nep-int New Economics Papers
on International Trade
Issue of 2013‒08‒16
nine papers chosen by
Alessia A. Amighini
Universita' Amedeo Avogadro

  1. Per-Unit Duties: Friends or Foes of Developing Country Exporters? By Charlotte Emlinger; Houssein Guimbard
  2. The Role of Intellectual Property Rights in Seed Technology Transfer through Trade – Evidence from U.S. Field Crop Seed Exports By Zhou, Minyu; Sheldon, Ian
  3. Migration and Cross-Border Financial Flows By Maurice Kugler; Oren Levintal; Hillel Rapoport
  4. The Role of Intellectual Property Rights in Seed Technology Transfer through Trade: Evidence from US Field Crop Exports By Zhou, Minyu; Sheldon, Ian
  5. Agricultural Labour Productivity and the Intensity of Agri-food Trade in Selected Regional Trade Agreements By Nawrocka, Agnieszka Baer; Sapa, Agnieszka
  6. Trade openness and investment in North Africa: A CGE application to deep and comprehensive free trade areas (DCFTAs) between the EU and respectively Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia By Boulanger, P.; Kavallari, A.; Rau, M.L.; Rutten, M.
  7. Quality Upgrading, Competition and Trade Policy: Evidence from the Agri-Food Sector By Curzi, Daniele; Raimondi, Valentina; Olper, Alessandro
  8. Trade Liberalization and Productivity Growth: A Recursive Dynamic CGE Analysis for Turkey By Dudu, Hasan; Cakmak, Erol H.
  9. Trade, Import Competition and Productivity Growth In the Food Industry By Olper, Alessandro; Pacca, Lucia; Curzi, Daniele

  1. By: Charlotte Emlinger; Houssein Guimbard
    Abstract: Protectionist instruments such as tariffs can distort the prices of traded goods. This paper explores the impact of specific (per-unit) duties on patterns of agricultural trade. Specific duties may encourage countries to export higher priced products, leading to an “Alchian-Allen effect” on unit values. Their restrictive effect on trade values is smaller for developed compared to developing countries. It can be explained by the specialization of these countries on low-priced products and by the low level of quality differentiation among their exports. Our results highlight the discriminating nature of specific duties for low-income countries.
    Keywords: specific duties;agricultural trade;developing countries;trade unit values
    JEL: F13 F14 F15
    Date: 2013–07
  2. By: Zhou, Minyu; Sheldon, Ian
    Abstract: To investigate whether intellectual property rights (IPRs) promote or hinder seed technology diffusion through trade, we use panel data for 134 countries over the period 1985-2010 to evaluate the impact of a country’s IPRs on its seed imports from the U.S. by estimating a gravity equation using both linear and nonlinear (Poisson) fixed effects methods. In both the static and dynamic models, the variable for WTO member countries that have implemented the TRIPs (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) agreement consistently shows a significantly positive effect on seed imports. We improve on previous studies by focusing on one type of planting seeds - field crop seeds, also accounting for status of growing genetically modified crops, and utilizing an estimation technique (Poisson) that is more viable in the handling of zero trade observations.
    Keywords: Intellectual property rights, seed trade, gravity equation, Crop Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, F14, O34, Q17,
    Date: 2013–05
  3. By: Maurice Kugler (UNDP); Oren Levintal (Department of Economics, Bar-Ilan University); Hillel Rapoport (Paris School of Economics, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: The gravity model has provided a tractable empirical framework to account for bilateral flows not only of manufactured goods, as in the case of merchandise trade, but also of financial flows. In particular, recent literature has emphasized the role of information costs in preventing larger diversification of financial investments. This paper investigates the role of migration in alleviating information imperfections between home and host countries. We show that the impact of migration on financial flows is strongest where information problems are more acute (that is, for more informational sensitive investments and between more culturally distant countries) and for the type of migrants that are most able to enhance the flow of information, namely, skilled migrants. We interpret these differential effects as additional evidence pointing to the role of information in generating home-bias and as new evidence of the role of migration in reducing information frictions between countries.
    Keywords: Migration, international financial flows, international loans, gravity models, information asymmetries
    JEL: F21 F22 O1
  4. By: Zhou, Minyu; Sheldon, Ian
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013–06
  5. By: Nawrocka, Agnieszka Baer; Sapa, Agnieszka
    Abstract: A characteristic feature of contemporary world economy is the development of regional trade groupings in quantitative and qualitative aspects. The groupings have been formed for many years, but the intensification of this process has been particularly evident since the mid-90’s of previous century. One of the reason for formation of such groups is improving economic efficiency and welfare in the integrating countries. Regional trading blocs and the liberalization of trade flows among members may result in the intensification of intra-regional trade and the process of convergence, which can also reveals in relation to agricultural productivity increase. This in turn affects the growth of farmers' income and improve the international competitiveness of agriculture, which is especially important for the developing countries. The main aim of this paper is to answer the question whether within regional trade groupings convergence of agricultural productivity occurs, and whether this process is accompanied by increase in the intensity of intra-regional agri-food trade. In addition, authors try to find if the obtained results are related to the level of development of the member countries of the selected regional trading blocs. Topic of this paper comprise part of regional development economics, which is based on classical economics and is related to the international trade theory with the convergence concept (J. Tinbergen). According to this concept, formulated in the 40’s of the twentieth century, a result of free trade between developed and developing countries will level out economic wealth. To achieve such a state, active participation in the global economy and appropriate capital per worker in the developing countries is needed. Trade liberalization within a regional trading groups may be reflected into an increase in the productivity of production factors, including agriculture, although the empirical studies carried out do not give conclusive results. The analyzed groups are represented by North-North relations (EFTA), North – South relations (NAFTA) and South - South relations (MERCOSUR, EAC, CAN and CACM). Agricultural productivity will be measured by labor productivity in agriculture, although it doesn’t quite reflect the productivity of agriculture, but it is very important in the process of food production and the creation of agricultural income. For each regional trade agreement the coefficient σ convergence has been calculated and the convergence process has been evaluated. In order to verify σ convergence, the standard deviation of the log of agriculture value added per worker has been used. The analysis is based on data derived from World Development Indicators database and covers the period 1980-2010. Changes in the agri-food flows are measured by some indices: shares of intra-regional trade, intra-regional trade intensity index and symmetrical introversion trade indicator. Agri-food products are adopted in accordance with the SITC classification. Trade data come from the World Integrated Trade Solution database. On the basis of the conducted analyses it cannot be clearly stated that membership in regional trade agreement means the existence of the processes of convergence of agricultural labour productivity among countries constituting a particular grouping. What is more, in the analysed groupings it is difficult to indicate unambiguous similarities within agri-food trade, that accompany the identified convergence/divergence process or the development level of the member countries.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Relations/Trade, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2013–06
  6. By: Boulanger, P.; Kavallari, A.; Rau, M.L.; Rutten, M.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, International Relations/Trade, Public Economics,
    Date: 2013–06
  7. By: Curzi, Daniele; Raimondi, Valentina; Olper, Alessandro
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Food Security and Poverty, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013–06
  8. By: Dudu, Hasan; Cakmak, Erol H.
    Abstract: In this study, we analyze the effects of trade liberalization and productivity growth in agricultural activities on Turkey by using a dynamic CGE model calibrated to 2008 data. The simulation results suggest that Turkish economy is capable of accommodating the adverse effects of trade liberalization. There are significant welfare gains if trade liberalization is accompanied by the CAP payments in the accession scenario. Productivity increase in agri-food production by just decreasing food waste has prominent effects on welfare,trade and food security for the growing population.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–06
  9. By: Olper, Alessandro; Pacca, Lucia; Curzi, Daniele
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Relations/Trade, Production Economics,
    Date: 2013–06

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