some caution regarding pollution prospects in the context of the declining role of processing trade.
    JEL: F10 F14 O14
    Date: 2015–07
  5. By: Bernard Hoekman; Benjamin Shepherd
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the linkage between services and manufacturing productivity performance, using firm-level data for over 100 developing countries. We find strong evidence for such a linkage, although the effect is small: at the average rate of services input intensity, a 10% improvement in services productivity is associated with an increase in manufacturing productivity 0.3%, and a resulting increase in exports of 0.2%. Services trade restrictiveness indices (STRI) are found to be a statistically significant determinant of manufactured exports performance, a finding that is robust to the inclusion of the overall level of trade restrictiveness that is applied against manufactured exports directly. The main channel through which services trade restrictions negatively affect manufactured exports is through FDI, a finding that is consistent with the stylized fact in the literature that FDI is a key channel for trade in services and an important vehicle through which services technology and know-how is transferred across countries. At the sectoral level, restrictions on transport and retail distribution services have the largest negative impact on exports of manufactures.
    Keywords: trade, productivity, services, manufacturing, competitiveness
    JEL: F14 D24 L80
    Date: 2015–01
  6. By: Tomasz Brodzicki (University of Gdansk, Faculty of Economics; Institute for Development); Katarzyna Sledziewska (University of Warsaw); Dorota Ciolek (University of Gdansk); Stanislaw Uminski (Institute for Development; Faculty of Economics, University of Gdansk)
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the intensity of bilateral trade flows of Poland with its trade partners at the general (country level) with the use of trade gravity approach. The analysis is carried out for 234 trade partners of Poland in the period 1999-2013. In the basic version of the trade gravity model we take into account the standard factors suggested by the literature of the subject. In its extended version we control for additional factors including: relative endowments of factors of production, technological gap as measured by TFP and relative patenting performance, quality of institutions, impact of regional and bilateral trade agreements or exchange rate volatility. The impact of the Polish diaspora is also taken into account. In order to investigate the impact of the global crises on trade intensity we construct and introduce a variable depicting the severity of the crises for individual trade partners. In an attempt to obtain unbiased results we utilize semi-mixed effect method using PPML estimator as suggested in recent empirical articles. In most of the cases the coefficients for the traditional gravity determinants are economically sensible and their impact on the dependent variable is statistically significant and robust.
    Keywords: trade gravity, Poland, panel data
    JEL: C23 F10 F14 F15
    Date: 2015–08
  7. By: OBASE Takuma
    Abstract: The background of this dispute is the internationalization of supply chains within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Free Trade Area (ASEAN FTA). As a result of trade liberalization in the ASEAN, companies can choose their place of production as they find most suitable, and export products to the place of consumption. This phenomenon makes it easy to discern trade restrictive measures taken by the country of import. The Thailand—Cigarettes dispute illustrates how and to what extent measures of the import country can be questioned by the World Trade Organization (WTO) law. This case involves WTO compatibility of measures ranging from customs valuation, internal taxation, administrative requirement concerning taxation to publication, and administration of trade regulations. It is interesting to note that the Panel considered it sufficient to identify any potential adverse effect on the competitive condition of imported products to find a violation of Article III:4 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). In one reading of this Panel Report, one might argue that Article III:4 of GATT requires removing any measure restrictive of competitive opportunities of imports. However, this reading is unfounded because Article III protects equality of competition between national and imported products.
    Date: 2015–07
  8. By: Ciani, Andrea; Bartoli, Francesca
    Abstract: This paper studies whether credit constraints affect the decision of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) to upgrade the quality of their exported output with respect to the one sold domestically. We use a detailed firm-level data-set on Italian SMEs reporting information on output characteristics, credit rationing and international activities. Employing .rm credit scores used by banks for their lending decisions, we assess how credit constraints affect export quality upgrading. First, we find that exporting firms are less likely to upgrade output quality, when their credit score worsens. A one standard deviation worsening in the credit score lowers the probability of quality upgrading by more than 35 percent. Second, firms exporting to distant markets cut quality upgrading more sharply when their score worsens. The negative impact of credit constraints is confirmed when taking into account firm heterogeneity in size and other relevant .rm attributes. The main result is robust to endogeneity considerations of the credit score. Overall, our findings suggest that, by impacting export quality upgrading, credit constraints may affect the intensive margin of trade.
    Keywords: Credit Constraints,Product Quality,Distance,International Trade
    JEL: F10 F14 L15 G20 G32
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Bernard M. Hoekman; Petros C. Mavroidis
    Abstract: Services are typically regulated for a variety of reasons. Regulation is typically influenced by political economy forces and may thus at times reflect protectionist motivations. Similar considerations arise for goods, but the potential for protectionist capture may be greater in services as many are self-regulated by domestic industry. The GATT embodies specific disciplines on product regulation in a separate agreement on technical barriers to trade (TBT) encouraging the use of international standards and norms that only impact on trade to the extent necessary to achieve the regulatory objective. The GATS does not include similar disciplines. We discuss reasons for this discrepancy and assess whether consideration should be given to seeking to adopt the TBT-type disciplines that apply to trade in goods.
    Keywords: Trade Agreement,
    JEL: F13 K33
    Date: 2015–04
  10. By: Sizov, Andrey
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015
  11. By: Carver, Jason
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–02–20
  12. By: Brunner, Hans-Peter (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Using panel data regressions, this paper analyzes the effect of imperfections in the formal export credit and insurance market on trade growth in the regions of Africa and Asia. An exclusive comparison of trade performance of the two regions with respect to export credit and insurance is novel in the literature. I employ Berne Union data on export credit insurance for the period 2005 to quarter 1 (Q1) 2012, which is the most extensive dataset of its kind at the moment. As further novelty, I extend the data specification of Auboin and Engemann (2014) to the interaction of export diversification and complexity, intermediated by an agency variable representing the existence of insurance institutions (Export Credit and Investment Guarantee Agency, or ECIGA), with trade growth, and export credit and insurance. The paper can identify a significantly positive effect from the reinforcing interaction of the export credit and insurance market, and export diversity-complexity on trade.
    Keywords: export finance; product market diversification; regional trade growth
    JEL: F13 F36 G14 O16
    Date: 2015–06–01
  13. By: Kukharskyy, Bohdan
    Abstract: Relational contracts - informal agreements sustained by the value of future relationships - are integral parts of global production processes. This paper develops a repeated-game model of global sourcing in which final goods producers decide whether to engage with their suppliers in relational contracting and whether to integrate a supplier into a firm's boundaries or deal with the latter at arm's length. The model predicts that the likelihood of vertical integration increases in the long-term orientation of cooperation parties. Combining data from the U.S. Census Bureau's Related Party Trade database with measures for long-term orientation from Hofstede et al. (2010) and World Values Survey, I find empirical evidence supportive of this paper's key prediction. To better understand if the relationship is causal, I apply instrumental variables approach using genetic proxies and inherited components of long-term orientation as instruments. Taken together, the evidence suggests that the level of long-term orientation of the home and host country has a positive effect on the relative prevalence of vertical integration.
    Keywords: relational contracts,long-term orientation,international make-or-buy decision
    JEL: D02 D23 F14 F23 L22
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Tomasz Brodzicki (University of Gdansk, Faculty of Economics; Institute for Development)
    Abstract: Several important studies find that innovation and exporting are inextricably linked at firm-level. Aw et al. (2011) find that the marginal benefit of simultaneous exporting and innovating increases with productivity, with self-selection effect typical for heterogeneous firm literature a la Melitz (2003) driving a large part of the observed complementarity. Altomonte et al. (2013) show that there is a positive, broad, strong and robust correlation between the extent of internationalization of firms and innovation activities in the panel of European manufacturing firms (EFIGE dataset). Apart form several recent studies the literature on the role of firm heterogeneity in Polish trade and the nexus with innovation performance is in its infancy. The goal of this article is to present some initial results of a large survey of Polish exporting and non-exporting firms conducted by the team of the Institute for Development aimed at filling this important gap.
    Keywords: internationalization, innovation activity, firms survey
    JEL: F12 F14 C83
    Date: 2015–08
  15. By: Philip Sauré (Swiss National Bank)
    Abstract: With its cost- and time-intensive research and development, the pharmaceutical sector can generate large trade imbalances. These imbalances may arise because investment and output occur in different years; they are sizable if pharmaceuticals account for a large and growing share of exports. Switzerland's recent trade surplus results from this effect, which also explains why the Swiss trade surplus is exceptionally resilient. The Swiss trade surplus is, therefore, a poor indicator for exchange rate assessments.
    Keywords: Trade imbalances, exchange rate elasticity, exchange rate assessment, R&D costs
    JEL: F10 F14 F41
    Date: 2015–07
  16. By: Panagiotis Delimatsis
    Abstract: Continuous innovation and a growing consumer demand for better and safer products has led to an increase of transnational technical standard-setting in recent years. The World Trade Organization (WTO) exercises a high level of deference towards international standards, requiring their use. However, practice shows that several international standards are adopted through opaque and exclusionary processes. In line with this observation, in its recent US – Tuna II ruling, the Appellate Body adopted a more critical approach regarding international standards and the processes that lead to their adoption. Against this backdrop, this paper focuses on an analysis of the properties and mechanics of international standard-setting processes within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), discussing procedural and substantive guarantees regarding transparency, openness, deliberation and participation. As the WTO becomes the de facto arbiter of the legitimacy of international standards, much-needed institutional reform in international standard-setting is bound to occur, in line with emerging demands for a more inclusive global legal order.
    Keywords: International Organization for Standardization (ISO), due process, standard-setting processes, Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement, TBT Committee Decision on development of international standards
    Date: 2015–05
  17. By: Stefan Schiman; Andreas Reinstaller
    Abstract: Die Terms-of-Trade (ToT) bezeichnen das Tauschverhältnis von Warenimporten zu Warnexporten, also die Relation von Export- zu Importpreisen. Das Einwirken gegenläufiger Kräfte führte in Österreich dazu, dass sich die ToT im langfristigen Vergleich relativ stabil entwickelten. Die vorliegende Studie analysiert daher nicht nur den Zeit- und Branchenverlauf der ToT, sondern auch die Bestimmungsfaktoren und deren Rolle in der Entwicklung der heimischen ToT: Es werden monetäre (Rohölpreis, Wechselkurs) und nicht-monetäre Determinanten (Gütersortiment, Gütervielfalt/Qualität, Kapitalakkumulation) diskutiert.
    Keywords: Terms of Trade, Exchange rates, Exports
    JEL: F14 F31 F41
    Date: 2015–06
  18. By: Reddy, Baskar
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–02–19
  19. By: Alexander Tarasov (University of Munich); Gabriel Felbermayr (University of Munich and Ifo Institute)
    Abstract: This paper constructs a theoretical model, in which transportation costs between two locations depend on cumulative infrastructure investment and governments allocate infrastructure spending over continuous space, thereby affecting the geographical pattern of transportation costs. Modelling international trade, we assume that governments set their infrastructure investment schedules in a non-cooperative fashion. We find that governments provide too little infrastructure investment because they ignore the benefits from reductions in domestic transportation costs that accrue to foreign consumers. Moreover, the distribution of infrastructure chosen by local governments is skewed towards central regions, which magnifies small discrete border frictions and creates `border regions' within countries. French data on transportation costs are consistent with our theory.
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Loïc Charles (Institut National d'études Démographiques (INED)); Guillaume Daudin (OFCE)
    Abstract: Trade statistics provide unique sets of data on early modern economies.They can help explore their economic geography. They are of interest for econ-omists interested in economic development and early globalization. They are crucial to understand the Industrial Revolution. Still, they have been under- utilized by economists and economic historians alike. This volume gives adetailed overview on the existing quantitative sources on European trade data, focusing on the eighteenth century. In the introduction we discuss the histo-riography of the use of early trade statistics in economic history and we present two recent projects conducted in France in this area: TOFLIT18 and RICardo. The volume includes twenty-three short essays that present the sources of Euro-pean early trade statistics. Seven additional papers discuss the methodologicalissues of using early trade statistics and illustrate how these statistics can be mobilized to produce new insights on European economic history.
    Keywords: Administrative history; Eighteen century; International trade statistics; Europpe; Globalization; Economie History
    Date: 2015–07
  21. By: Thomas J. Prusa; Edwin Vermulst
    Abstract: The WTO panel report on China – Anti-dumping and Countervailing Duty Measures on Broiler Products from the United States was circulated to Members on 2 August 2013. In the report the Panel examined a variety of issues challenged by the United States under various provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, the Anti-dumping Agreement and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. The Panel upheld the United States’ claims on the majority of the issues, which covered certain procedural aspects of the anti-dumping and countervailing investigations such as the right to disclosure of “essential facts”, as well as the substantive determinations including costing issues, the imposition of the “all others” rate on the basis of “facts available”, the price effects’ analyses, the sufficiency of the public notices and others. Notably the costing issues that came up in the case, although decided mostly on procedural grounds, provide food for thought and are likely to feature again in future disputes.
    Keywords: anti-dumping, countervailing duty, cost allocation
    Date: 2014–12
  22. By: Paola Rocchi (Facultat d'Economia i Empresa; Universitat de Barcelona (UB)); Iñaki Arto (Basque Centre of Climate Change); Jordi Roca (Facultat d'Economia i Empresa; Universitat de Barcelona (UB)); Mònica Serrano (Facultat d'Economia i Empresa; Universitat de Barcelona (UB))
    Abstract: The analysis focuses on carbon-motivated border tax adjustment (CBTA). CBTA are tariffs applied to imports designed to avoid drawbacks of emission reduction policies when only one or few regions (the abating regions) implement them. Through CBTA the abating regions level out different treatment applied to domestic and imported products. In this paper we focus on CBTA metric. Through a multi-region and multi-sector analysis we compute and compare two possible CBTA systems that the European Union could implement to complement a hypothetical carbon tax applied to domestic products. In one system, tariffs are computed based on the emissions generated abroad to produce the goods imported by the European Union. In the second system, tariffs are based on the emissions that the European Union would have generated to produce domestically the same products. Results at country and sector level contribute to better understand the effects of this instrument and to add information to the political debate on it. Moreover, an important contribution of this analysis is that we explore methodological issues that arise from the use of multi-region and multi-sector models to compute different CBTA metrics.
    Keywords: Carbon-motivated border tax adjustmen, European Union, Embodied emissions, Avoided emissions, WIOD database.
    JEL: C67 D57 H23 Q56
    Date: 2015
  23. By: Takauchi, Kazuhiro
    Abstract: This paper examines strategic subsidy/tax policy in a third-country market model with a monopoly carrier. To transport its product to the third market, each exporting firm must use the carrier. We show that under Cournot duopoly, the optimal policy is an export tax if the degree of product differentiation is large enough. In a Bertrand duopoly, the optimal policy is always the export tax. We also show that the subsidized firm's exports in the Cournot duopoly are larger than those in the Bertrand duopoly if the degree of product differentiation is small enough.
    Keywords: Export subsidy/tax; Monopoly carrier; Product differentiation
    JEL: F12 F13
    Date: 2015–08–07
  24. By: Chunding Li; Jing Wang; John Whalley
    Abstract: There has been commentary on the seeming success of the world trading system responding to the large shock of the 2008 financial crisis without an outbreak of retaliatory market closing. The threat of large retaliatory tariffs and fears of a 1930s style downturn in trade have been associated with numerical trade modelling which project post retaliation optimal tariffs in excesses of 100%. In the relevant numerical modelling it is common to use the Armington assumption of product heterogeneity by country. Here we argue and show by numerical calculation that the widespread use of this assumption gives a large upward bias to optimal tariffs, both first step and post retaliation, relative to alternative homogenous good models used in trade theory.
    JEL: F13
    Date: 2015–07
  25. By: Menon , Jayant (Asian Development Bank); Melendez, Anna Cassandra (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Launched as a political bloc and security pact in the aftermath of the Viet Nam War, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has evolved to embrace an ambitious economic agenda. Its latest project is to establish the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 31 December 2015. Fulfilling these commitments would promote predictability in ASEAN, as well as strengthen its credibility. But is ASEAN likely to meet this deadline? The blueprint for achieving the goal envisages the AEC standing on four pillars and meeting the deadline depends on progress on each of them. Each pillar presents a demanding set of challenges to be met before the AEC can be fully realized. We find that although ASEAN has come a long way toward realizing its goal, the challenges that remain suggest that the AEC will miss its approaching deadline. Accommodating AEC accords will not be easy when they require changes to domestic laws or even the national constitution. The flexibility that characterizes ASEAN cooperation, the celebrated "ASEAN way," may hand member states a convenient pretext for noncompliance. How to enforce the accords remains an issue. If the AEC is to be more than a display of political solidarity, ASEAN must find a way to give the commitments more teeth. The real test for the community, therefore, will lie in the years ahead.
    Keywords: AEC 2015; ASEAN Economic Community; ASEAN economic integration; ASEAN trade and investment; economic integration; post-2015 agenda
    JEL: F13 F15 F20
    Date: 2015–05–01
  26. By: Brown, W. Mark
    Abstract: In the aftermath of 9/11, a new security regime was imposed on Canada?U.S. truck-borne trade, raising the question of whether the border has `thickened.? Did the cost of moving goods across the border by truck rise? If so, by how much, and have these additional costs persisted through time? Building on previous work that measured the premium paid by shippers to move goods across the Canada?U.S. border by truck, from the mid- to late 2000s, this paper extends the time series back to 1994, encompassing the pre- and post-9/11 eras.
    Keywords: International trade, Transportation, Transportation by road
    Date: 2015–07–24
  27. By: Jorge F. Garzón
    Abstract: The landscape of Latin American regionalism has experienced profound transformations in a relatively short period of time. Regional organizations have proliferated; the open regionalism of the 1990s has gone into decay; new organizations, often referred to as belonging to a new wave of a more political “posthegemonic regionalism,” took center stage; only to be displaced in the attention of observers by newer trade-oriented organizations such as the Pacific Alliance. These developments have been puzzling scholars and policy makers, who for their most part have tended to converge on the view that a fragmented regional configuration with diverging or even incompatible models of regional integration is on the rise. This article challenges this interpretation by arguing that many of the trends we observe are rather the result of Latin American states’ practical adaptation of their foreign policy strategies to the emergence of a multipolar political economy in the international system. One important consequence of this process of adaptation, I argue, is a “decoupling” of the economic function of regionalism from its other dimensions – a process that I show is facilitating the emergence of a regional architecture characterized by a finer division of labor among organizations.
    Keywords: regionalism, regional organizations, Latin America, multipolarity, foreign economic policy, open regionalism, posthegemonic regionalism, cross regionalism
    Date: 2015–04
  28. By: Bonginkosi Mamba (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria); André C Jordaan (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria); Matthew Clance (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)
    Abstract: This paper is aimed at providing insights into the interplay between globalisation and conflicts through a theoretical literature review. The motivation is drawn from a large number of debates advocating globalisation as being a double edged sword. The main argument is drawn from the Liberal premise that globalization, through integration and economic interdependence dampens the likelihood of conflicts, whilst the opposite holds for Structuralist theorists. The key highlight from the study is that, different factors exist in determining the relationship between globalisation and conflicts hence furthering the study by means of conducting an evidence based research design is essential in interrogating and extending the current discourse.
    Keywords: Globalisation and Conflicts, Dyads Integration, Trade Agreements,Inter-State Wars, Intra-State Wars
    JEL: D74 F14 F18 F51 O19
    Date: 2015–08
  29. By: Wagner, Joachim (Leuphana University Lueneburg, Germany, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS), & Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.)
    Abstract: This paper presents a tabular survey of 146 empirical studies for 39 countries, plus 8 studies for multiple countries, that use transaction level data on exports or imports of firms. I hope this survey is useful for readers who want to get an impression of the huge number of different topics that have been investigated with transaction level data for a large number of countries already; who want to learn whether transaction level data have already been used for a particular (maybe, their own) country, by whom they have been used to investigate which topics, and what the important results found are; who have access to transaction level data and an idea how to use them, and who want to find out whether others pursued the same or a similar topic already; who want to compare results from their own study based on transaction level data to results from other (similar, neighbor) countries and who are looking for suitable studies; who have access to transaction level data and who are looking for studies based on data from other countries that they can replicate with their data to uncover and investigate differences across countries, or to contribute to the unravelling of stylized facts that hold across countries (and time).
    Keywords: exports; imports; transaction level data; literature survey
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2015–07–29
  30. By: Petros C. Mavroidis
    Abstract: The WTO Dispute Settlement System aimed to curb unilateralism by establishing a multilateral process operating under the aegis of the WTO as the exclusive forum for WTO adjudication. Intuitively, one would expect that those negatively affected by the curtailing of their power to unilaterally do justice for themselves, would agree to multilateral resolution of disputes if the established regime could guarantee enforcement of obligations in comparable terms (to unilateral enforcement). In this perspective, respect and guarantee of reciprocal commitments is the key ingredient. Reciprocal commitments entered should not be unilaterally undone through the commission of illegalities. There are good reasons to doubt whether the WTO regime as it now stands guarantees reciprocity following the commitment of illegalities. It is probably more accurate to argue that the WTO regime serves ‘diffuse’ as opposed to ‘specific’ reciprocity. Still, WTO Members continue to routinely submit their disputes to the WTO adjudicating fora, lending support to the argument that the regime after all, was meant to curb punishment, and not to punish.
    Keywords: WTO,
    JEL: K40
    Date: 2015–05
  31. By: LE Thi Anh Nguyet
    Abstract: The potential market distortions caused by state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have attracted significant attention from Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) members during the negotiations for this agreement in the 21st century. Particularly, in the TPP meetings, Vietnam, as the only nonmarket economy TPP negotiator, has been the focus of discussions concerning SOE issues and reforms to ensure a level playing field for all business sectors, both domestically and regionally. On one hand, SOE reforms can support TPP member governments in financial management and corporate governance more effectively and transparently. On the other hand, the reforms have also left a substantial burden on implementation by the Vietnamese government and the competitiveness of SOEs. The paper (1) examines the principles of SOE management in the TPP negotiation; (2) analyzes the equitization of SOEs in Vietnam in the light of nondiscrimination and on a commercial basis principle; and (3) evaluates the potential cost and benefit of its nonmarket economy status in TPP negotiation.
    Date: 2015–07
  32. By: Vetter, Darci
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015–02–19

This nep-int issue is ©2015 by Luca Salvatici. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.