nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2020‒08‒17
fifteen papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Software Development and Innovation ‒ Exploring the Software Shift in Innovation in Swedish Firms By Andersson, Martin; Kusetogullari, Anna; Wernberg, Joakim
  2. Schumpeterian entry: innovation, exporting, and growth aspirations of entrepreneurs By Estrin, Saul; Korosteleva, Julia; Mickiewicz, Tomasz
  3. Public-private R&D partnerships: A solution to increase knowledge sharing in R&D cooperation By Adrien Hervouet; Michel Trommetter
  4. Invention and Collaboration Networks in Latin America: Evidence from Patent Data By Carlos Bianchi; Pablo Galaso; Sergio Palomeque
  5. Innovation, Competition, and Incomplete Adoption of a Superior Technology By Luca Sandrini
  7. Tech Clusters By Kerr, William R.; Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric
  8. A global decline in research productivity? Evidence from China and Germany By Böing, Philipp; Hünermund, Paul
  9. The research field of Social Innovation: Deriving an updated view on the field through a co-citation analysis By Fazekas, Andreas; Kruse, Daniel J.; Herstatt, Cornelius
  10. Killer acquisitions and beyond: policy effects on innovation strategies By Igor Letina; Armin Schmutzler; Regina Seibel
  11. All about the state-Fifty years of innovative technology to deliver an inclusive financial sector By Rouse, Marybeth; Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo; Carbo Valverde, Santiago
  12. Technological Innovation and Labor Income Risk By Leonid Kogan; Dimitris Papanikolaou; Lawrence D. W. Schmidt; Jae Song
  13. Financial intermediation and technology: What’s old, what’s new? By Boot, Arnoud; Hoffmann, Peter; Laeven, Luc; Ratnovski, Lev
  14. A North-South monetary model of endogenous growth with international trade By Óscar Afonso; Tiago Miguel Guterres Neves Sequeira
  15. Incentives for R&D: Payment Options and Pricing Challenges By Barros, P.

  1. By: Andersson, Martin (Department of Industrial Economics Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH)); Kusetogullari, Anna (Department of Industrial Economics Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH)); Wernberg, Joakim (Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum)
    Abstract: Several scholars as well as industry professionals have claimed that there is a “software-biased shift” in the nature and direction of innovation in that software development is a core part of innovation activities in firms across a wide array of industries. Empirical firm-level evidence of such a shift is still scant. We employ new and unique firm-level survey data on the frequency and nature of software development among firms in Sweden, matched with the Community Innovation Survey (CIS). We find robust evidence supporting a software-bias in innovation in that software development is associated with a higher likelihood of introducing innovations as well as higher innovation sales among firms in both manufacturing and services industries. Furthermore, this positive relationship is stronger for firms employing in-house software developers than for those that only use external developers, suggesting that there is a hierarchy but possibly also a complementarity between internal and external software development. We also find support for complementarity between software-based technology and human capital; the estimated marginal effect of software development on innovation is particularly strong for firms that combine in-house software development with a highly educated workforce in STEM as well as in other disciplines.
    Keywords: Innovation; Software; Software development; Digitalization; Human capital; Software bias; Digital technology; Absorptive capacity
    JEL: L25 O15 O32 O33 O43
    Date: 2020–06–30
  2. By: Estrin, Saul; Korosteleva, Julia; Mickiewicz, Tomasz
    Abstract: We posit that entrepreneurs who engage in strategic activities will have high growth aspirations. Our proposed mechanism is that strategic engagements, specifically product innovation, process innovation and internationalization, open entrepreneurial ventures to learning, and thereby greater growth opportunities. Furthermore, these learning effects are reinforced in research-intensive industrial environments. We apply multilevel random slope estimation for individuals from 74 countries, 2001–2015, to derive results consistent with our hypotheses. The findings are robust to potential reverse causality between strategic behavior and growth aspirations, and to selection bias resulting from strategic engagements being only observed for actual entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; exporting; global entrepreneurship monitor; growth aspirations; innovation; knowledge
    JEL: R14 J01 J1
    Date: 2020–03–26
  3. By: Adrien Hervouet (GAEL [2020-....] - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble [2020-....] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA [2020-....] - Université Grenoble Alpes [2020-....] - Grenoble INP [2020-....] - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology [2020-....] - UGA [2020-....] - Université Grenoble Alpes [2020-....]); Michel Trommetter (GAEL [2020-....] - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble [2020-....] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA [2020-....] - Université Grenoble Alpes [2020-....] - Grenoble INP [2020-....] - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology [2020-....] - UGA [2020-....] - Université Grenoble Alpes [2020-....])
    Abstract: Knowledge sharing is crucial for the success of most R&D cooperations. This paper investigates the best conditions for fostering knowledge sharing in R&D cooperation and looks at how the establishment of Public-Private R&D Partnerships (PPP in R&D) could be a useful tool for this purpose. In this end, it proposes a theoretical model, related to the R&D cooperation literature, that takes into consideration the impacts of firms outside R&D cooperation and the presence of two kinds of spillover: a technology spillover and a product rivalry effect. The model shows that both spillovers can affect knowledge sharing negatively, and that PPP in R&D can be useful to promote knowledge sharing. First, public authorities can choose partners that will facilitate efficient knowledge sharing. Second, to avoid the negative impacts of spillovers on behavior in terms of knowledge sharing, public laboratories should be used as intermediaries for the prior and strategic knowledge of firms. Public labs can use the prior knowledge of firms to innovate, and then spread this innovation among the partners of the PPP, without spreading the prior knowledge of the firms.
    Keywords: Public-private R&D partnership,R&D cooperation,Knowledge sharing,Spillovers
    Date: 2020–07
  4. By: Carlos Bianchi (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Pablo Galaso (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Sergio Palomeque (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración)
    Abstract: This research aims to analyze the collaboration networks associated with the processes of invention and patenting in Latin American countries between 1970 and 2017. To do so, we apply social network analysis techniques to a rich database containing information from patents developed by Latin American inventors and registered in the USPTO during such period. We build and analyze three types of collaboration networks: networks of inventors, networks of innovators (i.e. patent owners) and networks of countries in the region. The study of the structural properties and the evolution of such networks allow us to present unprecedented empirical evidence on the forms of interaction and collaboration to invent in Latin America. This evidence shows that collaboration networks in Latin America are highly fragmented and disconnected. Moreover, networks are notoriously foreign-oriented, i.e. the linkages with external nodes are critical compared to the low presence of local connections. Major differences among the countries of the region can be observed, which allow us to identify different behaviors according to how much they use the patent system and the relative development of the national networks. In a region which has been historically characterized by high heterogeneity, this research allows recognizing specific patterns of innovation at the national level. In sum, the contributions of the paper are three fold. First, it presents novel empirical findings with unique information on interaction patterns at the Latin American level. Second, it allows analyzing the whole region and the main trends in the light of the large research background on invention and development from this region. Finally, it discusses some stylized facts in national cases, with the aim of encouraging new research questions for further research agenda.
    Keywords: patents, invention, social network analysis, collaboration networks, Latin America
    JEL: O31 O54 P48
    Date: 2020–04
  5. By: Luca Sandrini (DSEA, University of Padova)
    Abstract: This article analyses the licensing choices of an outside inventor who owns a patent for a superior cost-saving technology. Moreover, I show that licensing via uniform upfront fees is found to be superior to licensing via royalties, from the inventor perspectives. This is so, regardless of the number of manufacturers in the product market, as downstream competition fosters the inventor's incentives to develop a more effective cost-saving technology, raising his/her revenues from surplus extraction. Moreover, this article investigates the effect of competition on licensing outcomes and ex-post market concentration.
    Keywords: Innovation, Licensing, Vertical Relation, Oligopoly, Competition
    JEL: L13 L22 L24
    Date: 2020–05
  6. By: Bruno Bittencourt (UNISINOS - Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos); Aurora Zen (UFRGS - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul [Porto Alegre]); Diego Santos (UFRGS - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul [Porto Alegre])
    Abstract: The universities have become more entrepreneurial and constitute innovation ecosystems, responsible for promoting innovation and generating development for people, busines and regions. Although the theme of innovation ecosystems has been expanding in the literature, there is a gap about the management/orchestration of those environments. Therefore, this paper aims at understanding which are the roles and activities of the orchestrator of the university innovation ecosystem. For that, we conducted an action research in the innovation ecosystem of UFRGS, orchestrated by its Science and Technological Park, Zenit. We identified key success factors for that process and we understood that the orchestrator of the university has as roles and activities: ap and compose the network, link complementary actors, construct knowledge activation, facilitate transactions) a demands, recognize and commercialize innovation, manage innovation appropriability). From that, we proposed some insigths to facilitate actions for the orchestration of the innovation ecosystem in the university.
    Keywords: innovation ecosystem,universities,network orchestrator,orchestration
    Date: 2020–04–01
  7. By: Kerr, William R.; Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric
    Abstract: Tech clusters like Silicon Valley play a central role for modern innovation, business competitiveness, and economic performance. This paper reviews what constitutes a tech cluster, how they function internally, and the degree to which policy makers can purposefully foster them. We describe the growing influence of advanced technologies for businesses outside of traditional tech fields, the strains and backlash that tech clusters are experiencing, and emerging research questions for theory and empirical work.
    Keywords: agglomeration; Clusters; entrepreneurship; Innovation; patents
    Date: 2019–11
  8. By: Böing, Philipp; Hünermund, Paul
    Abstract: In a recent paper, Bloom et al. (2020) find evidence for a substantial decline in research productivity in the U.S. economy during the last 40 years. In this paper, we replicate their findings for China and Germany, using detailed firm-level data spanning three decades. Our results indicate that diminishing returns in idea production are a global phenomenon, not just confined to the U.S.
    Keywords: Productivity,Growth,Innovation,R&D,Technological Change
    JEL: D24 E23 O31 O47
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Fazekas, Andreas; Kruse, Daniel J.; Herstatt, Cornelius
    Abstract: This paper presents a thorough analysis of the research field of Social Innovation (SI). It seeks to contribute to the understanding of how this dynamic research field has developed since the early 2000s by addressing three main topics. First, an analysis of the current intellectual structure of the field derived through a co-citation analysis of 1.184 relevant scientific documents is presented. Second, the role of public institutions for SI is discussed. Third, the theoretically established link between Open Innovation and Social Innovation is examined. The results show that four main cluster exist defining the research field of SI. These clusters are: Social Entrepreneurship, Partnerships and Interaction, Theoretical Foundation and Change and Transition Management. The analysis indicates that a unifying literature body has been established and is commonly accepted in academia. Moreover, the results confirm the strong link to the practice and highlight the relevance of SI for various stakeholder. Based on these results it can be concluded that the research field of SI has developed from being a small and not independent area to a complex, mature, established and independent research field within the last two decades.
    Keywords: Social Innovation,Co-Citation Analysis,Intellectual Structure,Social Innovation Definition,Business Innovation,Literature Review,Social Entrepreneurship,Bibliometrics
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Igor Letina; Armin Schmutzler; Regina Seibel
    Abstract: This paper provides a theory of strategic innovation project choice by incumbents and start-ups. We show that prohibiting killer acquisitions strictly reduces the variety of innovation projects. By contrast, we find that prohibiting other acquisitions only has a weakly negative innovation effect, and we provide conditions under which the effect is zero. Furthermore, for both killer and other acquisitions, we identify market conditions under which the innovation effect is small, so that prohibiting acquisitions to enhance competition would be justified.
    Keywords: Innovation, killer acquisitions, merger policy, potential competition, start-ups
    JEL: O31 L41 G34
    Date: 2020–08
  11. By: Rouse, Marybeth; Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo; Carbo Valverde, Santiago
    Abstract: This paper documents the long-term nature of technological innovations which have transformed retail finance and addressed financial exclusion. The paper also contributes to the body of literature on the state as an entrepreneur. The roots of financial inclusion are traced back to the 1960s with a discussion of the role played by the state, in contrast to that of the private sector and disruptive innovation. The case of the world-recognised mobile payment service M-Pesa, which has been credited with transforming access to financial services in Africa, is then examined. The empirical results suggest that the state was actively involved in the development and deployment of applications of information and communication technologies which led to M-Pesa. This study provides support for policies that promote mobile banking technology as a means of enhancing financial inclusion. The study also confirms that public-private partnerships, together with an enabling regulatory environment, facilitate technological innovation.
    Keywords: Disruptive technology; financial inclusion; innovation; state as an entrepreneur; Kenya
    JEL: G20 H70 O31
    Date: 2020–07–20
  12. By: Leonid Kogan; Dimitris Papanikolaou; Lawrence D. W. Schmidt; Jae Song
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between technological progress and the riskiness of labor income using employer-employee matched income data from the United States. Results suggest innovation is associated with a substantial increase in the labor income risk, especially for workers at the top of the earnings distribution.
    Date: 2020–06
  13. By: Boot, Arnoud; Hoffmann, Peter; Laeven, Luc; Ratnovski, Lev
    Abstract: We study the effects of technological change on financial intermediation, distinguishing between innovations in information (data collection and processing) and communication (relationships and distribution). Both follow historic trends towards an increased use of hard information and less in-person interaction, which are accelerating rapidly. We point to more recent innovations, such as the combination of data abundance and artificial intelligence, and the rise of digital platforms. We argue that in particular the rise of new communication channels can lead to the vertical and horizontal disintegration of the traditional bank business model. Specialized providers of financial services can chip away activities that do not rely on access to balance sheets, while platforms can interject themselves between banks and customers. We discuss limitations to these challenges, and the resulting policy implications. JEL Classification: G20, G21, E58, O33
    Keywords: communication, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fintech, information
    Date: 2020–07
  14. By: Óscar Afonso (CEF-UP, CEFAGE-UBI and Faculty of Economics of University of Porto); Tiago Miguel Guterres Neves Sequeira (University of Coimbra, Centre for Business and Economics,CeBER, Faculty of Economics)
    Abstract: We devise a North-South endogenous growth model with international trade and money to study the effects of inflation (and monetary policy) on wage inequality, specialization, and growth. The relationship between monetary policy and wage inequality depends on the fact that skilled-production firms are less credit constrained than unskilled-production firms. Interestingly, inflation affects the structure of production by increasing the production share made by skilled-intensive firms, and decreases economic growth. Furthermore, inflation decreases the difference of wage inequality between countries; shrinking the skill premia difference. Moreover, inflation and trade have opposite effects on wage inequality and on specialization: while trade tends to decrease intra-South wage inequality, inflation tends to increase it; while trade tends to increase the number of different intermediate goods produced with unskilled technology in the South; inflation acts the other way around. Results are confirmed quantitatively.
    Keywords: Inflation; Wage inequality; North-South trade; CIA constraints; Technological knowledge bias.
    JEL: F16 F43 O31 O33 O40 E41
    Date: 2020–06
  15. By: Barros, P.
    Abstract: The issue of rising prescription drug prices is a concern in every country. Dozens of policy initiatives and hundreds of research projects over last the fifty years have attempted to find solutions to pricing that provide an appropriate balance between the cost to health care systems and incentives for R&D. To name but a few, these include reference pricing, managed entry agreements, price-volume agreements, rebates, and risk sharing. The ultimate solution, however, remains elusive.
    Keywords: Economics of Innovation; Value, Affordability, and Decision Making
    JEL: I1
    Date: 2020–08–01

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