nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2019‒10‒21
fourteen papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Foreign Competition and Domestic Innovation: Evidence from U.S. Patents By David H. Autor; David Dorn; Gordon H. Hanson; Gary Pisano; Pian Shu
  2. Bargaining Failure and Freedom to Operate: Re-evaluating the Effect of Patents on Cumulative Innovation By Gaessler, Fabian; Harhoff, Dietmar; Sorg, Stefan
  3. Innovation and job creation in (high-growth) new firms By Pietro Santoleri
  4. Innovation support in the enterprise sector: Industry and SMEs By Gernot Hutschenreiter; Johannes Weber; Christian Rammer
  5. When authors become inventors: an empirical analysis on patent-paper pairs in medical research By Arianna Martinelli; Elena Romito
  6. A geography of corporate knowledge flows across world regions: evidence from patent citations of top R&D-investing firms By Mafini Dosso; Didier Lebert
  7. User entrepreneurs for social innovation: The case of patients and caregivers as developers of tangible medical devices By Göldner, Moritz; Herstatt, Cornelius; Canhão, Helena; Oliveira, Pedro
  8. A shot in the dark? Policy influence on cluster networks By Holger Graf; Tom Broekel
  9. Patterns of innovation during the industrial revolution: a reappraisal using a composite indicator of patent quality By Nuvolari, Alessandro; Tartari, Valentina; Tranchero, Matteo
  10. Measuring R&D tax support: Findings from the new OECD R&D Tax Incentives Database By Silvia Appelt; Fernando Galindo-Rueda; Ana Cinta González Cabral
  11. Three Varieties of Africa’s Industrial Future By Naudé, Wim
  12. Markets for technology in Europe: Mapping demand and its drivers By Grimpe, Christoph; Sofka, Wolfgang; Schulz, Philipp; Borchhardt, Geoffrey Thilo
  13. Putting Digital Innovation Hubs into Regional Context By Johan Miorner; Gabriel Rissola; Jens Sorvik; Joakim Wernberg
  14. Creativity over Time and Space By Serafinelli, Michel; Tabellini, Guido

  1. By: David H. Autor; David Dorn; Gordon H. Hanson; Gary Pisano; Pian Shu
    Abstract: Manufacturing accounts for more than three-quarters of U.S. corporate patents. The competitive shock to this sector emanating from China’s economic ascent could in theory either augment or stifle U.S. innovation. Using three decades of U.S. patents matched to corporate owners, we quantify how foreign competition affects domestic innovation. Rising import exposure intensifies competitive pressure, reducing sales, profitability, and R&D expenditure at U.S. firms. Accounting for confounding sectoral patenting trends, we find that U.S. patent production declines in sectors facing greater import competition. This adverse effect is larger among initially less profitable and less capital-intensive firms.
    Keywords: innovation, patents, trade
    JEL: F10 O31
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Gaessler, Fabian; Harhoff, Dietmar; Sorg, Stefan
    Abstract: We investigate the causal effect of patent rights on cumulative innovation, using large-scale data that approximate the patent universe in its technological and economic variety. We introduce a novel instrumental variable for patent invalidation that exploits personnel scarcity in post-grant opposition at the European Patent Ofï¬ ce. We ï¬ nd that patent invalidation leads to a highly signiï¬ cant and sizeable increase of follow-on inventions. The effect is driven by cases where the removal of the individual exclusion right creates substantial freedom to operate for third parties. Importantly, our results suggest that bargaining failure between original and follow-on innovators is not limited to environments commonly associated with high transaction costs.
    Keywords: bargaining failure; Cumulative innovation; freedom to operate; opposition; patents
    JEL: K41 L24 O31 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2019–08
  3. By: Pietro Santoleri
    Abstract: Recent research has underscored the prominent role played by a small fraction of fast-growing new firms in contributing to aggregate net employment growth. While it is typically assumed that those firms experience this superior performance thanks to their ability in undertaking technological innovation, few empirical studies have explicitly addressed this issue. This article examines the innovation-employment nexus for start-ups using the Kauffman Firm Survey (KFS), a unique longitudinal dataset tracking a single cohort of US firms founded in 2004. Results based on fixed effects panel quantile regressions indicate an overall positive but heterogeneous effect of innovation activities on the conditional employment growth distribution. More in detail, the findings reveal that both research and development (R&D) and patents have a positive association with employment growth especially for those new firms experiencing high-growth.
    Keywords: new firms; high-growth; innovation; employment growth; panel quantile regressions.
    Date: 2019–10–15
  4. By: Gernot Hutschenreiter (OECD); Johannes Weber (OECD); Christian Rammer (Centre for European Economic Research)
    Abstract: This policy paper outlines major policy trends in public support of innovation activities in industry and SMEs across OECD countries. It discusses the policy mix to strengthen business R&D and innovation, and possible avenues to improve this mix in response to evolving needs, driven new trends in technology and other factors. Across the OECD, governments strive to reinforce international competitiveness through a variety of policy initiatives supporting business innovation. In particular, these initiatives facilitate the technological upgrading of existing industries and the development of strategic sectors. Twelve case studies discuss selected initiatives in the following areas: Support for innovative enterprises and clusters, development of strategic industrial sectors in particular in manufacturing, and the transition of industry towards new production methods (Industry 4.0). While the dimensions for the effective implementation of these initiatives vary, this paper identifies some features that may help identify good practices in their design, implementation and evaluation.
    Date: 2019–10–17
  5. By: Arianna Martinelli; Elena Romito
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of patenting on follow-on knowledge in cancer research. Using a difference-in-difference approach on an original dataset of patent-paper-pairs we are able to estimate the causal effect of the granting of a patent on scientic development in the same domain. Furthermore, we disentangle between private companies and universities in order to assess whether patenting impacts differently on the two groups. In addition, we study to which extend the degree of applicability of an innovation is further affects the relation. To address these issues we build a novel dataset matching patent data (retrieved from USPTO) and publication data (retrieved from Thompson-Web of Science). Results show that patenting reduces the rate of citations of the paired publication indicating a decrease of related scientic activity only in case the citing agent belongs to a public institution. In addition, the the more invention is applied, the weaker is the negative effect. This paper makes a contribution to the debate on IPR and economics of science.
    Keywords: IPRs; Patent; Scientific publications; Applicability.
    Date: 2019–10–15
  6. By: Mafini Dosso (European Commission - JRC); Didier Lebert (ENSTA ParisTech, UniversiteÌ Paris-Saclay (France))
    Abstract: This exploratory study looks at the structural and geographical patterns of corporate knowledge flows from a regional perspective. The methodological approach combines the centrality indicators developed in the social network analysis (SNA) and complementary tools from the graphs theory to assess the betweenness centrality of regions (or poles)- their ability to control knowledge flows within a network or to impact its cohesiveness - and the relative contribution of individual firms (or layers) to the centrality of regions. The combination of the two approaches brings relevant insights on the way large R&D-driven firms organise their knowledge sourcing and generation across world regions
    Keywords: patent citations; knowledge flows; graphs theory; regions; top corporate R&D investors.
    JEL: L14 O33 R58
    Date: 2019–10
  7. By: Göldner, Moritz; Herstatt, Cornelius; Canhão, Helena; Oliveira, Pedro
    Abstract: Prior research has shown that some patients and caregivers such as relatives are innovating in relation to their unmet medical needs. However, there is little evidence whether and how these ideas are later implemented into market-ready solutions and subsequently commercialized. We analyze cases of patients and their caregivers becoming user entrepreneurs - persons who develop and market medical devices according to their own and/or their relatives' needs. We apply the framework of opportunity recognition and exploitation and conduct 14 case studies with medical device developers who have successfully brought their product to market. Our findings show that these innovation opportunities were mostly recognized during time-consuming and exhausting daily routines when no suitable medical device or other solutions were present. In 12 cases, the inventor founded a company to commercialize a product; in the remaining two cases, the idea was licensed after IP was secured. In all cases, the innovation had significant impacts on the quality of lives of the patients and, in case of caregivers, on both the patients and relatives. Since technical knowledge was not present in most cases, knowledgable friends and relatives were consulted and often integrated into the product development. The most prevalent motivation for further development and diffusion turned out to be the aspiration to validate the product idea and to deliver the benefits to others with the same ailment. This finding on innovation's social component complements current research on lead-users, as the solution of one's own problem was previously regarded as the key motivation. One major constraint to diffusing a medical device are regulations in the healthcare sector. Ten of 14 products in our sample were approved medical devices, with five classified as a higher-risk products and five as lower-risk products. We observe that patients and caregivers who recognize and exploit their ideas in the medical devices market did so despite particularly high market entry barriers in this sector. Few patients and caregivers were capable to bring even higher-risk medical devices to the market. This is unsurprising, because neither patients nor cargivers are experienced or trained to go through these time-consuming, demanding, and sometimes costly procedures. Healthcare companies should establish measures to support innovative patients and to systematically integrate them into their innovation processes.
    Keywords: user innovation,social innovation,user entrepreneurship,patient,caregiver,medical device,opportunity recognition,opportunity exploitation
    Date: 2019
  8. By: Holger Graf; Tom Broekel
    Abstract: Cluster policies are often intended and designed to promote interaction in R&D among co-located organisations, as local knowledge interactions are perceived to be underdeveloped. In contrast to the popularity of the policy measure little is known about its impact on knowledge networks, because most scientific evaluations focus on impacts at the firm level. Using the example of the BioRegio contest, we explore cluster policy effects on local patent co-application and co-invention networks observed from 1985 to 2013, in 17 German regions. We find that the initiative increases network size and innovation activities during the funding period but not afterwards. The impact of the BioRegio contest on network cohesion is moderate. In contrast, general project-based R&D subsidisation is found to support cohesion more robustly.
    Keywords: Cluster Policy, Knowledge Networks, Network Analysis, Patent Data, Regional Innovation, Policy Evaluation
    JEL: O31 Z13
    Date: 2019–10
  9. By: Nuvolari, Alessandro; Tartari, Valentina; Tranchero, Matteo
    Abstract: We introduce a new bibliographic quality indicator for English patents granted in the period 1700-1850. The indicator is based on the visibility of each patent both in the contemporary legal and engineering literature and in modern authoritative works on the history of science and technology. The indicator permits to operationalize empirically the distinction between micro and macroinventions. Our fi ndings indicate that macroinventions did not exhibit any speci c time clustering, while at the same time they were characterized by a labor-saving bias. These results suggest that Mokyr's and Allen's views of macroinventions, rather than conflicting, should be regarded as complementary.
    Keywords: industrial revolution; macroinventions; microinventions; patents
    JEL: N74 O31
    Date: 2019–08
  10. By: Silvia Appelt; Fernando Galindo-Rueda; Ana Cinta González Cabral
    Abstract: Investment in research and experimental development (R&D) is an important driver of innovation and economic growth. Over the past two decades, tax incentives have become a key policy instrument for promoting business R&D. This raises a number of policy questions: How has the role of tax incentives in the R&D support policy mix evolved across OECD countries and other major economies? How generous are tax relief provisions for different types of firms? How effective are they in stimulating business R&D investment? The OECD R&D Tax Incentives Database ( aims to contribute to the data infrastructure available to policy makers and researchers to examine the use and impact of R&D tax incentives across OECD countries and partner economies. This paper provides a practical guide to using this new database, describing the recently released R&D tax incentive data and highlighting their potential for internationally comparative work through descriptive indicators and econometric analysis.
    Date: 2019–10–15
  11. By: Naudé, Wim (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: This paper shows that African economies have generally not de-industrialized, that manufacturing growth is very possible, and moreover that the contribution of manufacturing in Africa has been underestimated. As far as the future is concerned, African countries will in differing degrees experience three varieties of industrialization, all influenced by new and emerging technologies. In one variety, labelled "acquiring traditional manufacturing capabilities" technological change is too fast and complex for some countries to immediately benefit, requiring an estimated 15-year window to put the complementary investments and business ecosystems in place, while promoting old-fashioned labor-intensive manufacturing. In a second variety, technological innovation is changing the nature of manufacturing and is turning services into the main sector for structural transformation. This variety is labelled "fostering sectors with the characteristics of manufacturing" to denote that services now perform functions previously expected from manufacturing. A third variety of future industrialization is labelled "resurgent entrepreneurship-lead industrialization" denoting that some African countries will take part in new and advanced types of manufacturing, through indigenous entrepreneurs starting high-technology firms. This third variety is elaborated with reference to recent examples. The paper concludes with broad suggestions for industrial policies that are consistent with these varieties of industrialization.
    Keywords: technology, entrepreneurship, manufacturing, industrial policy, Africa
    JEL: O47 O33 J24 E21 E25
    Date: 2019–10
  12. By: Grimpe, Christoph; Sofka, Wolfgang; Schulz, Philipp; Borchhardt, Geoffrey Thilo
    Abstract: Functioning markets for technology are an important determinant for the type, scope and distribution of innovation activities in an economy. However, markets for technology are often underdeveloped or inefficient. Existing theory attributes such imperfections to the supply side or differences in market designs. We know comparatively little, though, about the structural forces that shape the demand side of markets for technology. In this study, we reason that demand depends on the sectoral pattern of innovation and the distance of a country's industry to the global technological frontier. We explore these dimensions based on longitudinal industry-level data from the Community Innovation Survey. We find that the demand on markets for technology is particularly driven by science-based industries and to a lesser degree by scale-intensive industries. Demand decreases, though, the closer industries are to the technological frontier. These findings highlight sector specific opportunities and constraints for policies promoting markets for technology.
    Keywords: markets for technology,demand side,patterns of innovation,sectoral studies
    JEL: L10 O32 O34
    Date: 2019
  13. By: Johan Miorner; Gabriel Rissola (European Commission - JRC); Jens Sorvik; Joakim Wernberg
    Abstract: While digitalisation is oftentimes thought of as a global megatrend and something that transcends national borders and geographical distances, it is at the same time a very tangible process exhibiting considerable regional and sectoral variation. Against this backdrop, Digital Innovation Hubs (DIHs) (a policy initiative in the context of the Digitising European Industry (DEI) strategy of the EU) constitute an important complementary and regionally anchored policy, whose impact can be boosted if combined with other EU-wide innovation supporting initiatives (i.e. regional/national innovation strategies). After three years of the launch and successful deployment of the DIHs initiative, a survey has been conducted among DIH managers and regional policy managers working with Smart Specialisation Strategies all over the EU28. The survey provided a useful insight of the digital maturity level of the regional contexts in which DIHs operate and what role they have undertaken in their respective regions, as well as the DIHs' characteristics and activities in their regional context and other important aspects such as collaboration, strategies and funding. This report consists of a thorough analysis of the collected answers. Delivered together with a case study analysis of six (6) regional DIHs in different socio-economic contexts (separate report), they aim at providing useful evidence on current strengths, weaknesses and variations of DIHs also in view of the planning for the upcoming Digital Europe Programme (DEP) and its funding priorities.
    Keywords: Digital Innovation Hubs, DIH, Smart Specialisation Strategies, S3, RIS3, digital growth, digital transformation, digitisation, industry, SME, regional policy, survey
    Date: 2019–10
  14. By: Serafinelli, Michel (University of California, Berkeley); Tabellini, Guido (Bocconi University)
    Abstract: Creativity is often highly concentrated in time and space, and across different domains. What explains the formation and decay of clusters of creativity? In this paper we match data on thousands of notable individuals born in Europe between the XIth and the XIXth century with historical data on city institutions and population. Our main variable of interest is the number of famous creatives (scaled to local population) born in a city during a century, but we also look at famous immigrants (based on location of death). We first document several stylized facts: famous births and immigrants are spatially concentrated and clustered across disciplines, creative clusters are persistent but less than population, and spatial mobility has remained stable over the centuries. Next, we show that the emergence of city institutions protecting economic and political freedoms and promoting local autonomy facilitates the attraction and production of creative talent.
    Keywords: innovation, agglomeration, political institutions, immigration, gravity
    JEL: R10 O10 J61 J24
    Date: 2019–09

This nep-ino issue is ©2019 by Uwe Cantner. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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