nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2021‒02‒22
six papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Patent quality: Towards a Systematic Framework for Analysis and Measurement By Kyle Higham; Gaetan de Rassenfosse; Adam Jaffe
  2. Attraction or Repulsion? Testing Coagglomeration of Innovation between Firm and University By Rudkin , Simon; He, Ming; Chen, Yang
  3. The Future of Healthcare around the World: Four indices integrating Technology, Productivity, Anti-Corruption, Healthcare and Market Financialization By Julia M. Puaschunder; Dirk Beerbaum
  4. Are Unions Detrimental to Innovation? Theory and Evidence By Berton, Fabio; Dughera, Stefano; Ricci, Andrea
  5. Classroom experiments on technology licensing: Royalty stacking, cross-licensing and patent pools By Haugen, Atle; Juranek, Steffen
  6. Regional Public Policy on the Use of ICT to Support Innovation and Growth: How Can Micro-Businesses and SMEs Be Supported Through Collaborative Initiatives in Clusters? By Martine Gadille; Karine Guiderdoni-Jourdain; Robert Tchobanian

  1. By: Kyle Higham (Hitotsubashi University); Gaetan de Rassenfosse (Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne); Adam Jaffe (Brandeis University, Queensland University of Technology, NBER)
    Abstract: The ‘quality’ of novel technological innovations is extremely variable, and the ability to measure innovation quality is essential to sensible, evidence-based policy. Patents, an often vital precursor to a commercialised innovation, share this heterogeneous quality distribution. A pertinent question then arises: How should we deï¬ ne and measure patent quality? Accepting that different parties have different views of, and different sets of terminologies for discussing this concept, we take a multi-dimensional view of patent quality in this work. We ï¬ rst test the consistency of popular post-grant outcomes that are often used as patent quality measures. Finding these measures to be generally inconsistent, we then use a raft of patent indicators available at the time of grant to dissect the characteristics of different post-grant outcomes. We ï¬ nd broad disagreement in the relative importance of individual characteristics between outcomes and, further, signiï¬ cant variation of the same across technologies within outcomes. We conclude that measurement of patent quality is highly sensitive to both the observable outcome selected and the technology type. Our ï¬ ndings bear concrete implications for scholarly research using patent data and policy discussions about patent quality.
    Keywords: Patent; Patent quality; Patent value; Patent citation; Patent policy; Technological impact
    JEL: O30 O34
    Date: 2021–02
  2. By: Rudkin , Simon (Swansea University); He, Ming (Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University); Chen, Yang (Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University)
    Abstract: Agglomeration theory supports and existing findings confirm the geographical proximity of similar firms and spatial attraction of firms to universities. In addition to that, we are able to identify whether universities as one type of innovative units are attracted by firm-type innovators and the size of such attraction. Testing the bidirectional spatial innovation linkage contributes to the debate on firm- or university-led innovation. Using a large patent dataset from Shenzhen, the first innovation-led city in the People’s Republic of China, and employing a spatial point process analysis technique, underutilized in the literature that allows the bidirectional testing of coagglomeration, we find varying attraction distances between the same type of innovative units and across university–firm innovation pairs. Attractions are not only limited to identical technology fields but also generate coagglomerations across different technology fields of firms and universities. We find the attraction from firms to universities is more than that from universities to firms. Support is offered to the integration of firms into the university-led innovation clusters in science parks; firm innovation in patent fields like human necessities, physics, and electrical deserve more policy focus to benefit university research and innovation.
    Keywords: agglomeration; innovation; patents; spatial distribution; universities
    JEL: O31 R11 R12
    Date: 2020–02–25
  3. By: Julia M. Puaschunder (The New School, USA); Dirk Beerbaum (Frankfurt School of Finance and Management, Frankfurt am Main)
    Abstract: The currently ongoing COVID-19 crisis has challenged healthcare around the world. The global solution against global pandemic spreads but also to provide essential healthcare is likely to feature components of technological advancement and economic productivity as a starting ground for vital solution finding. Anti-corruption is a necessary prerequisite for access to and quality of healthcare provision in the public sphere. Market innovation financialization of a society raises private sector funds for research and development but also funds the market-oriented implementation of healthcare, which appears beneficial and efficient in combating future healthcare crises. Technology-driven growth, corruption free-healthcare and well-funded markets fostering innovation account for the most prospective public and private sector remedies of the global COVID-19 crisis. These ingredients differ vastly around the world. This paper innovatively combines the mentioned facets in four indices. Highlighting international differences in economic starting positions as well as public and private sector healthcare provision potential around the world serves as indicator where in the world global pandemic medical solutions may thrive in the future. Reflecting the different pandemic crisis alleviation ingredients concurrently allows to capture unknown interaction effects. Pegging remedy credentials to certain regions of the world also holds invaluable insights on what territories of the world should take the lead in different sectors when bundling our common world efforts to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic together. Index 1 highlights the connectedness of Artificial Intelligence (AI) – as operationalized by internet connectivity – with economic productivity – measured in Gross Domestic Products (GDP) – around the world. Index 2 captures the degree of anti-corruption in its relation with a strong public healthcare sector over an entire world sample. Index 3 integrates internet connectivity with anti-corruption and promising healthcare internationally. Index 4 shows the impact of internet connectivity, GDP, anti-corruption, healthcare in light of market capitalization prospects with special attention to technological innovations in the digital age. In its entirety, the four indices highlight different facets of the future of medical care in order to bundle our common efforts strategically in overcoming COVID-19 and thriving in a healthier and more digitalized world to come.
    Keywords: Access to healthcare, Advancements, AI-GDP Index, Apps, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Coronavirus, Corruption-free maximization of excellence and precision, Corruption Perception
    Date: 2020–08
  4. By: Berton, Fabio (University of Turin); Dughera, Stefano (University Paris Ouest-Nanterre); Ricci, Andrea (INAPP – Institute for Public Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: In this paper we study the effect of unions on product and process innovation both theoretically and empirically. We propose a Cournot duopoly model where labor productivity is allowed to differ across unionized and non-unionized sectors due to collective voice mechanism. Our findings suggest that the traditional hold-up view whereby unions discourage innovation does not necessarily survive. When the voice effect is neither too strong nor too low, the unionized sector outperforms the market in terms of process innovation, while the effect on product innovation is strictly increasing in the voice power. Our empirical analysis of a large representative sample of Italian firms supports the model's predictions in both pooled OLS, fixed effects and IV.
    Keywords: innovation, labor-unions
    JEL: J51 O31
    Date: 2021–02
  5. By: Haugen, Atle (Dept. of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics); Juranek, Steffen (Dept. of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics)
    Abstract: We present two classroom experiments on technology licensing. The first classroom experiment introduces the concept of royalty stacking. The students learn that non-cooperative pricing of royalties for complementary intellectual property rights leads to a double-marginalization effect. Cooperation solves the problem and is welfare improving. The second classroom experiment introduces students to cross-licensing. It shows that reciprocal royalty payments dampen competition. The classroom experiments stimulate discussions of technology licensing, intellectual property rights, different royalty structures, patent pools and technology standards. We present the experimental procedures, and suggests routes for the discussion.
    Keywords: Licensing; royalty stacking; cross-licensing; patent pools; classroom experiment
    JEL: A20 L24 O30
    Date: 2021–02–11
  6. By: Martine Gadille (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Karine Guiderdoni-Jourdain (AMU - Aix Marseille Université, LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Robert Tchobanian (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We focus on meta-organisations at the subnational level, with regional governance and implementation at the heart of our analysis. There are parallels between that regional governance and the role of intermediaries in the economic development of regions (Cooke and Morgan 1998, Scott 1998). More recently, the new economic landscape has called for a review of the regional clusters policy and the adoption of a multilevel governance model that regulates commercial and non-commercial relations between the different regional and external stakeholders. This region-specific approach to innovation would be based on sectoral diversification, international openness and a high level of diversity among stakeholders to reduce the risks associated with lock-in effects and self-referential behaviours (Cappellin 2010, 2017). However, organisations of organisations are not designed to be tools for improving our understanding of the relationship between new types of region-specific government policies and the construction of collective identities through business associations. To answer our research question, we adopt a qualitative method that focuses on the analysis of three structurally different PRIDES: Culture Industries and Heritage, Business Tourism and Care Services.1 Despite the differences in their activities, the distinguishing feature of these types of cluster is that they have regional groups and administrative bodies as clients, suppliers, and trustees. After outlining our theoretical framework and methodology, we introduce the regional policy of the PRIDES as well as the geographical boundaries of each cluster. We then analyse how each meta-organisation has made use of the public incentives for innovation and development through the use of ICT. We conclude with a discussion on the relevance and limits of public policy with regard to the geographical boundaries of these very diverse business groupings, all of which include a significant number of SMEs.
    Abstract: Au début des années 2000, certains Conseils régionaux se sont lancés dans une politique de développement régional, inspirée du concept de "clusters" en faveur des micro-entreprises et des PME. L'objectif était d'élargir l'action collective au niveau régional menée par des groupements d'entreprises à travers des associations en faveur du développement économique et du soutien à l'innovation. Cette politique régionale de développement des clusters a été menée en Provence-Côte d'Azur (région PACA) à partir de 2006. Cette politique a consisté à labelliser des projets proposés par des groupements d'entreprises partageant des enjeux économiques, à partir d'un appel à projets pour la création de Pôles de Développement Economique Solidaire (SEDP - appelés PRIDES en France), qui sont des associations d'entreprises. Soutenus financièrement, ces associations d'entreprises ont alors pour mission d'activer cinq leviers dans leurs parcours stratégiques : l'innovation, l'international, la responsabilité sociale des entreprises, la formation des salariés et les TIC (technologies de l'information et de la communication). Le volet TIC attire notre attention car il s'agit d'un service transversal "innovation et économie numérique" du Conseil régional. Sa mission spécifique est de planifier et de stimuler l'action des autres services (économie, innovation et recherche) en termes de diffusion et d'appropriation des TIC. A travers ces actions TIC, la Région vise à avoir une position de leader, grâce à son aide autour de l'innovation numérique. Dans ce contexte, l'objectif de ce chapitre est d'étudier la manière dont ces associations d'entreprises agissent en relation avec l'action publique pour la mise en commun de services, de ressources et d'outils à partir d'une appropriation des TIC. D'un point de vue théorique, nous mobilisons la notion de méta-organisation comme analyseur des effets d'une politique publique-privée de développement économique et d'innovation sur les TPE-PME. La méta-organisation est définie ici comme une structure de gouvernance dont les membres sont des organisations et non des individus, elle est en cela un transformateur de contexte fragile dans la mesure où elle pratique la gouvernance et non le gouvernement (Arnhes et Brunson, 2004 ; Dumez, 2008 ; Gadille et al. 2013a ; Berkowitz et Dumez, 2015). Cette notion permet de réfléchir à la relation entre l'organisation localisée dans les réseaux d'entreprises et l'action publique dans la construction de nouvelles territorialités. C'est la méta-organisation infranationale qui nous intéresse ici. Ce niveau de gouvernance et d'opérationnalisation est au cœur de notre analyse et fait écho au rôle des intermédiaires dans le développement économique des régions (Cooke et Morgan, 1998 ; Scott, 1998). Plus récemment, la nouvelle géographie économique a insisté sur une réorientation de la politique régionale des clusters, par l'adoption du modèle de gouvernance multi-niveaux dans la régulation des relations marchandes et non marchandes entre les différents acteurs régionaux et externes. Cette approche de l'innovation sur le territoire, serait basée sur la diversification sectorielle, l'ouverture internationale, la forte diversité des acteurs pour réduire les risques liés aux effets de confinement (lock-in) et aux comportements d'auto-référencement (Cappellin, 2010, 2017). Après avoir expliqué notre cadre théorique et notre méthodologie, nous présentons la politique régionale des PRIDES ainsi que la territorialité dans laquelle s'inscrit chaque pôle. Nous analysons ensuite comment chaque méta-organisme s'est approprié les incitations publiques à l'innovation et au développement par les TIC. Nous terminons par une discussion sur la pertinence et les limites de l'action publique vis-à-vis de la territorialité de ces groupements d'entreprises très divers, avec une forte présence de PME.
    Date: 2020

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