nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2018‒09‒17
ten papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. International R&D Spillovers, Innovation by Learning from Abroad and Medium-Run Fluctuations By Toshihiro Okada
  2. Money for Something: The Links between Research Funding and Innovation By Glennon, Britta; Lane, Julia; Sodhi, Ridhima
  3. Corporate R&D and the performance of foodprocessing firms: Evidence from Europe, Japan and North America By Hockmann, Heinrich; Garzon Delvaux, Pedro Andres; Voigt, Peter; Ciaian, Pavel; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio
  4. Should there be lower taxes on patent income? By Fabian Gaessler; Bronwyn H. Hall; Dietmar Harhoff
  5. Inter-industry Differences in Organisational Eco-innovation : a panel data study By Martínez Ros, Ester; Kesidou, Effie; García-Quevedo, Jose
  6. SOCIAL INNOVATION: THE CASE OF HIGHER EDUCATION By Diana Forero Toloza; Edna Rocío Bravo Ibarra
  7. Heterogeneous Gains From Agricultural Innovation Adoption: The Role Of The Price Effect In Peru By Bonjean, Isabelle
  8. The measurement of the innovativeness of health tourism services using an adequacy matrix title of the article By Eugenia Panfiluk; Elżbieta Szymańska
  9. Impact of Technical Innovations to Protect Resources: The Case of Plaice in the EU By Salamon, P.; Angulo, L.
  10. Agricultural R&D Investments, Biofuel Policy And Food Security – A CGE Analysis By Smeets Kristkova, Zuzana; Smeets, Edward; Van Meijl, Hans

  1. By: Toshihiro Okada (School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University)
    Abstract: Many developed economies experienced large and correlated fluctuations in the medium run during the postwar period. A good number of industrialized countries experienced high productivity growth during the 1960s and low growth between the early 1970s and the early 1980s. This paper develops a model of medium-run fluctuations incorporating research and development (R&D)-based endogenous growth and international R&D spillovers from a technologically leading country to a technologically lagging country. An important feature of the model is that a key role of the lagging country's R&D is innovation by leaning (IBL) from abroad. After calibration using U.S. and Japanese data, the model shows that changes in U.S.R&D expenditure alone can substantially explain Japan's medium-run fluctuations.The paper argues that the diffusion of U.S. innovations (generated by U.S. R&D) to Japan plays an important role in determining Japan's medium-run fluctuations
    Keywords: International R&D spillovers, technology diffusion, endogenous growth, medium-run fluctuations.
    JEL: E32 O19 O33 O41
    Date: 2018–09
  2. By: Glennon, Britta (Carnegie Mellon University); Lane, Julia (New York University); Sodhi, Ridhima (New York University)
    Abstract: Federal research funding to universities is often based on a desire to stimulate innovation – so that they spend taxpayer money for "something". There is growing understanding of the need to change the structure of research funding in order to do so; less is known about the effectiveness of different organizational structures. Yet, as Jones has pointed out, increasing the efficiency with which we transfer knowledge from one generation to the next could have important implications for innovation and productivity growth. In this paper we use new data to examine how the main organizational structure used to train the next generation of scientists and inventors – teams funded by research grants – leads to innovative activity as measured by patents.
    Keywords: UMETRICS, innovation, patents, research policy, teams
    JEL: O30 O31 O38
    Date: 2018–07
  3. By: Hockmann, Heinrich; Garzon Delvaux, Pedro Andres; Voigt, Peter; Ciaian, Pavel; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of corporate research and development (R&D) on firm performance in the foodprocessing industry. We apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with two step bootstrapping using a corporate data for 307 food-processing firms from the EU, US, Canada and Japan for the period 1991–2009. The estimates suggest that R&D has a positive effect on the firms’ performance, with marginal gains decreasing in the R&D level as well as the performance differences are detected across regions and food sectors. R&D investments in food processing can deliver productivity gains, beyond the high-tech sectors generally favoured by innovation policy.
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2017–08–28
  4. By: Fabian Gaessler (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Bronwyn H. Hall (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of California, Berkeley); Dietmar Harhoff (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Munich)
    Abstract: A “patent box” is a term for the application of a lower corporate tax rate to the income derived from the ownership of patents. This tax subsidy instrument has been introduced in a number of countries since 2000. Using comprehensive data on patent filings at the European Patent Office, including information on ownership transfers pre- and post-grant, we investigate the impact of the introduction of a patent box on international patent transfers, on the choice of ownership location, and on invention in the relevant country. We find that the impact on transfers is small but present, especially when the tax instrument contains a development condition and for high value patents (those most likely to have generated income), but that invention itself is not affected. This calls into question whether the patent box is an effective instrument for encouraging innovation in a country, rather than simply facilitating the shifting of corporate income to low tax jurisdictions.
    Keywords: patent box, IP box, innovation tax, BEPS, EPO, invention incentive, patent ownership
    Date: 2018–07–25
  5. By: Martínez Ros, Ester; Kesidou, Effie; García-Quevedo, Jose
    Abstract: Building on insights from institutional theory, the resource-based view of the firm, and internationalisation, we seek to explain the variation in the adoption of organisational eco-innovations such as environmental management systems (EMS) across sectors in Spain in the period 2009&-2014. Previous studies on eco-innovation report that regulatory push/pull, technology-push, market-pull, and firm factors are drivers of this process. However, this literature pays relatively little attention to non-technological forms of eco-innovation, such as EMS. As a result, just how EMS adoption can be encouraged across sectors remains unclear in the innovation literature. Here, we seek to address this problem by combining data from the following sources: the Spanish Technological Innovation Panel, the International Standardisation Organisation (ISO) survey, the Industry Survey, the Environmental Protection Survey, and the Air Emissions Account. The results of the econometric analysis of panel data reveal that, first, coercive institutional pressures are driving the adoption of EMS reflecting differences across sectors in energy and pollution intensity. Second, the adoption of ISO 9000 &- a highly institutionalised system of quality management &- increases the adoption of EMS in each industry because of complementarities between the two systems. Third, sectors with a high percentage of internationalised firms operate a higher number of EMS.
    Keywords: EMS; Panel data; Internationalisation; Institutional theory; Eco-innovation
    JEL: Q58 Q50 O30
    Date: 2018–09
  6. By: Diana Forero Toloza (Universidad Industrial de Santander); Edna Rocío Bravo Ibarra (Universidad Industrial de Santander)
    Abstract: Social problems arise when communities are identified that do not have access to the labor market, public services, access to housing, drinking water, electrical solutions or other needs specific to their environment. During the last decades, the need to do things differently has increased, either by reversing climate change, creating more inclusive societies or reducing poverty. Therefore, both the public and private sectors consider Social Innovation as a tool that allows generating innovative solutions to problems such as poverty reduction and the improvement of the living conditions of the population. In response to these challenges, Social Innovation has become a relevant topic of research for the research community, academics, politicians, networks, funds and government institutions that have focused their policies specifically on the support and promotion of these innovations aimed at the generation and implementation of new ideas to solve challenges in communities within social systems. For the case of Higher Education, it is particularly interesting, given that these institutions not only have the purpose of transmitting knowledge, but also create economic and social value through the transfer of their teaching and research results to the community. During the last decades, given the international declarations on Higher Education of UNESCO (1998 - 2009), the awareness of the universities has increased with respect to their responsibility to put at the service of the whole community their knowledge and resources. Likewise, they must assume the challenge of articulating knowledge with society to generate the conditions that the world of the 21st century really demands. Exposed the above, social innovation has ceased to be an alternative to become a priority in the agenda of foundations, organizations and companies and of course Universities as engines of economic and social development.
    Keywords: Social Innovation, Higher Education and Knowledge transfer
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2018–06
  7. By: Bonjean, Isabelle
    Abstract: In conditions of poor soil fertility and increasing importance of global value chain, agricultural extension projects have been one of the main channel to increase farmer’s production and income. In the literature assessing the return to these innovations, prices received by farmers for their production are usually assumed to be homogeneous. We dispute this over-simplification: prices and production levels in developing countries are often jointly determined. The analysis relies on an extension programme in the Peruvian highlands, where the main income source is the dairy sector characterised by a highly segmented market. A simple theoretical model is developed to show how the segmented market conditions, i.e. price levels, induce non-linear return to the investment and affect the incentive to innovate. The econometric analysis confirms the propositions derived from the model: producers that were not included in the formal market at baseline, but close to it, have more intensively innovated. The consequence of this investment is a higher price increase than the rest of the population, creating heterogeneous impact of the programme and social mobility.
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2017–08–29
  8. By: Eugenia Panfiluk (Białystok University of Technology); Elżbieta Szymańska (Białystok University of Technology)
    Abstract: The main aim of the article is to identify the optimum measures of the innovativeness of providers of health tourism services. Two detailed objectives were set out: the identification of the measures of innovative activities and the identification of the measures of the effects of innovative activities implemented by respondents. The measurement covered two areas: the involvement in innovative activities and the effects of these activities. Two research hypotheses were verified: Hypothesis 1 – The optimum measure of the involvement of providers of health tourism services in innovative activities is a separate budget earmarked for the implementation of innovations; Hypothesis 2-The optimum measure of the effects of innovations introduced is a higher number of commercial tourists using the services of a given enterprise. 438 providers of health tourism services in Poland took part in the research with using methods of a diagnostic survey and a telephone interview. An adequacy matrix was used to analyse the 15 innovation measures selected in an expert (Delphi) survey. As a result five optimum measures were determined, the most important of which was the elaboration of a strategy for introducing innovation and a higher number of tourists as the effect of innovative activities.
    Keywords: health tourism,tourism,innovations,service innovativeness
    Date: 2017–06–30
  9. By: Salamon, P.; Angulo, L.
    Abstract: The paper analyses effects in the European fish sector which might occur due to technological innovations (pulse trawling in the case plaice) introduced under a regime of output controls to protect fish resources using. A partial equilibrium model (AGMEMOD) which covers among other agri-food products also 8 different fish categories is applied to conduct model simulations for the EU countries and some additional neighbouring countries European countries and the Rest of the world. The paper concentrates on plaice because the categories comprises very few fish species which allows to implement fish quotas and well as technological innovation. Therefore, this technology should contribute with the biomass protection as well as it proclaimed to increase fisher’s profits. Hence, model results indicate production increases may occur due to slight bio mass growth or cost decline until quotas are reached. Hence, all production growth will affect future prices negatively as expected growth of use in European countries is lower than production growth. The implementation of the pulse will enhance the currently existing price pressure whereas the impacts will vary significantly across the different European countries, affected by the size of the margin and the share of energy cost in total cost.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2018–07
  10. By: Smeets Kristkova, Zuzana; Smeets, Edward; Van Meijl, Hans
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibilities and limitations of avoiding the undesirable effects of energy crops on land use and food security by increasing agricultural productivity through investments in R&D. An extended version of the MAGNET CGE model is used to model the R&D investments in agriculture to compensate the effects of 15 EJ to 100 EJ biomass supply from woody and grassy energy crop plantations. We conclude that investments in agriculture R&D are a potentially effective and low-cost strategy, but early planning and timing of bioenergy policies with investments in R&D in agriculture is essential.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2017–08–29

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