nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2023‒06‒12
ten papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Antitrust and (Foreign) Innovation: Evidence from the Xerox Case By Robin Mamrak
  2. Does Green Transition promote Green Innovation and Technological Acquisitions? By Martinez Cillero, Maria; Gregori, Wildmer Daniel; Bose, Udichibarna
  3. Functional Public Procurement and Innovation – The Concepts By Edquist, Charles
  4. Informing Innovation Management: Linking Leading R&D Firms and Emerging Technologies By Xian Gong; Claire McFarland; Paul McCarthy; Colin Griffith; Marian-Andrei Rizoiu
  5. Specialisation precedes diversification: R&D productivity effects By Foreman-Peck, James; Zhou, Peng
  6. Public research funding in Sweden: Optimising the system in response to multiple demands By OECD
  7. Seizing the window of opportunity? The Swedish public innovation system’s support to private business in the early Covid-19 pandemic By Fridholm, Tobias
  8. Innovation in Artificial Intelligence and the Catalyst of Open Data Sharing: Literature Review and Policy implications By Dam, John; Rickon, Henry
  9. Exploring resource seeking in a scientific collaboration network and its effect on scientists' knowledge creation By Revet, Karine; Bodas-Freitas, Isabel Maria; Chollet, Barthélemy; D'Este, Pablo
  10. Early Joiners and Startup Performance By Joonkyu Choi; Nathan Goldschlag; John Haltiwanger; J. Daniel Kim

  1. By: Robin Mamrak (LMU Munich)
    Abstract: How does antitrust enforcement against patent-based monopolies affect innovation? I address this question by empirically studying the US antitrust case against Xerox, the monopolist in the market for plain-paper copiers. In 1975, Xerox was ordered to license all its copier-technology patents in the US and abroad. I show that this promoted innovation by other firms in the copier industry, measured by a disproportionate increase in patenting in technologies where Xerox patents became available for licensing. This positive effect is driven by increased innovation by Japanese competitors. They started developing smaller desktop copiers and their innovation became more diverse.
    Keywords: antitrust; innovation; patents; compulsory licensing; Japan; Xerox;
    JEL: O30 O34 L41 K21
    Date: 2023–05–12
  2. By: Martinez Cillero, Maria (European Commission); Gregori, Wildmer Daniel (Banco de Portugal); Bose, Udichibarna (University of Essex)
    Abstract: This analysis explores the implications of technological shifts towards greener and sustainable innovations on acquisition propensity between firms with different technological capacities. Using a dataset of completed control acquisition deals over the period of 2009-2020 from 23 OECD countries, we find that innovative firms are more likely to acquire innovative target companies. We also find that green acquirors (i.e., firms with green patents) are more inclined to enter into acquisition deals with green firms, possibly due to their technological proximity and informational advantages which further enhances their post-acquisition green innovation performances. Our results also show an increase in green acquisitions after the Paris Agreement by non-green acquiror firms, and these are more pronounced for acquirors in climate policy-relevant sectors and countries with low environmental standards than their counterparts. However, green acquisitions after the Paris Agreement do not show any significant impact on their post-acquisition innovation performances, raising concerns related to greenwashing behaviour by investing firms.
    Keywords: Acquisitions, green patents, firm innovation, Paris agreement, green transition
    JEL: G34 O30 Q54 Q55
    Date: 2023–04
  3. By: Edquist, Charles (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The literature on the relations between public procurement and innovation has been growing rapidly during the latest couple of decades. However, there are still conceptual problems and unclarities with regard to key concepts. The purpose of this conceptual paper is to sort out and specify the notions of “innovation”, “public procurement”, “product procurement”, “functional procurement” and “innovation partnerships” – as well as the relations between them. <p> Some findings in this paper are: <p> • The distinction between product specifications and functional specifications is a useful dichotomy when discussions of the relations between public procurement and innovation are pursued and when public procurement is carried out in practice. It can be instrumental in transforming procurement that prevents innovations into procurement that enhances innovations. The development of this dichotomy means that we have changed the conceptual framework needed to understand and explain the relationships between (different kinds of) public procurement on one hand and innovation on the other hand. <p> • Functional procurement is not only allowed by the EU procurement directives. It is strongly encouraged “and should be used as widely as possible”, according to the EU directives. <p> • “Innovation partnership” is a new procedure in the EU procurement directives. It is intended to also address R&D results and innovations as outcomes of public procurement processes. However, this procedure has not been used very much. One reason is that the directive needs a much higher specificity to become operatively useful. This procedure should also be related to functional public procurement.
    Keywords: Innovation; System of innovation; Innovation policy; Holistic innovation policy; Linear view; Research Policy
    JEL: O30 O38 O49 O52
    Date: 2023–05–08
  4. By: Xian Gong; Claire McFarland; Paul McCarthy; Colin Griffith; Marian-Andrei Rizoiu
    Abstract: Understanding the relationship between emerging technology and research and development has long been of interest to companies, policy makers and researchers. In this paper new sources of data and tools are combined with a novel technique to construct a model linking a defined set of emerging technologies with the global leading R&D spending companies. The result is a new map of this landscape. This map reveals the proximity of technologies and companies in the knowledge embedded in their corresponding Wikipedia profiles, enabling analysis of the closest associations between the companies and emerging technologies. A significant positive correlation for a related set of patent data validates the approach. Finally, a set of Circular Economy Emerging Technologies are matched to their closest leading R&D spending company, prompting future research ideas in broader or narrower application of the model to specific technology themes, company competitor landscapes and national interest concerns.
    Date: 2023–05
  5. By: Foreman-Peck, James (Cardiff Business School); Zhou, Peng (Cardiff Business School)
    Abstract: We model how R&D enters the innovation system in four ways (intramural, extramural, cooperative, and spillover). Despite measuring three different spillovers together, for a very large sample of European enterprises we conclude that the productivity effects of spillovers were at best smaller than intramural R&D productivity effects. We also find that building on the greater skills and experience of enterprises already undertaking R&D (intensity) raised labour productivity more than providing support for those beginning R&D (extensity). Optimal extramural R&D intensity was higher than the actual level; sample firms could boost productivity either by abandoning extramural R&D or by doing much more. There were substantial differences in our sample between enterprises and countries in terms of R&D spillovers. Greater multinational corporation incidence in new EU members accounted for these countries’ high direct R&D intensity productivity, regardless of their generally low overall labour productivity. Absorptive capacity made little difference to the utilisation of spillovers.
    Keywords: R&D; innovation; knowledge spillover
    JEL: L53 L21 H71 H25
    Date: 2023–05
  6. By: OECD
    Abstract: This report provides input to a national review of the public research funding system in Sweden. It is designed to inform a broader dialogue that is taking place amongst different research stakeholders in Sweden. The report contains proposals and options for changes for Swedish public funding of research and innovation to effectively promote research excellence, support innovation and respond to societal needs. These proposals are supported by relevant international examples. The analysis takes into account insights from the OECD review of innovation policy in Sweden in 2016 and recent OECD work on different aspects of public research funding and research infrastructure.
    Date: 2023–05–24
  7. By: Fridholm, Tobias (Jönköping International Business School)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the Swedish public innovation system’s response to the Covid-19 pandemic during 2020 in terms of initiatives targeting private business. It is based on a review of the websites of 181 major national and regional organisations in the Swedish public innovation system. A total of 208 initiatives were observed. The study shows that almost all national agencies and regional councils responded, but among more specialised organisations the response was scattered. The responses were on general rather swift, and most of them concerned short-term crisis management. Initiatives to build long-term strength, e.g. re-skilling or platforms for potentially more radical renewal, were much fewer and often thematically unspecified. There is a moderately strong correlation between region size and response, but also regional differences on other dimensions, for example, regions strong in innovation involved expertise in specialised innovation support organisations to a much higher extent than other. Almost all university response came from ‘young’ universities. The largest and most research-intensive universities are almost absent in the material. Policy implications focus on the need to strengthen the innovation system’s capacity to be agile and initiate support initiatives with long-term perspectives in times of crisis.
    Keywords: industrial and innovation policy; public innovation support; regional innovation policy; regional resilience; sustainability transitions
    JEL: O31 O32 O38 R58
    Date: 2023–05–15
  8. By: Dam, John; Rickon, Henry
    Abstract: This literature review aims to elucidate the nuanced relationship between data openness and innovation within the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). As the significance of AI continues to expand across various sectors, understanding the role of open data in fostering innovation becomes increasingly critical. Through this review, we systematically explore and analyze the wealth of existing literature on the topic. We address key concepts, theoretical perspectives, and empirical findings, shedding light on the multi-dimensional facets of data openness, including accessibility and usability, and their impact on AI innovation. Furthermore, the review highlights the practical implications and potential strategies to leverage data openness in propelling AI innovation. We also identify existing gaps and limitations in current literature, suggesting avenues for future research. This comprehensive review contributes to the evolving discourse in AI studies, offering valuable insights to researchers, data managers, and AI practitioners alike.
    Date: 2023–05–15
  9. By: Revet, Karine; Bodas-Freitas, Isabel Maria; Chollet, Barthélemy; D'Este, Pablo
    Abstract: Scientists display heterogeneous profiles regarding the focus of their knowledge production activities, their collaboration strategies and their outcomes. Despite increasing interests on research collaboration, little is known about how scientists mobilize their research network. In their knowledge creation efforts, scientists collaborate with colleagues from both academia and industry. These collaborations, leading or not to co-authorship, allow scientists to access to a number of research resources. The objective of this study is to explore whether and how knowledge production across the four Stokesâ quadrants (different focus on fundamental understandings and on immediate industrial and social application) is associated with specific modes of mobilizing research resources. This study examines empirically the relationship between scientific knowledge production, research resources and collaboration networks, using bibliometric and survey data on 116 scientists active in biotechnology in the Netherlands. Our results suggest that different knowledge creation objectives and outcomes are associated with particular ways of activating the network, and mobilize it to access specific research resources.
    JEL: M10 O30
    Date: 2023–05–25
  10. By: Joonkyu Choi; Nathan Goldschlag; John Haltiwanger; J. Daniel Kim
    Abstract: We show that early joiners---non-founder employees in the first year of a startup---play a critical role in explaining firm performance. We use administrative employee-employer matched data on all US startups and utilize the premature death of workers as a natural experiment exogenously separating talent from young firms. We find that losing an early joiner has a large negative effect on firm size that persists for at least ten years. When compared to that of a founder, losing an early joiner has a smaller effect on firm death but intensive margin effects on firm size are similar in magnitude. We also find that early joiners become relatively more important with the age of the firm. In contrast, losing a later joiner yields only a small and temporary decline in firm performance. We provide evidence that is consistent with the idea that organization capital, an important driver of startup success, is embodied in early joiners.
    Keywords: Founding teams; Premature death; Firm dynamics; Young firm growth; Organization capital
    Date: 2023–02–09

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