nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2020‒02‒17
eight papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. R&D and Knowledge Expertise of French Regions By Tan Tran
  2. Digital Innovation in East Asia : Do Restrictive Data Policies Matter By Ferracane,Martina Francesca; Van Der Marel,Erik Leendert
  3. Robots and the origin of their labour-saving impact By Fabio Montobbio; Jacopo Staccioli; Maria Enrica Virgillito; Marco Vivarelli
  4. Entrepreneurial Access to Finance in the US By Inessa Love
  5. Intangible capital and productivity: Firm-level evidence from German manufacturing By Kaus, Wolfhard; Slavtchev, Viktor; Zimmermann, Markus
  6. Declining Business Dynamism in Belgium By Gert Bijnens; Jozef Konings
  7. The value orientation of entrepreneurs in challenging institutional contexts: Insights from a unique historical episode By Michael Wyrwich
  8. The economic forces driving fintech adoption across countries By Jon Frost

  1. By: Tan Tran
    Abstract: Within the literature of regional innovation systems, a growing stream of research emphasizes the role of differentiated knowledge bases. The employees’ occupations mainly measure the existing work on knowledge bases. Even though the conceptual theory highlights the importance of interactions across types of knowledge bases underlying innovation activities, they are separately measured and treated in most empirical studies. While few studies use the interaction term between knowledge bases, it does not reflects their actual relationships. In this study, an attempt is made to analysis and observe the regional knowledge for long periods of time. The study suggests suggesting to measure different types of expertise in science and technology of the region, as the fine-grained layers of regional knowledge bases, by using patent and publication datasets in France. Finally, we imply the new measurements to understand the relationships between regional R&D expenditure and their knowledge expertise. The results show that R&D expenditure has a positive relationship with the numbers of the scientific and technological expertise of the region; however, not to the level of expertise. The results also show that the level of technological expertise will increase if it is complementary to a specific science.
    Keywords: regions, science, technology, interdependence, R&D
    JEL: R11 O32 O34
    Date: 2020–02
  2. By: Ferracane,Martina Francesca; Van Der Marel,Erik Leendert
    Abstract: Digital technologies encourage companies to innovate with new processes, goods, and services, which ultimately enhance their competitiveness in local and global markets. This paper analyzes whether a wide set of data restrictions are negatively associated with digital innovation of firms. The paper develops an index of data restrictions that measures the level of data policy restrictiveness for 15 East Asian countries over time. Using various firm-level data sets, the analysis shows that data restrictions inhibit firms'ability to innovate. The analysis takes into account that data restrictions are likely to have a greater impact in sectors that are more reliant on software. Regressions show that in countries that have more restrictive data policies, firms are less likely to use foreign technologies through licensing as part of their innovation process. Country-specific cases for which data are available also show that restrictive data policies are negatively associated with firms'likelihood of using intangible assets, such as patents and goodwill, for performing innovation (in Malaysia and China) and developing innovations as a result of research and development that are new to the market (in Vietnam). The paper concludes that open data policies are likely to foster digital innovation.
    Date: 2020–01–27
  3. By: Fabio Montobbio; Jacopo Staccioli; Maria Enrica Virgillito; Marco Vivarelli
    Abstract: This paper investigates the presence of explicit labour-saving heuristics within robotic patents. It analyses innovative actors engaged in robotic technology and their economic environment (identity, location, industry), and identifies the technological fields particularly exposed to labour-saving innovations. It exploits advanced natural language processing and probabilistic topic modelling techniques on the universe of patent applications at the USPTO between 2009 and 2018, matched with ORBIS (Bureau van Dijk) firm-level dataset. The results show that labour-saving patent holders comprise not only robots producers, but also adopters. Consequently, labour-saving robotic patents appear along the entire supply chain. The paper shows that labour-saving innovations challenge manual activities (e.g. in the logistics sector), activities entailing social intelligence (e.g. in the healthcare sector) and cognitive skills (e.g. learning and predicting).
    Keywords: Robotic Patents; Labour-Saving Technology; Search Heuristics; Probabilistic Topic Models.
    Date: 2020–02–05
  4. By: Inessa Love (University of Hawaii at Manoa)
    Abstract: We present a critical assessment of the literature on entrepreneurial access to finance in the US. We present a comprehensive list of sources of finance that entrepreneurs use to start and grow their businesses and evaluate available research on each source. We also discuss different categories of entrepreneurs and identify underserved segments of the population. We perform a meta-analysis of available research on the actual use of different sources of funds and we perform an analysis of citations in the entrepreneurial literature. We conclude that there is a misalignment between the popularity of topics in the literature and the prevalence of different sources of funds. Finally, we identify gaps in existing literature, i.e. what sources of finance don’t have as much research available, and suggest avenues for future research.
    Keywords: Gender entrepreneurship, access to finance, venture capital
    JEL: L26 G32
    Date: 2020–01
  5. By: Kaus, Wolfhard; Slavtchev, Viktor; Zimmermann, Markus
    Abstract: We study the importance of intangible capital (R&D, software, patents) for the measurement of productivity using firm-level panel data from German manufacturing. We first document a number of facts on the evolution of intangible investment over time, and its distribution across firms. Aggregate intangible investment increased over time. However, the distribution of intangible investment, even more so than that of physical investment, is heavily right-skewed, with many firms investing nothing or little, and a few firms having very large intensities. Intangible investment is also lumpy. Firms that invest more intensively in intangibles (per capita or as sales share) also tend to be more productive. In a second step, we estimate production functions with and without intangible capital using recent control function approaches to account for the simultaneity of input choice and unobserved productivity shocks. We find a positive output elasticity for research and development (R&D) and, to a lesser extent, software and patent investment. Moreover, the production function estimates show substantial heterogeneity in the output elasticities across industries and firms. While intangible capital has small effects for firms with low intangible intensity, there are strong positive effects for high-intensity firms. Finally, including intangibles in a gross output production function reduces productivity dispersion (measured by the 90-10 decile range) on average by 3%, in some industries as much as nearly 9%.
    Keywords: intangible capital,productivity,production functions
    JEL: D24 L60 O30
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Gert Bijnens; Jozef Konings
    Abstract: Using 30 years of data from all for-profit firms incorporated in Belgium, we show that business dynamism and entrepreneurship have been declining over recent decades. This decline set in around the year 2000 following a decade of declining start-up rates. We also observe a decreasing share of young firms that become high-growth firms and more importantly a declining propensity for small (not necessarily young) firms to experience fast growth. Interestingly, a similar decline in business dynamism occurred in the U.S., where firms face a far less rigid institutional environment than in Belgium. These remarkable similarities suggest that global trends rather than country specific changes are at the basis of this evolution. We show evidence that points to the role of ICT intensity and in explaining the secular decline in business dynamism.
    Keywords: business dynamism, firm dynamics, firm growth, entry, reallocation, high-growth firms, high-impact firms
    JEL: D21 E24 J6 L25
    Date: 2018–10
  7. By: Michael Wyrwich (University of Groningen and FSU Jena)
    Abstract: Previous research suggests that entrepreneurs value autonomy more than non-entrepreneurs do across countries and institutional contexts. However, most evidence exists for contexts with more or less entrepreneurship-facilitating and stable institutional framework conditions while we do not know whether this connection also exists in situations, in which entrepreneurs operate under challenging institutional conditions. This paper exploits a historical episode to first analyze a context where entrepreneurs faced massive institutional barriers and, second, a context marked by significant changes of the institutional framework conditions for entrepreneurship. In both contexts, entrepreneurs are challenged either by external resistance toward their activity or by uncertainty regarding the future prospects of their endeavor. Our results show an above-average endorsement of autonomy as an important societal value among people that were entrepreneurs in the autocratic anti-entrepreneurial regime and those respondents that started or planned to start an own venture during institutional upheaval. The findings of our analysis suggest that the mark-up entrepreneurs reveal with respect to valuing autonomy found in the previous literature is not an artefact of stable entrepreneurship-facilitating institutional framework conditions.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Value orientation, Autonomy, Institutions
    JEL: L26 P20 Z10
    Date: 2020–02–11
  8. By: Jon Frost
    Abstract: Fintech is being adopted across markets worldwide - but not evenly. Why not? This paper reviews the evidence. In some economies, especially in the developing world, adoption is being driven by an unmet demand for financial services. Fintech promises to deliver greater financial inclusion. In other economies, adoption can be related to the high cost of traditional finance, a supportive regulatory environment, and other macroeconomic factors. Finally, demographics play an important role, as younger cohorts are more likely to trust and adopt fintech services. Where fintech helps to make the financial system more inclusive and efficient, this could benefit economic growth. Yet the market failures traditionally present in finance remain relevant, and may manifest themselves in new guises.
    Keywords: fintech, digital innovation, financial inclusion, financial regulation
    JEL: E51 G23 O33
    Date: 2020–02

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