nep-int New Economics Papers
on International Trade
Issue of 2015‒07‒04
24 papers chosen by
Luca Salvatici
Università degli studi Roma Tre

  1. Deep Integration: Free trade agreements heterogeneity and its impact on bilateral trade By Ahcar, Jaime; Siroën, Jean-Marc
  3. EU Exports to the World: Effects on Employment and Income By Iñaki Arto; José Manuel Rueda-Cantuche; Antonio F. Amores; Erik Dietzenbacher; Nuno Sousa; Letizia Montinari; Anil Markandya
  4. Gravity estimations to correct the 'small shares stay small' bias in economic models. By Ana Sanjuan Lopez; Helena Resano Ezcaray
  5. Russia’s Foreign Trade in 2014 By Nadezhda Volovik
  6. Financial constraints and export performance: Evidence from Brazilian micro-data By Bouattour, Fatma
  7. Renewable Energy Subsidies and Countervailing Duties: A study on U.S.-China solar products trade war (Japanese) By YOMOGIDA Morihiro
  8. Competitiveness of the European Economy By Michael Landesmann; Sandra M. Leitner; Robert Stehrer
  9. The Role of Investments in Export Growth: Evidence of a Middle-Income Country. By Adriana Peluffo
  10. Does Exporting Improve Matching? Evidence from French Employer-Employee Data By Matilde Bombardini; Gianluca Orefice; Maria D. Tito
  11. Trade liberalisation and women's employment intensity: Analysis of India's manufacturing industries By Purna Banerjee; C. Veeramani
  12. The Determinants of Quality Specialization By Jonathan I. Dingel
  13. Is the WTO passé? By Kyle Bagwell; Chad P. Bown; Robert W. Staiger
  14. Capital Heterogeneity as a Source of Comparative Advantage: Putty-Clay Technology in a Ricardian Model By Hirokazu Ishise
  15. Tax Revenues, Development, and the Fiscal Cost of Trade Liberalization, 1792-2006 By Julia Cage; Lucie Gadenne
  16. Offshoring, Total Factor Productivity and Skill-Biased Technological Change By Akhmetova, Zhanar; Ferguson, Shon
  17. Product Differentiation, Export Participation and Productivity Growth: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms By Hu, Cui; Tan, Yong
  18. Trade, global value chains and wage-income inequality By Javier Lopez Gonzalez; Przemyslaw Kowalski; Pascal Achard
  20. The exchange rate, asymmetric shocks and asymmetric distributions By Demian, Calin-Vlad; di Mauro, Filippo
  21. Revealing incentives for vertical integration in the presence of glocal policies By P. Giannoccolo; C. Vergari
  22. Migration-induced Transfers of Norms. Political Empowerment?The case of Female Political Empowerment By Elisabetta Lodigiani; Sara Salomone
  23. Thailand Country Study ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint Mid-term Review Project By Saowaruj Rattanakhamfu; Sumet Ongkittikul; Nutthawut Laksanapunyakul; Nichamon Thongpat; Natcha O-Charoen
  24. Industry Productivity in the Manufacturing Sector: The Role of Offshoring By Sydor, Aaron; Tang, Jianmin; Couture, Lydia

  1. By: Ahcar, Jaime; Siroën, Jean-Marc
    Abstract: Regional trade agreements (RTAs) have surgedin a context of stalled multilateral trade negotiations. Their impact on international trade and on development have been well documented while scant attention have been paid to empirical studies exploring their heterogeneity in the scope of deep integration. We intend in this paper to determine if deeper RTAs promote trade more effectively than less ambitious agreements. We proceed to generate credible indicators of deep integration exploiting two recently available data sets from the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the World Trade Institute (WTI), and then we test their significance in a gravity model for International Trade.Treating additive indicators as factor variables, as well as our innovative use of Multiple Correspondence Analysis MCA to get distilled indicators of deep integration allowed us to givenew insight and to confirm recent findings on the field of deep integration.We find that deeper agreements increase trade more than shallow ones, whereas the provisions they include are within or outside of the WTO domain. Therefore, if we accept the hypothesis that trade liberalization contribute to a better allocation of resources, then trade policy makers should favour deeper RTAs to enhance economic development.
    Keywords: Deep integration; gravity model; regional trade agreements; trade liberalization; international trade; economic development;
    JEL: F14 F15 F53 F55
    Date: 2015–06
  2. By: Jitao Tang (Ernst&Young LLP); Rosanne Altshuler (Rutgers University)
    Abstract: Most studies of foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers focus on externalities of inward FDI to host country firms. However, spillovers may also be generated from outward FDI and flow to home country firms. We test for the presence of spillovers from U.S. multinational corporations to domestic U.S. firms in the same industry, downstream industries and upstream industries using firm level information from Standard and Poor’s Compustat data and industry level data on U.S. outward FDI from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. We find evidence of positive and significant spillovers flowing from multinational customers to their domestic suppliers. This is consistent with most previous studies of spillovers from inward FDI and may suggest a role for domestic policies that subsidize outward FDI. We also find that the presence of beneficial spillovers depends on several firm characteristics in
    Keywords: Multinational enterprises, Foreign direct investment, Productivity spillovers, Absorptive capacity
    JEL: F21 F23
    Date: 2015–01–04
  3. By: Iñaki Arto (Basque Center for Climate Change (BC3)); José Manuel Rueda-Cantuche (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Antonio F. Amores (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Erik Dietzenbacher (University of Groningen - Faculty of Economics and Business); Nuno Sousa (European Commission - TRADE); Letizia Montinari (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Anil Markandya (Basque Center for Climate Change (BC3))
    Abstract: For the European Commission a main priority has been to ensure that comprehensive, reliable and comparable economic information is available to support evidence-based policymaking in this regard. As part of such efforts, the DG Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission has been actively collaborating over the past few years with DG TRADE to construct a series of trade, employment and income indicators based on the World Input-Output Database (WIOD). The main motivation of this report is to provide scientific evidence of the effects of international trade on the EU-27 employment and income. This report is meant to be a valuable statistical tool for DG TRADE to be used in bilateral trade negotiations, European Commission preparatory studies and/or Communications and to show the relevance of international trade in terms of employment and value added creation.
    Keywords: Employment, income, international trade, exports, European Union
    JEL: C67 F14 F15 F16 D33 E01 E24
    Date: 2015–06
  4. By: Ana Sanjuan Lopez (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Helena Resano Ezcaray (Universidad de Zaragoza)
    Abstract: The simulation of liberalization trade scenarios in economic models normally understate the export growth for countries with small initial trade shares but which nevertheless could be competitive under a new tariff regime. This downward bias is known as the ´small share stay small´ and it is inherent to the constant elasticity of substitution in the Armington demand specification. In this report, we show how the gravity equation can provide econometric estimates of the tariffs restrictiveness and trade shares after tariff liberalization and how these can be input into a General Equilibrium (CGE) model to remedy said bias. The fusion approach between gravity and CGE that we follow closely in this report was proposed by Kuiper and van Tongeren (2006) and further developed by Philippidis et al.(2014). As an empirical illustration, the method is applied to agro-food trade between EU and Mercosur where a pervasiveness of 'small-share' examples exists.
    Keywords: Economic, models, trade, liberalization, scenarios, gravity, tariff
    Date: 2015–06
  5. By: Nadezhda Volovik (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: This paper deals with the broad specter of Russia's foreign trade issues. The authors analyze major indicators, geographical profile regulation and the terms of Russia's foreign trade.
    Keywords: Russian economy; foreign trade; Russia's foreign trade regulations, trade turnover;
    JEL: F10 F13 F19
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Bouattour, Fatma
    Abstract: Despite the growing role of Brazil in international trade, exports still face challenges. Following the theoretical framework of Manova (2013), this paper provides firm-level evidence that financial constraints hamper the export performances. Using customs data from Brazil, I show through a probability model, that Large firms exhibit more probability to have export performances when compared with Small and Medium-sized firms, and that this advantage tends to decrease in industries with high external funding needs. The sectors financial vulnerability is proxied with two measures borrowed from Rajan and Zingales (1998) and computed for Brazilian industries over the recent period of the 2000s. The results are globally robust to the modification of the proxies of sectoral external finance dependence, used in the literature. Other tests demonstrate that Brazilian subsidiaries have greater chances to be export performant, and that there is a "regional effect" that makes some Brazilian regions export more than others. This paper also provides an insight of the effects of the global crisis of 2008 on the export patterns.
    Keywords: Export; firms; international trade;
    JEL: F10 F14 G30 L25
    Date: 2015–06
  7. By: YOMOGIDA Morihiro
    Abstract: This paper investigates the U.S.-China trade war on solar products and analyzes a recent proposal on altering World Trade Organization (WTO) rules to avoid such trade dispute on renewable energy products. First, we examine the international trade structure of solar products between the United States and China and find that vertical specialization arises: the United States exports capital goods and intermediate goods to China and China exports final goods to the United States. Second, by using the official reports of the U.S. Department of Commerce and the U.S. International Trade Commission, we examine the U.S. government's investigation of countervailing duties on solar products from China. Chinese producers could evade duties on imports to the United States by reconfiguring their supply chains. We examine how the U.S. government plugged a loophole in its import duties. We also show how the Chinese government retaliated to the U.S. restrictions on imports of solar products from China. Third, we conduct a theoretical investigation of a recent proposal on the revision of the WTO rules on subsidies and countervailing duties on green products. Mattoo and Subramanian (2013) proposed altering WTO rules on green subsidies because subsidies for green goods such as solar products improve the environment by reducing greenhouse gases, and countervailing duties curtail such environmental benefits of green subsidies. We examine whether or not Mattoo and Subramanian's argument hold in a standard competitive model of trade with environmental externalities. We find that their argument does not necessarily hold. In fact, the United States' countervailing duties against China's solar products could raise environmental benefits for both countries.
    Date: 2015–06
  8. By: Michael Landesmann (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Sandra M. Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Robert Stehrer (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Summary This paper uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to analyse changes of Europe’s position in global specialisation and location patterns of exporting activity within Europe by means of a number of competitiveness indicators. We consider both manufacturing as well as tradable services. The study analyses the increasing role of services–industry linkages, the differentiation in specialisation and competitiveness patterns amongst groups of EU member countries pointing to the increasing concentration of manufacturing activity in the ‘Central European Manufacturing Core’ and to competitive weaknesses of some of the EU’s core economies as well as of some of the lower- and medium-income economies (‘Europe’s periphery’). We also undertake an econometric analysis of the determinants of a range of competitiveness indicators, including explanatory variables such as labour productivity, skill composition or labour compensation per employee as highlighted by traditional trade theories as well as domestic and foreign business services linkages or vertical cross-border production integration to account for phenomena which have come to shape the global trade landscape more recently. 
    Keywords: competitiveness, European economy, Europe’s periphery, global trade specialisation, international production networks, vertical trade integration, services–manufacturing linkages
    JEL: F02 F14 F15
    Date: 2015–05
  9. By: Adriana Peluffo (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía)
    Abstract: In this work we follow the recent strand of work linking innovation, productivity and exports. We test the hypothesis that a rise in investment favors entrance in export markets and increases exports among previously exporting firms. We address causal links through impact evaluation techniques for observational data. We examine the binary case as well as continuous treatment analysis for investment as treatment. The analysis is conducted for a panel of Uruguayan manufacturing firms for the period 1997-2008. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of our approach for a Latin American economy, and the relatively long time span of our data makes it possible a better characterization of new entrants and firms with changing export behavior. Also, our data appears to be richer, including information to estimate total factor productivity, and R&D and training investments, which provide better controls for confounding factors. We find evidence that investments "cause" exports and export orientation, which provides a rationale for carefully designing investment promotion policies rather than focusing on other export support policies.
    Keywords: international trade, investments, export behavior
    JEL: F14 O33 D22
    Date: 2015–07
  10. By: Matilde Bombardini; Gianluca Orefice; Maria D. Tito
    Abstract: Does opening a market to international trade affect the pattern of matching between firms and workers? And does the modified sorting pattern affect welfare? This paper answers these questions both theoretically and empirically in three parts. We set up a model of matching between heterogeneous workers and firms where variation in the worker type at the firm level exists in equilibrium only because of the presence of search costs. When firms gain access to the foreign market their revenue potential increases. When stakes are high, matching with the right worker becomes particularly important because deviations from the ideal match quickly reduce the value of the relationship. Hence exporting firms select sets of workers that are less dispersed relative to the average. We then document a novel fact about the hiring decisions of exporting firms versus non-exporting firms in a French matched employer-employee dataset. We construct the type of each worker using both a traditional wage regression and a model-based approach and construct measures of the average
    Keywords: Matching;Sorting;Exporting firms
    JEL: F14 F16
    Date: 2015–06
  11. By: Purna Banerjee (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); C. Veeramani (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)
    Abstract: In the context of increasing contribution of developing countries in world trade, an important question is whether trade can be used as an instrument to stimulate higher participation of women in the labour market? Trade and industrial liberalization undertaken during the 1990s and 2000s marked the end of India's nearly four decade experiment with state directed, heavy industry based, and import substituting industrialization. In this context, we analyse the role of various trade and technology related factors in determining female employment intensity (FEI), in a panel of India's manufacturing industries for the period 1998-2008. We find that import tariff rates exert a negative effect on FEI, supporting the hypothesis that firms, when exposed to international competition, tend to reduce costs by substituting male with female workers. Further, the relative demand for female workers increases to the extent that trade liberalization leads to resource reallocation in favour of unskilled labour intensive industries where India holds comparative advantage. By contrast, greater use of new technology and capital intensive production biases the gender composition of workforce against females. Liberalization has not led to large growth of female employment in India's organized manufacturing sector because the resource reallocation effect has not been strong enough to offset the negative technology effect.
    Keywords: female employment intensity, trade liberalization, manufacturing, India
    JEL: J16 J21 J82 F16
    Date: 2015–06
  12. By: Jonathan I. Dingel
    Abstract: A growing literature suggests that high-income countries export high-quality goods. Two hypotheses may explain such specialization, with different implications for welfare, inequality, and trade policy. Fajgelbaum, Grossman, and Helpman (2011) formalize the Linder hypothesis that home demand determines the pattern of specialization and therefore predict that high-income locations export high-quality products. The factor-proportions model also predicts that skill abundant, high-income locations export skill intensive, high-quality products. Prior empirical evidence does not separate these explanations. I develop a model that nests both hypotheses and employ microdata on US manufacturing plants' shipments and factor inputs to quantify the two mechanisms' roles in quality specialization across US cities. Home-market demand explains at least as much of the relationship between income and quality as differences in factor usage.
    Date: 2015–06
  13. By: Kyle Bagwell; Chad P. Bown; Robert W. Staiger
    Abstract: The WTO has delivered policy outcomes that are very different from those likely to emerge out of the recent wave of preferential trade agreements (PTAs). Should economists see this as an efficient institutional hand-off, where the WTO has carried trade liberalization as far as it can manage, and is now passing the baton to PTAs to finish the job? We survey a growing economics literature on international trade agreements and argue on this basis that the WTO is not passé. Rather, and subject to some caveats, our survey of research to date suggests that the WTO is structured in a way that is likely to encourage policy outcomes that are viewed as efficiency enhancing by WTO member governments, while the analogous claim for PTA-led liberalization is less clear.
    JEL: F13 F15 F53 F55
    Date: 2015–06
  14. By: Hirokazu Ishise
    Abstract: I consider how heterogeneity in capital goods affects international trade patterns, and I show a novel source of comparative advantage: the magnitude of capital goods heterogeneity. Capital goods are heterogeneous in their vintage and productivity, and due to capacity constraints, only productive capital goods are activated in the equilibrium. Through this selection, the distribution of capital goods determines the industry-level productivity: industry-level productivity is higher in an industry with relatively larger variation in capital goods, and hence in a perfectly competitive two-country, two-good, two-factor equilibrium, the industry has Ricardian comparative advantage. An extension of the model, including fixed trade cost, describes a sorting situation in which the most productive production units (which are generally newer vintage) export, the moderately productive units serve the domestic market, and the least productive units (older) do not operate.
    Date: 2015–06
  15. By: Julia Cage; Lucie Gadenne (University College of London (UCL))
    Abstract: This paper puts the recent evolution of tax revenues in developing countries in historical perspective. Using a novel dataset on total and trade tax revenues we compare the fiscal cost of trade liberalization in developing countries and in today's rich countries at earlier stages of development. We find that trade liberalization episodes led to larger and longer- lived decreases in total tax revenues in developing countries since the 1970s than in rich countries in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The fall in total tax revenues lasts more than ten years in half the developing countries in our sample.
    Keywords: Taxation; Economic development; Trade liberalization; State capacity
    JEL: H10 H20 F13 O17
    Date: 2014–01
  16. By: Akhmetova, Zhanar (Department of Economics); Ferguson, Shon (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: The paper answers two questions simultaneously. What is the effect of offshoring on firms' total factor productivity? What is the effect of offshoring on skill-biased technological change? We estimate a model of firm production that allows for the effect of offshoring on both total factor productivity and relative skilled labor productivity, and for spillovers between the two. The model is fitted to Swedish firm-level data between 2001–2011. We find positive effects of offshoring intensity on total factor productivity, particularly of small domestic firms and large foreign-owned firms, and on skill-biased technological change in production of firms with low offshoring intensity. Initiating offshoring results in skill-biased technological change in non-production activities of large domestic firms. We show that evaluating the impact of offshoring in a unified framework has implications for the estimation results.
    Keywords: Offshoring; Total factor productivity; Skill-biased technological change; Relative skilled labor demand
    JEL: D24 F14 F16
    Date: 2015–06–18
  17. By: Hu, Cui; Tan, Yong
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate how the degree of export participation and product differentiation affect firms’ productivity growth through learning-by-exporting. We extend the model of Melitz and Ottaviano (2008) to endogenize the effort firms allocate to learning. This choice depends on both the degree to which firms enter export markets and the extent to which products are differentiated across producers. Using a firm-level dataset from China’s manufacturing industries, we implement propensity score matching methods to test the model’s predictions. Our results indicate that the degree of export participation is positively correlated with TFP improvements. Simultaneously, we empirically verify that firms exporting less differentiated products experience faster TFP growth than those exporting more differentiated products.
    Keywords: Export participation, Product differentiation, TFP, Learning-by-exporting.
    JEL: D24 F1 L1
    Date: 2015–01–27
  18. By: Javier Lopez Gonzalez; Przemyslaw Kowalski; Pascal Achard
    Abstract: The rise in global value chain (GVC) participation has coincided with significant changes in the distribution of wage income both within and across countries. This paper sets out to identify the linkages between these phenomena. It shows that GVC participation has a small effect on the distribution of wages and, when it has, it can reduce wage inequality when it concerns participation related to low-skilled segments of the labour force. This suggests that the potential tensions between equity and aggregate economic outcomes of GVC participation hold only in particular cases, namely when participation relates to high-skilled segments of the labour force. For policy-makers seeking to maximise the benefits of GVC participation, questions of a more equitable distribution of returns to workers might focus on skill-upgrading of low-skilled labour by promoting further tertiary education and development of skills.
    Keywords: globalisation, income inequality, global value chains, trade in tasks, GVCs, offshoring
    JEL: F14 F16 J31
    Date: 2015–06–26
  19. By: Hyungsun Chloe Cho; Miguel Ramirez (Department of Economics, Trinity College)
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and income distribution in the host country as measured by the Gini coefficient. After providing some background and reviewing the extant literature, it undertakes a panel unit root and cointegration analysis that tests whether FDI has a non-linear impact on income inequality in seven selected Southeast Asian countries over the period 1990 to 2013. The paper finds strong evidence for panel cointegration using the Pedroni Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) tests; thus, it proceeds to utilize the group-mean fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) procedure to generate long-run estimates that are unbiased and consistent. The FMOLS estimator is also extremely accurate even in panels with very heterogeneous serial correlation dynamics, fixed effects, and endogenous regressors. The results confirm the hypothesis that FDI inflows tend to raise income inequality in the short run but reduce it in the long run. In this study, the Gini index starts decreasing after FDI inflows as a percentage of GDP reaches 0.56. The fact that the Gini coefficient reaches its maximum at a relatively low level of FDI inflows suggests that sample countries are endowed with substantial absorptive capacity. In other words, they will shift into the new technological paradigm quickly, thus supporting pro-globalization claims that, on balance, FDI is more beneficial than harmful.
    Keywords: Gini coefficient; Foreign direct investment (FDI); Fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS); Panel unit roots; Panel cointegration test; Southeast Asian countries
    JEL: C33 O10 O53
    Date: 2015–06
  20. By: Demian, Calin-Vlad; di Mauro, Filippo
    Abstract: The elasticity of exports to exchange rate fluctuations has been the subject of a large literature without a clear consensus emerging. Using a novel sector level dataset based on firm level information, we show that exchange rate elasticities double in size when the country and sector specific firm productivity distribution is taken into account in empirical estimates. In addition, exports appear to be sensitive to appreciation episodes, but rather unaffected by depreciations. Finally, only rather large changes in the exchange rate appear to matter. JEL Classification: F14, F41, F31
    Keywords: bilateral trade, exchange rate elasticity, productivity dispersion, TFP
    Date: 2015–06
  21. By: P. Giannoccolo; C. Vergari
    Abstract: Local and regional policy makers are acquiring an increasingly active role in affecting firms’ specialization decisions that in turn influence firms’ vertical organization. We analyse the relation between vertical integration incentives and trade liberalization in the presence of glocal policies, i.e., specific (local) policies that have international (global) impact. More precisely, one of the most important reasons for vertical integration in the presence of sunk costs of specialization is avoiding the risk of hold up. We introduce the idea that this sunk cost can be manipulated by the policy maker at national/regional/local level. We characterize the conditions under which policies are effective in achieving a particular equilibrium in terms of vertical structure and specialization decision. The main result is that the policy effectiveness is stronger the higher is the importance of the hold-up problem. In particular, we investigate how glocal policies interact with policies that affect the market openness (trade policy). We find that for high values of the specialization upgrade cost, trade policies are ineffective. At the same time, if the trading cost is very low, glocal policies are ineffective. Finally, in the presence of intermediate specialization upgrade and trading cost, either policy supplements the other policy.
    JEL: D23 F15 F23 H54 L22
    Date: 2015–06
  22. By: Elisabetta Lodigiani (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); Sara Salomone (IRES, Université catholique de Louvain)
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the effect of transnational migrants on gender equality in the country of origin measured by the share of women enrolled in the lower chamber of National Parliaments. We test for a ‘migration-induced transfer of norm’ using panel data from 1960 to 2010 in ten-year intervals. Total international migration has a significant effect on female political empowerment in countries of origin conditional on the initial female parliamentary participation in both origin and destination countries. Reverse causality issues are taken into account and results are tested under specific geo-political and temporal subsamples.
    Keywords: International Migration, Gender Discrimination, Panel Data, Endogeneity
    JEL: F22 J16 D72 C33
    Date: 2015
  23. By: Saowaruj Rattanakhamfu (Thailand Development Research Institute); Sumet Ongkittikul (Thailand Development Research Institute); Nutthawut Laksanapunyakul (Thailand Development Research Institute); Nichamon Thongpat (Thailand Development Research Institute); Natcha O-Charoen (Thailand Development Research Institute)
    Abstract: The main objectives of this study are to determine progress in the implementation of the key Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community (AEC) measures compared to the first monitoring effort in 2010–2011, and to compare the gap between the liberalisation rate in terms of commitments and in terms of actual policies. This study also examines the implementation bottlenecks and generates recommendations from stakeholders (such as the business sector, academia, and government) to address the key bottlenecks and move forward the implementation of the AEC measures into 2015 and beyond (2016–2025). In addition, in view of the importance of the private sector for the successful realisation and deepening of the AEC in 2015 and beyond, this study explores greater partnership with or engagement of the private sector by conducting both intensive consultations and interviews with key informants in the private sector. The AEC measures of interest in this study are services liberalisation, nontariff measures (NTM), trade facilitation, investment liberalisation, mutual recognition arrangements (MRA) on professional services, and standards and conformance.
    Keywords: Thailand, AEC, service liberalisation, non-tariff measure, trade facilitation, investment liberalisation, mutual recognition arrangements on professional services, standards and conformances
    JEL: F13 F15
    Date: 2015–06
  24. By: Sydor, Aaron; Tang, Jianmin; Couture, Lydia
    Abstract: Two sources of industry productivity growth are firm productivity improvements and the reallocation of productive resources from less productive to more productive firms. This paper studies the role of offshoring in improving industry productivity through these two channels, using a new Canadian manufacturing data base that links the Annual Survey of Manufactures and the Importer Register database at the commodity level. The database provides information on direct imports of intermediate inputs by firms. This allows us to estimate offshoring intensity in Canada at the firm level, and to differentiate those imports by region of origin.
    Keywords: Economic accounts, Manufacturing, Productivity accounts
    Date: 2015–06–22

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