nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2018‒08‒20
25 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Fostering place-based innovation and internationalization – the new turn in German technology policy By Dohse, Dirk; Fornahl, Dirk; Vehrke, Julian
  2. Growth through acquisition of innovations By Galina Besstremyannaya; Richard Dasher; Sergei Golovan
  3. Innovation clusters effects on adoption of a general purpose technology under uncertainty By Iritié, B. G. Jean Jacques
  4. Should There Be Lower Taxes on Patent Income? By Fabian Gaessler; Bronwyn H. Hall; Dietmar Harhoff
  5. Boosting productivity and preparing for the future of work in Germany By Naomitsu Yashiro; Stephanie Lehmann
  6. The IT Revolution and the Globalization of R&D By Lee G. Branstetter; Britta M. Glennon; J. Bradford Jensen
  7. Consumption-led Growth By Markus Brunnermeier; Oleg Itskhoki; Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas
  8. Public Contracting for Private Innovation: Government Expertise, Decision Rights, and Performance Outcomes By Joshua R. Bruce; John M. de Figueiredo; Brian S. Silverman
  9. Conglomerate Mergers and Entry in Innovative Industries By Federico Etro
  10. Is Intrapreneurship Scalable? The Challenge Of Managing A Massive Internal Startup Call By Sophie Hooge; Cédric Dalmasso; Frédéric Garcias
  11. Innovation and the Patterns of Trade: A Firm-Level Analysis By Ana Maria Santacreu; Liliana Varela
  12. How Do Travel Costs Shape Collaboration? By Christian Catalini; Christian Fons-Rosen; Patrick Gaulé
  13. The art hub in the World Heritage Site, Georgetown: a case study of creative sector entrepreneurship in the context of gentrification By Chen, Shih-Yu; Piterou, Athena; Khoo, Suet Leng; Chan, Jin H.
  14. Guiding investments in place-based development. Priority setting in regional innovation strategies By Gunter Clar
  15. The local effects of an innovation: Evidence from the French fish market By Laurent Gobillon; Wolff Francois Charles
  16. The Anti-Recessionary Potential of Eco-Innovations as a Dominant of Environmental Security and a Factor Reducing the Risks of Climate Change By Lipina, Svetlana (Липина, Светлана); Agapova, Elena (Агапова, Елена); Lipina, Alexandra (Липина, Александра)
  17. Financial Frictions, Cyclical Fluctuations and the Innovative Nature of New Firms By Christoph Albert; Andrea Caggese
  18. Reflections on Agricultural R&D, Productivity, and the Data Constraint: Unfinished Business, Unsettled Issues By Alston, Julian M.
  19. Determinants of the Survival Ratio for De Jure Standards: AI-related technologies and interaction with patents By TAMURA Suguru
  20. Addressing the innovation gap: Lessons from the Stairway to Excellence (S2E) project By Nida Kamil Ozbolat; Nicholas Harrap
  21. The globalisation of corporate R&D: Evidence from German environmental technology companies By Gandenberger, Carsten
  22. RIO Country Report 2017: Ireland By Declan Jordan; Peter Fako
  23. Platform Overthrow: uncovering the critical role of functional extension and generic technology By Maxime Thomas; Le Masson Pascal; Legrand Julien; Benoit Weil
  24. An Integrative Framework for Entrepreneurship Research in Africa By Richard Adu-Gyamfi; John Kuada; Simplice Asongu
  25. Sustainability-oriented Business Model Innovation: Context and Drivers By Moliterni, Fabio

  1. By: Dohse, Dirk; Fornahl, Dirk; Vehrke, Julian
    Abstract: Since the mid-1990s German technology policy has experienced a paradigmatic shift from standard grant schemes towards a region-oriented and competition-based R&D policy. Currently, a new policy experiment, the InterClust contest, is under way, trying to simultaneously foster place-based innovation, R&D internationalization and the internationalization of innovative places. The current paper analyses the new policy, relating it to the recent literatures on heterogeneous firms and on cluster-life cycles, and presents results from a firm survey performed in 21 winner regions of InterClust. Findings show that the new funding scheme takes insights from recent theoretical developments into account and addresses important impediments to firm and cluster internationalization. Although it is too early for an overall assessment, it is argued that the long-term impact will critically depend on the inflow of heterogeneous knowledge and the strength of intra-regional mobilization effects.
    Keywords: industrial clusters,knowledge spillovers,technology policy
    JEL: O30 R11
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Galina Besstremyannaya (Centre for Economic and Financial Research at New Economic School); Richard Dasher (Stanford University); Sergei Golovan (New Economic School)
    Abstract: The paper develops a growth model with acquisition of endogenous innovations. The model builds on the microeconomic evidence about acquisitions in the technology economy: acquirers are innovative firms, which regard acquisitions as a complementary strategy to their R&D investment. Targets are small firms and leaders on the markets for their products. Acquirers are capable of implementing a higher quality improvement of the products of the targets. The model includes the government, which collects corporate profit tax and redistributes it to provide subsidies for innovations and acquisitions. We quantify the model using the 2000-2016 financial data for Japanese firms, matched with their patents. The estimates prove the model's predictions about a positive effect of acquisitions on growth. The impact of acquisitions on the R&D intensity is related to the type of complementarity between innovation and acquisition strategies. The effect of subsidies towards the acquisitions is linked to the parameters of the cost function and reflects the association between the costs of acquisitions and R&D.
    Keywords: innovation, endogenous growth, acquisition, social planner, patents
    JEL: O11 O38 O40 O53
    Date: 2018–08
  3. By: Iritié, B. G. Jean Jacques
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of innovation clusters on the adoption of a gen- eral purpose technology (GPT) and on firms R&D investment levels in im- perfect information situation. To do this, we developed a theoretical model of vertical relation, described as a four-step game between an upstream firm providing innovative GPT and an innovative downstream associated sector, integrator of this technology. The downstream sector ignores the quality of the GPT and we model the innovation cluster as a coordination mode of firms, improving the probability of the downstream firm to receive information about the quality of the GPT technology. Then, we determine firms equilibria (prices and technological qualities) and we showed that the effect of innovation clus- ters on the choice of qualities, the adoption behavior, levels of investment in R&D as well as that social welfare depends on the quality of R&D activities carried out before the establishment of the cluster and a threshold effect or cluster critical mass; if the critical mass in terms of information sharing and interaction is not reached, the cluster may have negative effects. In other words, the consensual idea of expected positive effects of innovation clusters must be put into perspective.
    Keywords: innovation clusters,general purpose technology,technology adoption,technology complementarity,uncertainty,critical mass
    JEL: C02 D82 D83 L15 O3
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Fabian Gaessler; Bronwyn H. Hall; Dietmar Harhoff
    Abstract: A “patent box” is a term for the application of a lower corporate tax rate to the income derived from the ownership of patents. This tax subsidy instrument has been introduced in a number of countries since 2000. Using comprehensive data on patent filings at the European Patent Office, including information on ownership transfers pre- and post-grant, we investigate the impact of the introduction of a patent box on international patent transfers, on the choice of ownership location, and on invention in the relevant country. We find that the impact on transfers is small but present, especially when the tax instrument contains a development condition and for high value patents (those most likely to have generated income), but that invention itself is not affected. This calls into question whether the patent box is an effective instrument for encouraging innovation in a country, rather than simply facilitating the shifting of corporate income to low tax jurisdictions.
    JEL: H25 H32 K34 O34
    Date: 2018–07
  5. By: Naomitsu Yashiro; Stephanie Lehmann
    Abstract: This paper reviews policies to strengthen Germany’s productivity growth and prepare for changes in labour markets brought about by new technologies. This paper also discusses how social protection and the bargaining framework should be reformed for the future of work. Germany enjoys a relatively high labour productivity level but productivity growth has been modest in recent years. There is room to boost productivity growth by accelerating the diffusion of new technologies throughout the economy. Vigorous entrepreneurship and innovation by small and medium enterprises are key for such technology diffusion while strong broadband and mobile networks widen the scope of data-intensive technologies that can be exploited to increase productivity. Widespread use of new technologies will bring about significant changes in skill demand and work arrangements. As in many countries, Germany saw a decline in the share of middle-skilled jobs in employment. A relatively high share of jobs is expected to be automated or undergo significant changes in task contents as a result of technological change. New technologies are also likely to increase individuals engaging in new forms of work, such as gig work intermediated by digital platforms. Such workers are less covered by public social safety nets such as unemployment insurance than regular employment.
    Keywords: automation, digital platform, entrepreneurship, Productivity, self-employment, technology diffusion
    JEL: J23 J24 J29 O33 O38 O43 O52
    Date: 2018–08–17
  6. By: Lee G. Branstetter; Britta M. Glennon; J. Bradford Jensen
    Abstract: Since the 1990s, R&D has become less geographically concentrated, and has seen especially fast growth in emerging markets. One of the distinguishing features of the R&D globalization phenomenon is its concentration within the software/IT domain; the increase in foreign R&D has been largely concentrated within software and IT-intensive multinationals, and new R&D destinations are also more software and IT-intensive multinationals than traditional R&D destinations. In this paper we document three important phenomena: (1) the globalization of R&D, (2) the growing importance of software and IT to firm innovation, and (3) the rise of new R&D hubs. We argue that the shortage in software/IT-related human capital resulting from the large IT- and software-biased shift in innovation drove US MNCs abroad, and particularly drove them abroad to “new hubs” with large quantities of STEM workers who possessed IT and software skills. Our findings support the view that the globalization of US multinational R&D has reinforced the technological leadership of US-based firms in the information technology domain and that multinationals’ ability to access a global talent base could support a high rate of innovation even in the presence of the rising (human) resource cost of frontier R&D.
    JEL: F23 O32 O57
    Date: 2018–06
  7. By: Markus Brunnermeier (Princeton University); Oleg Itskhoki (Princeton University); Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas (UC Berkeley)
    Abstract: What is the relationship between trade and current account openness and growth? Can a catching-up economy borrow like Argentina or Spain and grow like China? To address these questions, we develop a model of endogenous converge growth, which we study under various policy regimes regarding trade and capital account openness. In the model, entrepreneurs adopt heterogenous projects based on their profitability. Trade openness has two effects on the relative profitability of tradable projects. First, the foreign competition effect unambiguously discourages tradable innovation. Second, the relative market size effect may favor or discourage tradable innovation. We show that balanced trade ensures that the two effects exactly offset each other, while trade deficits unambiguously favor non-tradable innovation. The increase in domestic consumption associated with international borrowing results in a relative market size effect that reinforces the foreign competition effect to discourage tradable innovation, as well as the aggregate innovation rate and the pace of productivity convergence. We further show that net exports relative to domestic absorption is a sufficient statistic for the feedback effect from aggregate allocation into sectoral productivity growth, and we find empirical support for the predictions of the model in the panel of sectoral productivity growth rates in OECD countries. A sudden stop in capital flows during the transition phase results simultaneously in a recession due to a fall in local demand and a sharp rebound in tradable productivity growth, provided the labor market can adjust flexibly via a sharp decline in the wage rate.
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Joshua R. Bruce; John M. de Figueiredo; Brian S. Silverman
    Abstract: We examine how the U.S. Federal Government governs R&D contracts with private-sector firms. The government chooses between two contractual forms: grants and cooperative agreements. The latter provides the government substantially greater discretion over, and monitoring of, project progress. Using novel data on R&D contracts and on the geo-location and technical expertise of each government scientist over a 12-year period, we test implications from the organizational economics and contracting literatures. We find that cooperative agreements are more likely to be used for early-stage projects and those for which local government scientific personnel have relevant technical expertise; in turn, cooperative agreements yield greater innovative output as measured by patents, controlling for endogeneity of contract form. The results are consistent with multi-task agency and transaction-cost approaches that emphasize decision rights and monitoring.
    JEL: H11 H57 L14 L24 L33 O32
    Date: 2018–06
  9. By: Federico Etro (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari; University of Florence; C.R.A)
    Abstract: I study a merger between producers of complement inputs facing entry of superior inputs, with investment by the incumbents in deterministic cost reduction and by the entrants in probabilistic innovation, and competition in prices. The merger is profitable by solving Cournot complementarity problems in investment and pricing, and has positive (negative) effects on R&D by the incumbents (entrants). With inelastic demand the merger harms consumers if the incumbents are efficient enough even without bundling, and always when a commitment to bundling is adopted. Instead, with a demand elastic enough, the merger increases consumer surplus even when a commitment to pure bundling is feasible.
    Keywords: Mergers, R&D, Cournot complementarity, bundling, antitrust in high-tech industries
    JEL: L1 L4
    Date: 2018
  10. By: Sophie Hooge (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Cédric Dalmasso (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Frédéric Garcias (IAE Lille - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Lille - Université de Lille, Sciences et Technologies)
    Abstract: Intrapreneurship has long been identified as a means to increase the ability of firms to innovate. But can it, beyond exceptional champions, serve as a basis for the development of an innovation function capable of producing sustained radical innovation? In practice, the space of " deviance " left to collaborators for local initiatives favors more problem solving than radical innovation, and duos of champions & sponsors are too few to transform the firm. Can new collaborative technologies, including corporate social networks, that are increasingly used to organize " crowd-based " idea generation processes within firms, help to scale-up intrapreneurship processes? In this article, we analyze a large-scale initiative deployed in a major French bank, Société Générale: the " Internal Startup Call " that involved both collaborators and the top-management team. Through a case study based on collaborative research, we analyze the disruptive potential and the limits associated with this challenge implemented this year during the bank.
    Keywords: top-management team, Innovation contest, Radical innovation,Intrapreneurship
    Date: 2018–06–30
  11. By: Ana Maria Santacreu (Federal Reserve Bank of Saint Louis); Liliana Varela (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: What are the effects of trade liberalizations on firms' innovation incentives? What types of a firm's innovations are more affected by these liberalizations: product or process innovation, basic or fundamental innovation? How do changes in a firm's innovation activities after trade liberalizations affect a country's patterns of trade? We examine these questions both empirically and theoretically, through the lenses of a quantifiable model of trade and innovation. Recent empirical studies have found that trade liberalizations substantially affect firms' innovation activities (see Bloom, Draca, and Van Reenen (2015), Autor et al (2016), Coelli, Moxnes and Ulltveit-Moe (2016)). However, there is no consensus on the direction of the effect on innovation. Bloom, Draca, and Van Reenen (2015) and Coelli, Moxnes and Ulltveit-Moe (2016) find that declines in trade frictions increase innovation, whereas Autor el al. (2016) find that trade liberalization reduces firms' patens and R&D expenses. The ambiguity of these results shows the need of structural models to understand the channels through which trade affects firms' incentives to innovate. These models can quantify the importance of the market size and foreign competition channels embedded in trade liberalizations, and rationalize the ambiguity of the empirical findings. Moreover, these models can shed light on the effect that changes in firms' innovation incentives has on a country's patterns of trade. Our first contribution is empirical. We provide empirical evidence on the effect that the accession of China to the WTO in the early 2000s had on the innovation activities of French firms. In particular, we break down innovation activities by categories and study what activities were more affected by changes in trade frictions. We merge three datasets reporting information on firms' R&D and innovation activities, trade and balance sheets over the period 1993-2016. Our R&D data comes from the national survey on firms' R&D and innovation activities and reports information on R&D expenditures, patents, product and process innovation, basic and fundamental innovation, area of research, among others. The custom and balance sheet data provide information on all firms' exports and imports by country destination and origin, sales, capital, and employment. These extensive datasets allow us to build detailed measures of the different activities involved in the innovation process over a long panel, and to measure firms' exposure to the Chinese trade shock. Our second contribution is theoretical. We develop and quantify a model of trade, innovation and firms' dynamics to explain our empirical findings. From a theoretical perspective, the effect of a decline in trade frictions depends on two forces: (i) a market size effect, and ii) a foreign competition effect. The first effect increases investment in innovation, as firms benefit from serving a larger market. The second effect decreases the incentives to innovate, as firms face larger competition from abroad. In this case, the direction of the evolution of comparative advantage determines whether a firm finds it or nor profitable to invest in innovation. Which force dominates determines whether the net effect on innovation after a trade liberalization is positive, negative or neutral. One sector-sector models of Ricardian trade without knowledge spillovers predict that decreases in trade frictions have negligible effects on innovation since the market effect cancels out the foreign competition effect (see Atkeson and Bustein (2010) and Buera and Oberfield (2017)). A recent attempt to model these channels has been done by Sampson (2016), Somale (2016), and Cai, Li and Santacreu (2017), among others, by introducing sectoral linkages in production and knowledge spillovers to previous models of trade and innovation. These papers do not model explicitly the role of the firm in taking innovation, export, entry and exit decisions. Our model builds on Atkeson and Burstein (2010) and Atkeson and Burstein (2017). Atkeson and Burstein (2010) develop a model of trade and innovation without knowledge spillovers, in which innovation is modeled as the introduction of new products in the economy. We augment their model by adding knowledge spillovers and process and product innovations of incumbent firms as in Atkeson and Burstein (2017), who study the effect of innovation policies in a closed economy. In the model, the dynamics of productivity are driven endogenously by innovation of entering forms and product and process innovation of incumbent firms. Changes in trade costs have a direct effect on both product and process innovation in the economy. Our model allows us to disentangle the role of the market size effect and the foreign competition effect on these results. Furthermore, changes in innovation translate into changes in productivity, which in turn has an effect on the patterns of trade of the economy. We calibrate the model to data on innovation and trade for French firms during the period 1996-2016. We then perform a counterfactual exercise that consists of a reduction in trade frictions between China and France, and analyze quantitatively the effect that such trade reform has on innovation and the patterns of trade. Our paper provides a unified framework of trade and innovation at the firm level that allows us to obtain aggregate implications of trade liberalizations.
    Date: 2018
  12. By: Christian Catalini; Christian Fons-Rosen; Patrick Gaulé
    Abstract: We develop a simple theoretical framework for thinking about how geographic frictions, and in particular travel costs, shape scientists' collaboration decisions and the types of projects that are developed locally versus over distance. We then take advantage of a quasi-experiment - the introduction of new routes by a low-cost airline - to test the predictions of the theory. Results show that travel costs constitute an important friction to collaboration: after a low-cost airline enters, the number of collaborations increases by 50%, a result that is robust to multiple falsification tests and causal in nature. The reduction in geographic frictions is particularly beneficial for high quality scientists that are otherwise embedded in worse local environments. Consistent with the theory, lower travel costs also endogenously change the types of projects scientists engage in at different levels of distance. After the shock, we observe an increase in higher quality and novel projects, as well as projects that take advantage of complementary knowledge and skills between sub-fields, and that rely on specialized equipment. We test the generalizability of our findings from chemistry to a broader dataset of scientific publications, and to a different field where specialized equipment is less likely to be relevant, mathematics. Last, we discuss implications for the formation of collaborative R&D teams over distance.
    JEL: L93 O18 O3 O31 O33 R4
    Date: 2018–06
  13. By: Chen, Shih-Yu; Piterou, Athena; Khoo, Suet Leng; Chan, Jin H.
    Abstract: This research examines the role of an art organisation, which operates largely as a social enterprise, in responding to the issues of gentrification and the resulting displacement of communities embodying the local culture in Georgetown, Malaysia. The case study art hub has developed into an internationally acclaimed space for innovative ventures including an art gallery and units for arts, craft and food entrepreneurs. The research method includes first stage questionnaire and in-depth interviews to understand the managing strategies and innovation practices. With their innovative business strategies, the art organisation forms an extended network with the local art community and is positioned as the focal point in a mini entrepreneurial ecosystem. Through the case study in Georgetown, Malaysia, the research contributes to the understanding of the strength and challenges of innovative social entrepreneurship for cultural and creative organisations.
    Keywords: creative enterprise; innovative entrepreneurship; sustainable entrepreneurship; relational aspects of ingenuity; boundary work and networking
    Date: 2018–07–01
  14. By: Gunter Clar
    Abstract: Optimising priority setting for higher returns on investment. As the Structural Funds (ESIF) constitute a large part of the EU budget, considerable contributions to the overall EU2020 Growth Strategy are expected. In the 2014-2020 programming period, there is a strong focus on Research and Innovation (R&I) with the aim to boost ESIF impact on competitiveness and broader benefits (public and private returns) across the EU. Towards this larger aim, R&I Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3) are means to concentrate investments in place-based, innovation-oriented activities, which are well positioned vis-Ã -vis global value chains, and also related to territorial or sectoral strategies with other regions. Recent assessments show that the concentration of investments towards this goal has not everywhere been optimally achieved, which is often traced back to the types of priorities selected. At first sight, this can be attributed to the nature of the strategy processes, the innovation actors involved, and their methodological and strategic competences. Looking deeper, especially where Managing Authorities and ESIF applicants/recipients had little former experience with R&I priority setting, weaknesses lie in understanding state-of-the-art concepts underlying R&I strategies, in applying the broad spectrum of R&I support tools, and in the ability to guide a range of R&I related interaction processes continually and competently. Against this backdrop, the report sets out to synthesise the dispersed knowledge on a range of issues relevant for the success of priority setting processes and practices in innovation policies and strategies. Outlining changing contexts, rationales and approaches of priority setting in R&I policies leads to the "new prioritisation logic" guiding RIS3 exercises. This is followed by two main lines aiming to facilitate improved priority setting: better understanding the wider innovation policy context of RIS3, and making better use of Strategic Policy Intelligence (SPI) and other support tools (including learning from private sector strategies) to structure and guide policy cycles, and to implement place-appropriate policy mixes. Evidence (case studies) on effective priority setting processes in RIS3-type exercises and policy recommendations complete the report.
    Keywords: Priority setting, Regional innovation strategies, Place-based policies
    Date: 2018–07
  15. By: Laurent Gobillon (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Wolff Francois Charles (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - UN - Université de Nantes, INED - Institut national d'études démographiques)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the effect on quality, quantity and prices of an innovative fishing gear introduced for a subsample of vessels on a single wholesale fish market in France. Estimations are conducted using transaction data over the 2009-2011 period during which the innovation was introduced. Using a difference-in-differences approach around the discontinuity, we find that for the treated the innovation has a large effect on quality (29.2 percentage points) and prices (23.2 percentage points). A shift in caught fish species is observed and new targeted species are fished very intensively. We also quantify the treatment effect on the treated market from aggregate market data using factor models and a synthetic control approach. We find a sizable effect of the innovation on market quality which is consistent with non-treated vessels adapting their fishing practices to remain competitive. The innovation has no effect on market quantities and prices.
    Keywords: difference in differences,discontinuity,fish,innovation,product quality,product prices,synthetic controls,factor models
    Date: 2017–01
  16. By: Lipina, Svetlana (Липина, Светлана) (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Agapova, Elena (Агапова, Елена) (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Lipina, Alexandra (Липина, Александра) (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: When the role of eco-innovations significantly increases, global changes in the modern economy are increasingly becoming the main factors of economic growth. A common problem for all countries is the definition of appropriate conditions under which their potential innovative activity will develop. Among the tasks that determine the features of strategic management of eco-innovations, it is possible to single out the development of innovative infrastructure, expanded reproduction of intellectual resources and creation of favorable conditions for innovation activity. The close interconnection of these resource, internal and effective components makes it possible to determine the need to study their optimal correlation in practice, to intensify their use, to apply new modern methods of organizing processes, and to search for additional sources of their involvement. The results obtained in the course of the research are the basis for the full characterization of the eco-innovation potential and, thus, contribute to the development of concrete scientific and practical recommendations for its formation and effective use.
    Date: 2018–07
  17. By: Christoph Albert (UPF and Barcelona GSE); Andrea Caggese (Pompeu Fabra University)
    Abstract: How do financial factors and cyclical fluctuations affect the innovative content of new businesses? This paper answers this question by combining a multi-country entrepreneurial level dataset with country level business cycle data and sector level information on technology. Our main data source is the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor dataset, which is a multi-country multi-year survey of entrepreneurial decisions. We merge this dataset with a country specific business cycle indicator (GDP growth) and a financial crisis indicator from Laeven and Valencia (2013). Finally, we also combine it with two sector level indicators: an external financial dependence indicator (Kroszner et al, 2007) and an indicator of intangibility (share of intangible over total assets, see Falato et al, 2014, and Caggese and Perez, 2018). We use the dataset to identify three types of startups which are likely to be innovative and/or with high growth potential: i) Businesses started to provide a new product or service. ii) Startups for which the new entrepreneur is expecting high employment growth (controlling for country effects). iii) Startups in high-intangible industries, which should have higher growth potential given the more innovative content of intangible technologies. We control for country fixed effects, as well as for individual characteristics such as age, education and income group, and we find that all startups, but especially startups with high growth potential, were much more procyclical in the presence of the financial crisis. That is, the financial crisis reduced significantly more startups with high growth potential than the other types, especially in countries with greater contraction in output. Importantly we also show that startups with high growth potential were strongly negatively affected by the financial crisis only in industries classified as with high external financial dependence. In other words, we find evidence strongly consistent with the hypothesis that financial frictions affected the composition of business startups during the financial crisis, reducing the incentives of entrepreneurs to start riskier and more innovative businesses with more growth potential.
    Date: 2018
  18. By: Alston, Julian M.
    Abstract: Sixty years ago, T.W. Schultz introduced the idea of the productivity “residual” to agricultural economics. His main message was that growth in conventional inputs accounted for little of the observed growth in agricultural output, and that there was work to be done by agricultural economists to understand and ultimately eliminate this unexplained residual called “productivity.” Thus was launched the economics of agricultural productivity as a sub-field within agricultural economics, along with the economics of agricultural R&D and innovation and related government policy. Much progress has been made in the decades since. Still, critical issues remain unresolved. This matters because agricultural innovation and productivity matter, and so do the related policies that rest to some extent on our established understanding of the economic relationships. In this paper, I review some unsettled issues related to economic models and measures applied to agricultural R&D and productivity, and some unfinished business in terms of economic and policy questions that are not yet well answered. Before doing that, I present some evidence on agricultural productivity and why it matters. Next, with a nod to “factology,” I present available productivity measures from USDA and InSTePP, and compare them in the context of translog cost function models. In subsequent sections I use these and other data to develop new evidence related to two contentious questions: (1) Do farmers benefit from public agricultural R&D? (2) Has U.S. agricultural productivity growth slowed in recent decades? The answers are revealed within.
    Date: 2017–08–24
  19. By: TAMURA Suguru
    Abstract: In this study, I focus on the characteristics of standardized technologies and the effective terms of regional de jure standards for discussing the effectiveness of their management system. Namely, the focus is on the total cost of ownership of standards. To this end, I analyze the determining factors considering the Japanese Industrial Standards of approximately 14,000 cases. I conduct a semi-parametric survival analysis to study the determinants of the effective term. The results demonstrate that the technological category and type of technical standards (e.g., product and design) significantly affect the effective term. International standards, legislative use, and standard essential patents are also shown to have significant influence on the effective term. Moreover, the technological category of artificial intelligence (AI)-related standards is established, and the effective term of AI-related technology is found to be significantly shorter. These findings contribute to better designing of the global and regional standards management processes, which in turn will contribute to improvements in the efficiency of global and regional innovation systems.
    Date: 2018–08
  20. By: Nida Kamil Ozbolat (European Commission - JRC); Nicholas Harrap (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: There is a considerable territorial disparity in terms of research and innovation (R&I) performance within Europe between EU15 and EU13 Member States (MSs) . The two biggest European funds, European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) and Horizon 2020 (H2020), aim at supporting the development of European competitiveness, growth, knowledge generation and as well as closing the innovation gap and promoting research excellence across Europe. Smart Specialisation Strategies (S3) play a key role in fostering an efficient and inclusive Research and Innovation (R&I) ecosystem by creating the right framework for focused investments based on selected high value added priorities and a shared vision of territorial development. Also, the European Commission's project Stairway to Excellence (S2E) is focussed on the provision of assistance to EU MSs and Regions with emphasis on promoting R&I excellence and maximising the specific value added of S3 investments such as the capacity building to support for R&I activities and exploitation of research results for raising the overall social/economic impact. This report summarises the main outcomes of the activities undertaken by the S2E team during the initial phase of the project from June 2014 to January 2017). It focuses on the S2E Country Reports – produced by the national independent experts and provided analysis on the optimal use of key European R&I funds – and the Joint Statements of S2E National Events – an outcome of national events covering the issues and main conclusions - as well as the other analytical work of the project. By picking those issues and actions common to more than one country and frequently mentioned, the main bottlenecks and possible policy actions to address these issues are summarised within three dimensions; namely, quality of R&I governance, capacity building, and innovation and commercialisation. This analysis and particularly the policy recommendations offer solutions for these issues that can also contribute to closing the innovation gap in Europe, which is demonstrated by the annual European Innovation Scoreboard comparing the performance of the EU MSs.
    Keywords: Innovation gap, Research Excellence, Innovation, European Funding, Smart Specialisation, ESIF, Horizon 2020, Cohesion Policy, Stairway to Excellence, S2E
    Date: 2018–07
  21. By: Gandenberger, Carsten
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the discussion about the globalization of corporate R&D by analyzing R&D strategies of environmental technology companies. Data is generated from a survey among German applicants for environmental technology patents. The survey elucidates motives and functions of foreign R&D as well as factors influencing the strategic choice between domestic and foreign R&D. The results strongly support the validity of the efficiency seeking motive for for-eign R&D. Similarly, there is weak evidence for the resource seeking motive when controlling for specific host countries. In contrast, the market seeking motive had no significant influence on the intention to conduct foreign R&D in the future. Company size seems to be positively associated with investment in foreign R&D, whereas R&D intensity is not.
    Keywords: Foreign R&D,Environmental Technology,Globalization of Technology
    Date: 2018
  22. By: Declan Jordan (University College Cork); Peter Fako (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The R&I Observatory country report 2017 provides a brief analysis of the R&I system covering the economic context, main actors, funding trends & human resources, policies to address R&I challenges, and R&I in national and regional smart specialisation strategies. Data is from Eurostat, unless otherwise referenced and is correct as at January 2018. Data used from other international sources is also correct to that date. The report provides a state-of-play and analysis of the national level R&I system and its challenges, to support the European Semester.
    Keywords: Research and Innovation, Belgium, Innovation System
    Date: 2018–07
  23. By: Maxime Thomas (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Le Masson Pascal (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Legrand Julien (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Benoit Weil (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Can a platform leader be challenged and loose its architectural control over its innovation ecosystem? The question seems absurd since theoretical works on modularity and multi-sided markets depict platform competitive landscapes as controlled by a hegemonic platform leader. However, platform history chronicles several cases of leadership shifts for the benefit of firms formerly providing complementary innovations. We coined these situations " platform overthrows ". To bridge the gap between classical optimization models and empirical evidences of platform overthrow, we rely on a design-theory-based model (Legrand et al. 2017) of platform dynamics to generate testable hypothesis. We then test them with a sample of 22 empirical cases of attempts of platform overthrow. Our results indicate that platform overthrows are always built by a challenger that introduces a new functional range in the ecosystem. However, the efforts of the challenger can be ruined if the technology of the platform leader is easily adaptable to the new functional range. Otherwise, the challenger can overthrow its platform leader if it succeeds in designing a technology that can address both the former and the new functions. We conclude by highlighting how studying both technological and functional evolutions can provide a thorough understanding of platform ecosystem dynamics.
    Date: 2018–07–02
  24. By: Richard Adu-Gyamfi (International Trade Centre, Switzerland); John Kuada (Aalborg University, Denmark); Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroon)
    Abstract: Despite the good intentions in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), previous policy initiatives on entrepreneurship have been disjointed, unambitious, and implemented without commitment and required resources. Furthermore, there has been limited research that can provide insight into the reasons why some of the policy initiatives appear to be successful while others fail. Some scholars have suggested that without a context-specific classificatory guide, policymakers are unlikely to be accurate in their assessment of the growth capabilities of prospective candidates for specific promotion initiatives and this can explain some of the policy failures. This observation has motivated the present paper. Our aim is to provide a framework that helps identify the different contextual dimensions influencing enterprise creation processes in SSA.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Africa
    JEL: O38 O40 O55
    Date: 2018–05
  25. By: Moliterni, Fabio
    Abstract: This study outlines a systemic review of the social and economic transformations that have been inducing the business to reconsider its traditional strategies and innovate to become sustainable. In doing so, the study adopts an original approach, focusing on the evolution in the socio-economic context, imposed by globalisation first and by the Great Recession afterwards. Hence, the review covers a wide range of literature and subjects, including political science, sociology, economics, finance and strategic management. Departing from the contextual picture, the study identifies the main drivers of the innovation of the business models, from the adoption of voluntary standards to the acknowledgement of the need to lengthen strategic time horizons. What emerges from the review is that, if business’ primary concern was initially to safeguard its declining reputation under competitive pressure, it perceives sustainability today as a necessary condition to survive the deep transformation of the economy.
    Keywords: Financial Economics
    Date: 2017–09–25

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