nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2020‒12‒21
seven papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. The Importance of regional Spill-over Effects for Eco-Innovations in German Start-ups By Jens Horbach
  2. The Effects of R&D Tax Credits and Subsidies onPrivate R&D in Mexico (Chapter 2) By Emmanuel Chavez
  3. How do you design an experimental economy? By Carlsson, Bo
  4. Transport Innovations from the Global South: Case Studies, Insights, Recommendations By ITF
  5. Beyond 140 Characters: Introduction to The Role of Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Economic Growth By Michael J. Andrews; Aaron Chatterji; Scott Stern
  6. Energy Efficiency: What has it Delivered in the Last 40 Years? By Saunders, Harry; Roy, Joyashree; Azevedo, Inês M.L.; Chakravarty, Debalina; Dasgubta, Shyamasree; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Druckman, Angela; Fouquet, Roger; Grubb, Michael; Qiang Lin, Bo; Lowe, Robert; Madlener, Reinhard; McCoy, Daire; Mundaca, Luis; Oreszczyn, Tadj; Sorrell, Steve; Stern, David; Tanaka, Kanako; Wei, Taoyuan
  7. Collaborative platforms for innovation in advanced materials By Laura Kreiling; Douglas K. R. Robinson; David Winickoff

  1. By: Jens Horbach (Faculty of Business, University of Applied Sciences Augsburg)
    Abstract: Eco-innovation activities are crucial for the mitigation of climate change and further envi-ronmental problems. Start-up firms might play an important role for this relatively new in-novation field as they are predestinated for realizing completely new ideas compared to in-cumbent firms that are not willing to abandon their established innovation paths. On the oth-er side, start-ups have limited resources and need external regionally available input of knowledge. Based on data of the German IAB/ZEW Start-up Panel in combination with re-gional data at the NUTS 3 level, the paper analyzes the determinants of eco-innovation in start-up firms. The econometric results show that regional spill-over effects seem to be very important for eco-innovation activities of start-up firms. In regions where the existing stock of environmentally related patents is already high, the probability that a start-up firm realiz-es eco-innovations is significantly higher. Furthermore, eco-innovative start-ups show dis-proportionally more difficulties to get financing from external investors.
    Keywords: Regional spill-over effects, environmental innovation, probit models
    JEL: Q55 R11 C25
    Date: 2020–12
  2. By: Emmanuel Chavez (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This research studies the effects of a R&D tax credit and a R&D subsidy in Mexico.The Mexican tax credit removed the usual market oriented traits that define most taxcredits. It essentially acted as a "deferred" subsidy, as firms got a discount on theircorporate tax at the end of the fiscal year. Whereas the subsidy granted the funds atthe start of the R&D project. My estimates show that both policies had a positive im-pact on innovation personnel, but the subsidy's impact was larger. As for patents, theimpacts are less clear but favor the subsidy over the tax credit. The subsidy appearsto have allowed less profitable firms to take on their R&D projects. This might havedriven the larger subsidy effects. The awarding procedure in both programs is similar.Firms submitted their R&D projects to a non tax collecting institution. The projectswere evaluated according to detailed guidelines. The awarded projects were selectedbased on the evaluations. The guidelines allow to construct a set of conditioning vari-ables in a matching estimation approach. In addition, I use the difference-in-differencematching method to purge time-invariant unobservables.
    Keywords: R&D,Innovation,Propensity Score Matching,Public Policy
    Date: 2020–11
  3. By: Carlsson, Bo (Case Western Reserve University)
    Abstract: How do you design an organization, an innovation system made up of multiple organizations, or a whole economy to encourage entrepreneurial experimentation? We know a good deal about entrepreneurial experimentation when it comes to individuals and firms (organizations), much less concerning innovation systems and even less for whole economies. The purpose of the paper is (1) to briefly examine the organization of entrepreneurial activity at three of the world’s largest and most innovative companies (Amazon, Apple, and Google), and (2) to explore the extent to which the findings at the corporate level can be applied at the more general innovation system (meso) and economy (macro) levels.
    Keywords: Experimentation; organization; innovation
    JEL: L22 L26 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2020–12–10
  4. By: ITF
    Abstract: This report seeks to open new perspectives for discussing and implementing transport innovation across the globe. It highlights solutions emanating from the Global South and encourages policy makers to look at them as sources of inspiration for innovation. It discusses benefits and challenges of implementing these solutions in the Global North and suggests opportunities for South-to-South exchange. This is the second installment of a two-part report and further investigates the ideas outlined in the first report Expanding Innovation Horizons: Learning from Transport Solutions in the Global South.
    Date: 2019–11–06
  5. By: Michael J. Andrews; Aaron Chatterji; Scott Stern
    Abstract: This is an introduction to the forthcoming volume "The Role of Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Economic Growth." The chapters collected in this volume seek to answer the following questions: What is the relationship between innovation/entrepreneurship and economic growth in specific industrial sectors? How has the relationship between innovation /entrepreneurship and economic growth changed over time? How much do policies, programs, and specialized institutions meant to encourage innovation or entrepreneurship ultimately spur economic growth? Does innovation or entrepreneurship affect economic performance and social progress other than through measured productivity and economic growth, and if so, how can these effects be measured? We synthesize the chapters in this volume and present broad conclusions.
    JEL: O3 O4
    Date: 2020–11
  6. By: Saunders, Harry (Carnegie Institution for Science, Global Ecology Group, Stanford, USA); Roy, Joyashree (Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand); Azevedo, Inês M.L. (Stanford University, USA); Chakravarty, Debalina (Indian Institute of Management-Calcutta); Dasgubta, Shyamasree (Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, India); de la Rue du Can, Stephane (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA); Druckman, Angela (University of Surrey, UK); Fouquet, Roger (London School of Economics and Political Science, UK); Grubb, Michael (University College London, UK); Qiang Lin, Bo (Xiamen University, China); Lowe, Robert (University College London, UK); Madlener, Reinhard (E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN)); McCoy, Daire (London School of Economics and Political Science, UK); Mundaca, Luis (International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund University, Sweden); Oreszczyn, Tadj (University College London, UK); Sorrell, Steve (University of Sussex, UK); Stern, David (Australian National University); Tanaka, Kanako (Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan); Wei, Taoyuan (CICERO Center for International Climate Research, Norway)
    Abstract: This article presents a critical assessment of research and practices that emerged over last 40 years that may be brought under the umbrella of “energy efficiency,” spanning different aggregations and domains – from individual producing and consuming agents to economy-wide effects, the role of innovation, and the influence of policy. It highlights advances in understanding the benefits of energy efficiency innovation, improvements in economic and measurement methods and tools, and progress in bending downward the energy use per unit economic output curve, which has taken over a century. We focus on how well deliberate policy actions have influenced energy users in the uptake of energy efficiency. We also note how policies pursued thus far have put less attention on social welfare, inequity issues, and need to better account for complex dynamics associated with how micro actions affect macro outcomes, and to include a richer interdisciplinary approach.
    JEL: N70 O33 Q40 Q41 Q43 Q48
    Date: 2020–11
  7. By: Laura Kreiling (OECD); Douglas K. R. Robinson (Centre national de la recherche scientifique); David Winickoff (OECD)
    Abstract: Advanced materials hold significant potential to create better products and production processes. Yet realising their promise remains challenging: historically it has taken 15 to 20 years from discovery to deployment of new materials in products. Consequently, governments have been creating shared digital and physical infrastructures – “collaborative platforms” – to pool and manage global data, drive the development of nascent industries, and create hubs of interdisciplinary research, development and training. Based on evidence from 12 case studies, this report characterises governance mechanisms of collaborative platforms for advanced materials such as terms of funding, access, and IP policy and explores how they can create different kinds of value. Technology convergence, the engagement of society and digitalisation are identified as key trends. The study describes conditions under which collaborative platforms can align and power value chains, foster standards, catalyse innovation ecosystems and build education, skills and social capital.
    Date: 2020–12–14

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