nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2018‒10‒08
twenty-one papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Actor Fluidity and Knowledge Persistence in Regional Inventor Networks By Michael Fritsch; Moritz Zöllner
  2. Mobility of Highly Skilled Individuals and Local Innovation Activity By Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Karamanis, Dimitris; Sanders, Mark
  3. Globalization, Structural Change and Innovation in Emerging Economies: The Impact on Employment and Skills By Marco Vivarelli
  4. Innovation Capital By Audretsch, David; Link, Albert
  5. Information communication technologies and environmental innovations in firms: joint adoptions and productivity effects By Davide Antonioli; Grazia Cecere; Massimiliano Mazzanti
  6. Small firms in the sustainable transformation of food industry: entangling entrepreneurship and activism in grassroots innovation processes By Emilie Lanciano; Séverine Saleilles
  7. Patents For Evidence-Based Decision-Making And Smart Specialization By Bruno Brandao Fischer; Maxim Kotsemir; Dirk Meissner; Ekaterina Streltsova
  8. Is This Novel Technology Going to be a Hit? Antecedents Predicting Technological Novelty Diffusion By Michele Pezzoni; Reinhilde Veugelers; Fabiana Visentin
  9. Energy intensity, growth and technical change By Akshay Shanker; David Stern
  10. Mergers and Investments in New Products By Jullien, Bruno; Lefouili, Yassine
  11. Innovative Open Spaces Impact on New Product Development Teams By Hélène Sicotte; Andrée De Serres; Hélène Delerue; Virginie Ménard
  12. "Transatlantic technology transfer: Coal mine ventilation, 1870-1910" By John Murray; Javier Silvestre
  13. The added value of the European university campus: challenges for collecting management information By Flavia Teresa de Magdaniel; Alexandra den Heijer; Monique Arkesteijn
  14. Firms’ perceived benefits of shared facilities on Dutch science parks: empirical evidence. By Robin Junker; Wei Keat Benny Ng; Rianne Appel-Meulenbroek; Theo Arentze
  15. The Regional Emergence of Innovative Start-ups: A Research Agenda By Michael Fritsch
  16. Innovation reversing abandonment: a systematic literature review on regeneration of historic urban areas By Flavia Teresa de Magdaniel; Kaia Kask; Alexandra den Heijer; Monique Arkesteijn
  17. Shadow price of patent stock as knowledge stock: Time and country heterogeneity By Yagi, Michiyuki; Managi, Shunsuke
  18. The impact of institutions on innovation By Alexander Donges; Jean Marie Meier; Rui Silva
  19. Productivity and Firm Boundaries By Wilhelm Kohler; Marcel Smolka
  20. The Impact of New Medicines in the NHS: 70 Years of Innovation By Sampson, C.; O'Neill, P.; Lorgelly, P.
  21. How is research policy across the OECD organised?: Insights from a new policy database By Martin Borowiecki; Caroline Paunov

  1. By: Michael Fritsch (FSU Jena, School of Economics and Business Administration); Moritz Zöllner (FSU Jena, School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: The development of inventor networks is characterized by the addition of a significant number of new inventors, while a considerable number of incumbent inventors discontinue. We estimate the persistence of knowledge in regional inventor networks using alternative assumptions about knowledge transfer. Based on these estimates we analyze how the size and structure of a network may influence knowledge persistence over time. In a final step, we assess how persistent knowledge as well as the knowledge of new inventors effect the performance of regional innovation systems (RIS). The results suggest that the knowledge of new inventors is much more important for RIS performance than old knowledge that persists.
    Keywords: Innovation networks, knowledge, RandD cooperation, patents, persistence
    JEL: O3 R1 D2 D8
    Date: 2018–09–26
  2. By: Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Karamanis, Dimitris; Sanders, Mark
    Abstract: This paper studies the drivers of highly skilled migrants across space as well as their impact on local innovation activity. We focus on patent inventors, a specific typology of skilled and innovative individuals who are deeply involved in the production of innovation and are important vehicle of knowledge circulation. Employing patent data to track their moves, we use a gravity model to examine whether geographic, technological and cultural proximities between countries and country level factors and policies shape the flows of these talented individuals. As a comparison, in the same framework, we also analyze the flows of non-inventor migrants. Our evidence shows that proximity matters for migration. Gravity emerges everywhere; in the mobility of inventor and non-inventor migrant workers; the former, however, are less geographically restricted. Similarity in technological production structure between countries is the main driver of inventor moves - especially for inventors from the most innovative countries, whereas cultural proximity matters more for non-inventor migrants. Attractive country features are the quality of institutions and job opportunities at the destination as well as trade linkages between origin and destination country. Finally, the knowledge and skills that move with the inventors have an important positive impact on local innovation production.
    Keywords: inventor mobility, patents, migration, gravity, proximity
    JEL: J61 O31 O33 O52
    Date: 2018–09–07
  3. By: Marco Vivarelli
    Abstract: This paper aims to provide a critical overview of the drivers that the relevant theoretical and empirical literature suggests being crucial in dealing with the challenges an emerging country may encounter in its attempts to further catch-up a higher income status, with a particular focus devoted to the implications for the domestic labor market. In the first part of the paper, attention will be focused on structural change, capability building and technological progress, trying to map - using different taxonomies put forward by the innovation literature - the concrete ways through which an emerging country can engage a successful catching-up, having in mind that developing countries are deeply involved into globalized markets where domestic innovation has to be complemented by the role played by international technology transfer. In the second part of the paper, the focus will be moved to the possible consequences of this road to catching-up in terms of employment and skills. In particular, the prescriptions by the conventional trade theory will be contrasted with a view taking into account technology transfer, labor-saving technological progress and skill-enhancing trade.
    Keywords: catching-up, structural change, globalization, capabilities, technological transfer
    Date: 2018–09–28
  4. By: Audretsch, David (Indiana University); Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper we compare the relationship between a firm’s innovation capital and the likelihood that a firm will commercialize an invention. Our index of innovation capital is the product of the firm’s human capital, social capital, and reputational capital. We find from our empirical experiment, which uses Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) data, that innovation capital is a statistically more important entrepreneurial input to the innovation output of commercialization than any of its components.
    Keywords: innovation capital; human capital; social capital; reputational capital; entrepreneurship; commercialization;
    JEL: L31 O31 O38
    Date: 2018–09–21
  5. By: Davide Antonioli (Università degli Studi "G. D'Annunzio" di Chieti-Pescara, Italy); Grazia Cecere (Télécom Ecole de Management, Institut Mines-Télécom, Paris, France); Massimiliano Mazzanti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy)
    Abstract: Information communication technology (ICT) and environmental innovation (EI) are relevant waves of the ongoing technological revolution. We study the complementarity in innovation adoption to test the research hypothesis that the higher the diffusion and intensity of usage of ICT and EI, the higher a firm’s productivity performance might be. However, it is not certain that the use of different innovations stemming from different innovation paths generates higher productivity. To test our hypothesis we use original survey data concerning manufacturing firms in Northeast Italy including detailed information on both ICT and EI. Empirical evidence shows that there are still wide margins to improve the integration between EI and ICT in order to exploit their potential benefits on productivity. The awareness of specific synergies seems to mainly characterize the heavy polluting firms that are subject to more stringent environmental constraints, while some trade-offs tend to emerge for the remaining firms.
    Keywords: ICT, environmental innovations, polluting sectors, complementarity, labour productivity
    Date: 2018–11
  6. By: Emilie Lanciano (COACTIS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne]); Séverine Saleilles (SAF - Laboratoire de Sciences Actuarielle et Financière - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon)
    Abstract: The literature in Social Movement Theory, Organization Studies and Entrepreneurship emphasizes on the linkages between social movement action and economic organization. Indeed, social entrepreneurship and social movement studies tend to be more and more linked: activists and social entrepreneurs do not represent separate and distinct actors with different logics of action, but tend to transfer their tactics, such as framing, mobilization, protest and negation. This paper explores how activism and entrepreneurship can be combined in an innovative way by small firms in order to contribute to an industry's transformation towards sustainable development. We specially investigate the field of food industry and Alternative Food Networks. In a context of growing interest and sensitivity towards more sustainable food models, how do small firms combine activism and entrepreneurship to frame grassroots innovation processes and translate this frame into organizational model?
    Date: 2017–08
  7. By: Bruno Brandao Fischer (University of Campinas); Maxim Kotsemir (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Dirk Meissner (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Ekaterina Streltsova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper compares and contrasts the patent-based indicators, traditionally used to assess a country’s technological capacities and specialization. It seeks to determine how a chosen metric might affect the results of such an analysis, sometimes being misleading. Empirically, the paper is based on the statistical information on patent activity of the top-10 patenting countries. It concludes with a clear demonstration of the need to employ a complex of patent-related indicators to make deliberate solutions on managing technological development of a country. Also the authors offer a taxonomy of technological capacities, which might further help understanding their current status and prospects for future progress. Above the methodological implications, the paper might be of an interest for policy-makers and practitioners as it analyzes the patent profiles and technological specialization of the global leaders
    Keywords: technological development, technological specialization, patent statistics
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O34 O38 O57
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Michele Pezzoni (Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, GREDEG, France); Reinhilde Veugelers (KULeuven); Fabiana Visentin (Maastricht University; UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: Despite the high interest of scholars in identifying breakthrough inventions, little attention has been devoted to investigating how the technological content of those breakthrough inventions is re-used over time. We overcome this limitation by focusing on the dynamics of diffusion of the novel technologies incorporated in inventions. Specifically, we consider the factors affecting the time needed for a technology to be legitimated as well as its technological potential. We find that the dynamics of diffusion of a novel technology are affected by the characteristics of its building blocks, i.e. the technological components that combined together for the first time generate a novel technology. Combining similar technological components, components familiar to the inventors' community, and components with a high level of appropriability generates a technology that requires a short time to be legitimated but with a low technological potential. Combining technological components with a science-based nature generates technologies with a longer legitimation time but also higher technological potential. Finally, when large firms are the main innovative actors, novel technologies show a higher technological potential.
    Keywords: technological novelty, diffusion, combinatorial process, initial characteristics, patent data
    JEL: O33
    Date: 2018
  9. By: Akshay Shanker; David Stern
    Abstract: World and U.S. energy intensities have declined over the past century, falling at an average rate of approximately 1.2–1.5 percent a year. The decline has persisted through periods of stagnating or even falling energy prices, suggesting the decline is driven in large part by autonomous factors, independent of price changes. In this paper, we use directed technical change theory to understand the autonomous decline in energy intensity and investigate whether the decline will continue. We show in an economy with no state-dependence, where existing knowledge does not make R&D more profitable, energy intensity continues to decline, albeit at a slower rate than output growth, due to energy-augmenting innovation. However, in an economy with extreme state-dependence, energy intensity eventually stops declining because labor-augmenting innovation crowds out energy-augmenting innovation. Our empirical analysis of energy intensity in 100 countries between 1970 and 2010 suggests a scenario without extreme state dependence where energy intensity continues to decline; in either case, energy intensity never declines faster than output grows, and so energy use always increases, as long as the extraction cost of energy stays constant.
    Keywords: Energy, Directed Technological Change, Economic Growth
    JEL: O33 O41 Q43
    Date: 2018–09
  10. By: Jullien, Bruno; Lefouili, Yassine
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of a horizontal merger between two competitors on their incentives to develop new products. We show that a merger raises the incentives to innovate if and only if the merged entity's incremental gain from a second innovation is larger than the individual profit of an innovator when both firms innovate in the no-merger scenario. Applying this result to the Hotelling model, we find that a merger spurs innovation and can be beneficial to consumers if the degree of product differentiation is positive but not too high.
    Keywords: Merger Policy; Product Innovation; R&D Investments
    JEL: K21 L13 L40
    Date: 2018–08
  11. By: Hélène Sicotte; Andrée De Serres; Hélène Delerue; Virginie Ménard
    Abstract: It is a new trend in knowledge-based industries to pay attention to the physical and social aspects of their office. Workspaces for new product development (NPD) teams are meant to support creativity and innovation (Coradi et al., 2015). Our research objective is to further explore the relationship between project teams and their workspaces. Indeed ""As leaders consider their workspace needs, they should be informed of workspace fads versus workspace intent"" (Blakey, 2015, p. 107).Certain characteristics of a space stand out as having significant impact: the modularity of elements that make up meeting rooms and individual workspaces, the possibility of transforming spaces according to needs and work styles, and the connectivity and intelligence of spaces (Vischer, 2008). Employees are also affected by density, the proximity of team colleagues, privacy and control over one's environment. Kristensen (2004) concludes that spaces affect individuals' well-being, impact channels of communication and the availability of knowledge tools, and influence coherence and continuity. McElroy and Morrow (2010) argue that changing a workplace layout can have a number of positive impacts. It can nurture lateral relationships among individuals on the same team or different teams, which in turn fosters innovation and creativity. To summarize, the literature points to positive effects between the physical and architectural characteristics of the space dedicated to project teams. Part of this influence is supposed to come from the impact on communication and collaboration (aggregated to team integration) between members and sub-teams, which improves their creativity and effectiveness. We report here the results of survey of ten teams in the same companie but different locations. The tested model includes two dependent variables: team creativity and effectiveness and a mediating variable: team integration. The independent variables are space variety, interior environment quality, satisfaction with large meeting room, project commitment, IT environment, workstation. Control variable is team size. The Cronbach's alpha are good ranging from 74.1 to 87.6. Our main results support the literature: the impact of innovative spaces on the efficiency and creativity of teams go through their effect on integration (measured by collaboration and communication).
    Keywords: corporate property management; Innovation; Open Space; team-based workplace; workplace creativity
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2018–01–01
  12. By: John Murray (Rhodes College); Javier Silvestre (University of Zaragoza)
    Abstract: "The Great Divergence debate emphasized the “geographic good luck” of European proximity to coal deposits. We consider the role, not of luck, but of the development and diffusion of coal production technology. Mechanical ventilation began as a response to methane risks in Belgian mines and soon spread to the Ruhr valley, Great Britain and Pennsylvania, all places considered in this paper. Engineers tested different machines and publicized the results, which were translated in the mining press elsewhere. Property rights to innovation proved flexible when necessary. Mechanical mine ventilation exemplified the best of Western industrial science: inquisitive, open, flexible, and responsive to empirical results whether good or bad. It was not luck but the Western approach to new technology that enabled coal exploitation."
    JEL: N00
    Date: 2018–04
  13. By: Flavia Teresa de Magdaniel; Alexandra den Heijer; Monique Arkesteijn
    Abstract: Universities are key agents in the knowledge-based economy and their campuses are increasingly seen as resources enabling regional innovation. Previous research outlining the university campus as a European asset (Den Heijer & Tzovlas, 2014) collected various indicators about universities’ goals, finances, users and spaces across 866 European universities. This research also found limitations for comparison (e.g. differences in university types, socio-economic contexts and data collection techniques). Both, the value of such management information and challenges to collect comparable data are addressed here. This paper aims to compare campus management information (CMI) in universities of technology located in Europe’s innovative regions. This scope allows comparing campus management in universities with a similar knowledge-base and located in similar socio-economic contexts. In order to do so, this research asks: What is the current state of the tech-campus in Europe’s most innovative regions?Four perspectives of campus management were used to develop a structured survey targeting 1) university country organisations and 2) university real estate management departments. The survey containing 19 indicators across the four perspectives was sent via email in spreadsheet format. The review of documents and statistical datasets generated by country organisations was also used as data source. Available data from country documents and statistics datasets focused on one or two types of indicators. From 62 universities contacted in 12 countries, 13 universities in 8 countries agreed to participate. The respondents provided most of the indicators and/or sent links to relevant documents to retrieve them. However, the overview of the current state of the tech-campus in Europe is limited to this relatively small sample of respondents. Although the added value of the campus for universities and Europe is relevant, collecting CMI to improve this practice is still a challenge for CREM researchers. First, the indicators in our framework integrate various perspectives and their collection may be challenged by the availability of CMI in different departments. Second, some universities may lack structural information databases and do not want to share incomplete data for comparison. Last, the benefits of collecting CMI may not (yet) seem to exceed the costs of investing time on it in absence of structured databases. These lessons can be used to improve further research.
    Keywords: campus management; European Universities; Management Information; Strategic Management; University Campus
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2018–01–01
  14. By: Robin Junker; Wei Keat Benny Ng; Rianne Appel-Meulenbroek; Theo Arentze
    Abstract: Science parks as area developments have existed for decades and have captivated the attention of academics and policy-makers for their supposedly positive impact on resident organisations and regions. To date there is mixed empirical evidence to indicate the performance enhancing effects of specific science park features on research & development, economic output or improved collaboration between users. Furthermore, limited attention is given to the demands and perceptions of science park users. This study focuses on one of the main features of science parks, namely the shared facilities and services on-site and how users perceive the benefits of these facilities.An online survey is distributed to 594 resident organisations on eight science parks in the Netherlands to which 112 participated. Within the questionnaire respondents are inquired on organisational characteristics in order to distinguish tenant types through clustering on aspects, such as R&D activity, organisation size, sector diversity. Then respondents indicate the benefits they perceive for specific presented shared facilities and services retrieved from science park literature based on their importance. Finally, respondents indicated meaningful associations between shared facilities and benefits. Results show that among resident organisations three distinguishable clusters emerge; ‘non-R&D organisations’, ‘R&D start-ups’, and ‘R&D small-medium enterprises’ with each cluster mentioning different benefits that they value . In general, knowledge sharing and on-site collaboration are most frequently mentioned as important science park benefits and are mostly associated to training programs and information access. Both ‘R&D start-ups’ and ‘non-R&D organisations’ value the opportunity to be near customers for different reasons, while ‘R&D small medium entrepreneurs’ perceive social events as a means to be close to the university or other higher educational institutions. The associations between various types of shared facilities and benefits that residents seek provide insights for practitioners in terms of the design and management of science parks and add to the body of knowledge of science park literature.
    Keywords: Perceived Benefits; Quantitative Analysis; science parks; Shared Facilities
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2018–01–01
  15. By: Michael Fritsch (FSU Jena)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the empirical evidence concerning the regional emergence of innovative new businesses. It is argued that analyses using aggregate data that focus on the regional level and do not account for career patterns of innovative founders are of limited value in guiding policy that is aimed at fostering the emergence of innovative new businesses. Progress can be mainly expected from research that investigates the family backgrounds, education, and employment careers of potential founders. Moreover, it would be helpful to develop clearer empirical definitions of what constitutes an innovative new business, and the distinctions between different types of innovative businesses.
    Keywords: Innovative start-ups, universities, employment career
    JEL: L26 D22 O31 R12 R30
    Date: 2018–09–24
  16. By: Flavia Teresa de Magdaniel; Kaia Kask; Alexandra den Heijer; Monique Arkesteijn
    Abstract: The abandonment and decay of urban historic areas, including heritage buildings, has been a major challenge in cities. This process is the result of the co-evolution of social, economic and technological developments experienced by industrialised countries, in adopting the knowledge-based economy. Some of these areas have been targeted as urban renewal projects, while others remained vacant and abandoned. For the latter, a focus on innovation in cities has presented an opportunity to shine again in redefined ways. Recently, some historic areas have been brought back to life by accommodating research and entrepreneurial activities. Based on these posted novel views, there has been drawn upon also the recommendations by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO 2011) for the management of historic urban landscapes (HULs) (Berg 2017) or areas. In addition, those recommendations have been started to take into account and successfully implement also in several EU-level topical projects (e.g., Horizon 2020) as a leading course of actions. Although implementing regeneration processes has not always been successful, the transformation of historic areas into innovation hubs seems to offer the potential to deal with challenges such as social tension, gentrification, and over-reliance on unpredictable sectors. The presence of creative sectors, students, start-ups, social innovation, and cultural activities are seen as factors to reap the potential of regenerating these areas into innovation hubs. However, more research into these factors is needed. This paper aims to identify the critical factors to successfully regenerate historic urban areas and looks at the potential role of universities and other stakeholders facilitating the transformation of these areas into innovation hubs. Thus, this paper asks: What are the critical factors to regenerate historic urban areas and what is the current/future role of universities in it?Through a systematic literature review and a conceptual analysis, this paper seeks to identify the current state-of-the-art in urban regeneration of historic urban areas, linking various theories and fields of studies explaining the phenomenon. The outcome of this paper is a conceptual model providing an overview of the strong and weak foundations of urban regeneration to set the course of future empirical research into the role of universities.
    Keywords: Heritage; historic urban areas; innovation hubs; universities; Urban Regeneration
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2018–01–01
  17. By: Yagi, Michiyuki; Managi, Shunsuke
    Abstract: This study compares the shadow price (marginal cost) and shadow value (total cost) of patent stock (as knowledge stock) in each of 92 countries between 1992 and 2010. Two specifications are considered in the data envelopment analysis approach. One specification considers population, capital, patent stock, energy use (four inputs), greenhouse gas (undesirable output), and gross domestic product (desirable output). The other uses human capital and natural capital instead of population and energy use. Under these two specifications, respectively, the shadow price of the patent stock (on weighted average) for the whole period is −0.106 and −0.054 million US dollars per patent in the entire sample. Similarly, the shadow value of the patent stock (by the ratio of gross domestic product) in the entire sample is −5.8% and −2.9%, respectively. As the standing position of patent stock, the patent stock is less valuable than human capital and (produced) capital but more valuable than population, energy use, and natural capital. The patent stock also is likely to be valuable in developing countries. In addition, the shadow value of the patent stock is relatively high in certain large countries and nearly flat in most of the countries.
    Keywords: Data envelopment analysis; Patent stock; Shadow price; Inclusive wealth index
    JEL: C14 O34 O44
    Date: 2018
  18. By: Alexander Donges (University of Mannheim); Jean Marie Meier (University of Texas at Dallas); Rui Silva (London Business School)
    Abstract: "We study the impact of inclusive institutions on innovation using novel, hand- collected, county-level data for Imperial Germany. We use the timing and geography of the French occupation of different German regions after the French Revolution as an instrument for institutional quality. We find that the number of patents per capita was more than twice as high in counties with the longest occupation as in unoccupied counties. The impact of institutions on innovation is amplified in counties with a devel- oped banking sector, suggesting that financial development and inclusive institutions are complements in the production of innovation."
    Keywords: "Innovation, Patents, Institutions, Institutional Reform, Economic Growth"
    JEL: G38 O31 O43 N13 K40
    Date: 2017–04
  19. By: Wilhelm Kohler; Marcel Smolka
    Abstract: This paper develops and applies a test of the property rights theory of the firm in the context of global input sourcing. We use the model by Pol Antràs and Elhanan Helpman, “Global Sourcing," Journal of Political Economy, 112:3 (2004), 552-80, to derive a new prediction regarding how the productivity of a firm affects its choice between vertical integration and outsourcing and how this effect depends on the relative input intensity of the production process. The prediction we derive hinges on less restrictive assumptions than industry-level predictions available in existing literature and survives in more realistic versions of the model featuring multiple suppliers and partial vertical integration. We present robust firm-level evidence from Spain showing that, in line with our prediction, the effect of productivity works more strongly in favor of vertical integration, and against outsourcing, in more headquarter-intensive industries.
    Keywords: global sourcing, incomplete contracts, property rights theory, firm productivity
    JEL: F12 F19 F23 L22 L23
    Date: 2018
  20. By: Sampson, C.; O'Neill, P.; Lorgelly, P.
    Abstract: The NHS in England and Wales came into existence on the 5th July 1948. It provided coverage for a range of approved medical and pharmaceutical interventions. This resulted in rapid growth in the use of medicines and improved public health with its associated improvements in economic growth and development. This OHE Consulting Report demonstrates the contribution and impact of medicines to the health economy in the UK throughout the 70 year history of the NHS. Through interviews with experts we identified a shortlist of the most important medicines to have been brought to market, and from a review of the literature and evidence base we attempt to quantify the benefits of these key medicines in terms of health and economic outcomes. We additionally consider the broader impact of medicines and drug development to the health care environment. Our interviews with experts identified a shortlist of ten important new medicines introduced in the NHS in the last 70 years. These were selected from a longer list of 37 on the basis of the frequency that they were cited by interviewees and the strength of feeling about the magnitude of their positive impact in the NHS. Our evidence search identified a variety of benefits encompassing improvement in clinical outcomes, survival benefits, quality of life improvement, greater health service efficiency, and wider societal impacts. Our analysis of the interviews identified seven themes, each representing a factor that has played an important role in determining the impact of new medicines. These themes highlight a variety of ways in which policymakers can facilitate positive impact from new medicines. Their role should be considered in the use of medicines in the NHS over the next 70 years and for new medicines currently in the development pipeline.
    Keywords: Economics of innovation
    JEL: I1
    Date: 2018–08–01
  21. By: Martin Borowiecki; Caroline Paunov
    Abstract: Building on a newly created policy indicator database, this paper provides a first systematic comparison of the governance of public research policy across 35 OECD countries from 2005 to 2017. The database was obtained following a three-year process that involved the development of an ontology of the governance of public research policy as well as data collection and validation by national authorities. The data show diverse institutions and mechanisms of policy action regarding higher education institutions (HEIs) and public research institutes (PRIs) are in place across the 35 OECD countries. The data also shows an increasing use of project funding, performance contracts and performance evaluations for HEIs and PRIs. In many countries, HEIs and PRIs are autonomous regarding their relations with industry, budget allocation but less frequently regarding salaries. Recent reforms have strengthened external stakeholders' participation in their governance. The database is publicly available on the following webpage:
    Keywords: cross-country policy indicators, governance of research policy, higher education institutions (HEIs) and public research institutes (PRIs), Innovation and research policy, OECD countries
    JEL: H11 I23 I28 O38
    Date: 2018–10–05

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