nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2023‒01‒30
five papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Mission-Oriented Policies and the “Entrepreneurial State” at Work: An Agent-Based Exploration By Giovanni Dosi; Francesco Lamperti; Mariana Mazzucato; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini
  3. Induced Innovation and Carbon Leakage By Jonathon M. Becker; Jared C. Carbone; Andreas Loeschel
  4. The Impact of the Pharmaceutical Industry on the Innovation Performance of European Countries By Szabolcs Nagy; Sergey U. Chernikov; Ekaterina Degtereva
  5. The cyclicality of income distribution and innovation induced growth By Uluc Aysun; Sami Alpanda

  1. By: Giovanni Dosi (LEM - Laboratory of Economics and Management - SSSUP - Scuola Universitaria Superiore Sant'Anna [Pisa]); Francesco Lamperti (UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne); Mariana Mazzucato; Mauro Napoletano (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Andrea Roventini
    Abstract: We study the impact of alternative innovation policies on the short- and long-run performance of the economy, as well as on public finances, extending the Schumpeter meeting Keynes agent-based model (Dosi et al., 2010). In particular, we consider market-based innovation policies such as R&D subsidies to firms, tax discount on investment, and direct policies akin to the "Entrepreneurial State" (Mazzucato, 2013), involving the creation of public research oriented firms diffusing technologies along specific trajectories, and funding a Public Research Lab conducting basic research to achieve radical innovations that enlarge the technological opportunities of the economy. Simu- lation results show that all policies improve productivity and GDP growth, but the best outcomes are achieved by active discretionary State policies, which are also able to crowd-in private investment and have positive hysteresis effects on growth dynamics. For the same size of public resources allocated to market-based interventions, "Mission" innovation policies deliver significantly better aggregate performance if the government is patient enough and willing to bear the intrinsic risks related to innovative activities.
    Keywords: Innovation policy, mission-oriented R&D, entrepreneurial state, agent-based modelling
    Date: 2021–01–01
  2. By: Francesco Aiello (Department of Economics, Statistics and Finance 'Giovanni Anania', University of Calabria, Rende (Italy)); Lidia mannarino (Department of Economics, Statistics and Finance 'Giovanni Anania', University of Calabria, Rende (Italy)); Valeria Pupo (Department of Economics, Statistics and Finance 'Giovanni Anania', University of Calabria, Rende (Italy))
    Abstract: This study revises the moderating effect of size and age on the relationship between family ownership and innovation. The research hypotheses are tested on a large sample of Italian firms observed over the 2010–2017 period, using a zero-inflated non-linear count model. Results from a three-way interaction approach suggest that the patenting gap between family firms (FFs) and non-family firms is sensitive to size and age. Compared to non-FFs, FFs underperform when they are small and young or large and old, while there are no substantial differences for other types of firms. Much of the evidence is driven by the founder effect which differs over the firm life.
    Keywords: innovation, patent, family firms, size, age
    JEL: D22 L25 L60 O30
    Date: 2023–01
  3. By: Jonathon M. Becker (Department of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Jared C. Carbone (Department of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Andreas Loeschel (Ruhr University Bochum)
    Abstract: We explore the ability of unilateral climate policies to induce innovation and diffusion of technology and its impacts on carbon leakage. We consider both energy-saving and carbon-saving (end-of-pipe) technologies, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS). To do so, we combine a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of North-South trade with assumptions about R&D-based technological change to simulate counterfactual climate policies in the North. We model both a carbon tax and a carbon tariff levied on imports from South to North. Both policies drive an increase in R&D in carbon-saving technologies which comes primarily at the expense of investment in other sectors. Carbon-saving technology allows the North to meet its carbon reduction target without abating as much fossil fuel use, leaving demand and international prices for fossil fuels closer to pre-policy levels. Reduced R&D in energy and energy-intensive sectors raises the cost of production in these sectors. Both effects mitigate carbon leakage in the South. Technology diffusion to the South has a modest effect on leakage under the carbon tax. It leads to somewhat larger reductions in leakage when the cap is paired with carbon tariffs, as the tariffs provide an incentive for the South to adopt carbon-saving technologies developed in the North.
    Keywords: induced innovation, R&D, carbon leakage, carbon tariffs, carbon tax, carbon cap, technology diffusion, knowledge spillovers, computable general equilibrium
    JEL: C68 F10 O30 Q43 Q55
    Date: 2022–08
  4. By: Szabolcs Nagy; Sergey U. Chernikov; Ekaterina Degtereva
    Abstract: There are significant differences in innovation performance between countries. Additionally, the pharmaceutical sector is stronger in some countries than in others. This suggests that the development of the pharmaceutical industry can influence a country's innovation performance. Using the Global Innovation Index and selected performance measures of the pharmaceutical sector, this study examines how the pharmaceutical sector influences the innovation performance of countries from the European context. The dataset of 27 European countries was analysed using simple, and multiple linear regressions and Pearson correlation. Our findings show that only three indicators of the pharmaceutical industry, more precisely pharmaceutical Research and Development, pharmaceutical exports, and pharmaceutical employment explain the innovation performance of a country largely. Pharmaceutical Research and Development and exports have a significant positive impact on a country's innovation performance, whereas employment in the pharmaceutical industry has a slightly negative impact. Additionally, global innovation performance has been found to positively influence life expectancy. We further outline the implications and possible policy directions based on these findings.
    Date: 2022–12
  5. By: Uluc Aysun (University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL); Sami Alpanda (University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL)
    Abstract: This paper demonstrates the countercyclicality of income inequality. Inferences are drawn from a unique model that combines a new Keynesian framework with an endogenous growth mechanism that features a labor-augmenting technology. The income disparity is between high-skill workers who service firms’ R&D activities and low-skill workers who contribute to output via a standard neoclassical function. Successful R&D activities increase firms’ knowledge stock that in turn augments low-skill workers’ efficiency and the trend growth rate of the economy. Both a reasonable calibration of the model and a Bayesian estimation exercise demonstrate that the share of high-skill workers’ income is countercyclical and that demand and price shocks are the drivers of this cyclicality. The reason is that the marginal product of high-skill workers is larger in magnitude and this renders the demand for their services less sensitive to shocks. In particular, firms require relatively smaller adjustments in this type of labor to match the changes in the demand for their goods. The disparity in demand for the two types of labor then implies that the high-skill/low-skill wage gap increases during recessions and decreases during expansions.
    Keywords: R&D, endogenous growth, DSGE, income distribution, Bayesian estimation.
    JEL: E24 E32 O30 O33
    Date: 2023–01

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