nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2017‒11‒19
23 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Energy transition in Germany and regional spillovers: What triggers the diffusion of renewable energy in firms? By Horbach, Jens; Rammer, Christian
  2. Measuring Innovation with Patents when Patenting is Strategic By Jonathan F. Lee
  3. The Product-Related Environmental Regulation, Innovation, and Competitiveness: Empirical Evidence from Malaysian and Vietnamese Firms By Qizhong YANG; Tsunehiro OTSUKI
  4. Knowledge Spillovers from clean and dirty technologies By Antoine Dechezlepretre, Ralf Martin, Myra Mohnen
  5. Resource Efficiency, Environmental Policy and Eco-Innovations for a Circular Economy: Evidence from EU Firms By Giulio Cainelli; Alessio D’Amato; Massimiliano Mazzanti
  6. Female owners versus female managers: Who is better at introducing innovations? By Dohse, Dirk; Goel, Rajeev K.; Nelson, Michael A.
  7. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF OPEN INNOVATION: A CONFIGURATIONAL APPROACH By Gloria Cuevas-Rodríguez; Antonio Carmona-Lavado; Carmen Cabello-Medina
  8. Tax incentives for research and development and their use in tax planning By Pfeiffer, Olena; Spengel, Christoph
  9. Matching Crunchbase with patent data By Carlo Menon; Gianluca Tarasconi
  10. Intellectual Property Rights, Multinational Firms and Technology Transfers By Sara Biancini; Pamela Bombarda
  11. Public R&D Subsidies: Collaborative versus Individual Place-Based Programs for SMEs By Andrea Bellucci; Luca Pennacchio; Alberto Zazzaro
  12. A New ‘Cut’ on Technological Innovation Aiming for Sustainability in a Globalized World By Adela Conchado; Pedro Linares
  13. RIO Country Report 2016: Romania By Mariana Chioncel; Jana Zifciakova
  14. Austria’s digital transition: The diffusion challenge By Rauf Gönenç; Béatrice Guérard
  15. Disentangling novelty and usefulness : Essays on creativity in the arts and sciences By Haans, Richard
  16. Firm R&D and Financial Analysis: How Do They Interact? By Goldman, Jim; Peress, Joël
  17. Interest rates, R&D investment and the distortionary effects of R&D incentives By Uluc Aysun; Zeynep Kabukcuoglu
  18. Insolvency Regimes, Technology Diffusion and Productivity Growth: Evidence from Firms in OECD Countries By Muge Adalet McGowan; Dan Andrews; Valentine Millot
  19. Using Crunchbase for economic and managerial research By Jean-Michel Dalle; Matthijs den Besten; Carlo Menon
  20. Location of R&D activities by vertical multinationals over asymmetric countries By José Pedro Pontes; Carlos Eduardo Lobo e Silva
  21. What role for social sciences in innovation?: Re-assessing how scientific disciplines contribute to different industries By Caroline Paunov; Sandra Planes-Satorra; Tadanori Moriguchi
  22. Exploring Perceptions of the Credibility of Policy Mixes: The Case of German Manufacturers of Renewable Power Generation Technologies By Karoline S. Rogge; Elisabeth Dütschke
  23. International Technology Transfer measures in an interconnected world: Lessons and policy implications By Przemyslaw Kowalski; Daniel Rabaioli; Sebastian Vallejo

  1. By: Horbach, Jens; Rammer, Christian
    Abstract: The success of an energy turnaround towards renewables highly depends on the willingness and ability of firms to adopt energy technologies using renewable sources. Existing studies focused on the role of regulation and energy markets (e.g. the price for fossil energy) to explain the diffusion of green energy technologies. The present paper tries to give a more comprehensive view on the determinants of renewable energy innovations focusing on the crucial role of firms' regional environment (role of regional spillover effects, the greenness of a region and the regional endowment with green energy plants). We use a unique database combining the Community Innovation Survey 2014 for Germany and NUTS 3 data on renewable energy plants, the greenness of a region and other economic control variables. We find that geographical proximity to electricity production based on renewable energy sources and the orientation of a region towards 'green issues' (measured by the share of green party voters) are both major drivers for such innovations. Furthermore, our results show that in addition to regulation, government subsidies for eco-innovation, high energy costs and regional knowledge spillovers contribute to a rapid adoption of renewable energy. The reinforcing nature of this process leads to a diverging regional development of renewable energy innovations.
    Keywords: Eco-Innovation,Renewable Energy,Community Innovation Survey
    JEL: C25 O31 Q20 R11
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Jonathan F. Lee
    Abstract: I model a firm's decision to create an invention and, separately, her decision to protect that invention with intellectual property (IP). Because external forces, such as industry characteristics or policy regimes, can affect the innovation and protection decisions differently, the model predicts that innovation measures based on IP usage, such as patent counts, may not correlate with innovative effort. For example, the threat of competition generally has an inverse-U shaped relationship with observed patenting but has a normal-U relationship with innovative effort. In this case, the average quality of a firm's patent portfolio is a better proxy for innovation. I derive general conditions under which various patent statistics, such as quality-adjusted patenting or average patent quality, are useful proxies for how innovation responds to external influences.
    JEL: K11 L24 O31 O34
    Date: 2017–11–09
  3. By: Qizhong YANG (The Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University); Tsunehiro OTSUKI (Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University)
    Abstract: This study examined the impact of two PRERs released by the EU—RoHS and REACH—on Malaysian and Vietnamese firms’ compliance. The analysis considers productivity as a realization of innovations and examines the R&D enhancement effect of PRERs. The effect of PRERs on productivity is also broken down into direct and indirect effects through R&D enhancement. The result shows that the response to REACH can create incentives to advance R&D, and productivity can increase through both direct and indirect channels. No relationship between the response to RoHS and R&D expenditure is found. Further analysis shows that firms comply with RoHS and REACH in different ways, but just the ability to continue exporting to the EU motivates compliance.
    Keywords: RoHS, REACH, Innovation, Productivity, Porter Hypothesis
    JEL: F18 O31 Q55 Q56
    Date: 2017–11
  4. By: Antoine Dechezlepretre, Ralf Martin, Myra Mohnen
    Abstract: Government policy in support of innovation often varies across technology areas. An important example are climate change policies that typically try to support so called clean technologies that avoid greenhouse gas pollution and hamper dirty technologies that are associated with polluting emissions. This paper explores the economic consequences of such policy moves in the short run. At the margin private returns of R&D investments in different areas should be equalised. Hence, shifting the composition of R&D activities by a policy intervention will only have a meaningful impact on economic outcomes if the external returns differ. Hence, we compare innovation spillovers between clean, dirty and other emerging technologies using patent citation data. We develop new methodology including the usage of Page rank measures developed by Google to rank web content. Exploring a wide range of robustness checks we consistently find up to 40% higher levels of spillovers from clean technologies. We also use firm-level financial data to investigate the impact of knowledge spillovers on firms’ market value and find that marginal economic value of spillovers from clean technologies is also greater.
    Date: 2017–10
  5. By: Giulio Cainelli (University of Padova & SEEDS); Alessio D’Amato (University of Tor Vergata Rome & SEEDS); Massimiliano Mazzanti (University of Ferrara, IEFE Bocconi Milan & SEEDS)
    Abstract: Innovation adoption and diffusion by firms are key pillars for the EU strategy on resource-efficiency and the development of a circular economy. This paper presents new EU evidence regarding the role of environmental policy and green demand drivers to sustain the adoption of resource efficiency-oriented eco-innovations. This paper originally implements new estimators to address the endogeneity of binary framed policy and demand covariates, which typically characterise firm level survey data. Our results suggest that when endogeneity is accounted for, environmental policy is the only factor always significant in driving the adoption of innovations that reduce the use of waste and material, while demand-side and market-factors do not always play a central role. The result is an important piece of new quantitative-based knowledge, which complements the currently large case study-based evidence on the setting of sound management and policy strategies for the circular economy.
    Keywords: Eco innovation; circular economy; innovation drivers; EU; environmental regulation; market demand
    Date: 2017–11
  6. By: Dohse, Dirk; Goel, Rajeev K.; Nelson, Michael A.
    Abstract: This paper uses firm-level survey responses across more than 100 emerging and developing countries to examine whether female managers or female owners of firms were better at bringing innovations to the market. Employing a range of firm-specific and country-specific controls, the econometric results show that female owners of firms, rather than female managers, were more likely to introduce innovations. As expected, innovations resulted from firms engaging in R&D. Larger and older firms reinforced these tendencies; however, sole proprietorships had the opposite effect. The presence of an informal sector and finance availability constraints actually spurred innovation. Finally, the economy-wide effects of greater economic freedom and stronger patent protections were positive, while greater economic prosperity somewhat led to complacency.
    Keywords: innovation,female,owners,managers,patent protection,R&D,firm size,sole proprietorship
    JEL: O32 O33 O57 J16
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Gloria Cuevas-Rodríguez (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Antonio Carmona-Lavado (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Carmen Cabello-Medina (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: In this research, we propose that biotech firms use Open Innovation (OI) configurations by combining three openness practices (number of alliances, breadth and external R&D) and five complementary organizational assets for openness (internal R&D, human capital, alliances coordination and interorganizational learning capabilities, and patenting) and that such configurations have influence on firm performance. From our empirical study on a sample of Spanish biotech firms, three predominant configurations are identified, which are located at different points in the openness continuum, and encompass different combinations of openness practices and organizational complementary assets. The most open configuration presents a significant superior performance while the least open is associated with the lowest performance.
    Keywords: Open Innovation, Configurations, Internal R&D, Human Capital, Coordination and Interorganizational Learning capabilities, and Patenting.
    Date: 2017–05
  8. By: Pfeiffer, Olena; Spengel, Christoph
    Abstract: This study provides a comprehensive analysis of various aspects of R&D tax incentives. It explains the economic justification behind the state support of research and development and summarizes its main types. In addition, it gives an overview of the existing R&D tax incentives in Europe and provides a thorough review of the empirical literature on the outcomes of fiscal incentives. Furthermore, the Devereux and Griffith model is used to determine the effective tax burden of multinational firms that reside in countries which implement R&D tax support and countries which do not. The model is developed further following Spengel and Elschner (2010) and Evers et al. (2015) to reflect a potential use of R&D tax incentives by multinational firms for tax planning. The hypothesis developed in the model is tested in an empirical estimation, where we employ the OECD data on international co-operation in patents. According to our main findings, there are at least two reasons why input-oriented R&D tax incentives, such as tax credits and tax super-deductions, constitute a more suitable instrument for fostering research and development than the output-oriented incentives, such as IP Boxes. First, there is robust evidence found in the empirical literature which shows the positive effect introducing input-oriented tax incentives has on a firm's innovative activity, whereas studies on output-oriented tax incentives are not able to support this argument. Secondly, according to our theoretical and empirical analyses, output-oriented R&D tax incentives may be used by multinationals for tax planning as opposed to their intended use of fostering research and development.
    Keywords: research and development,R&D,tax planning,corporate taxation
    JEL: H25 F23 H26 H3
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Carlo Menon (OECD); Gianluca Tarasconi (OECD)
    Abstract: This note describes a procedure to match companies and individuals listed in Crunchbase, a new database on innovative start-ups and companies, with patent applicants and inventors reported in PATSTAT, the worldwide intellectual property database maintained by the European Patent Office. Given that neither administrative nor other unique identifiers are available in either of the two databases, the matching is based on a “fuzzy” procedure that exploits the available overlapping information across the two databases. A general overview of the resulting database completes the note.
    Date: 2017–11–03
  10. By: Sara Biancini (Normandie University, UNICAEN, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France); Pamela Bombarda (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, ThEMA, France)
    Abstract: Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protect firms from imitation and are considered crucial to promote innovation and technological diffusion. This paper examines the impact of IPR on import sourcing decisions of multinationals. We consider a framework in which firms offshore production of an intermediate good in a developing country. Firms can either decide to import the intermediate from vertically integrated producers, or from independent suppliers. In both cases, offshoring part of the production process embodies a risk of imitation. The model predicts that, under reasonable assumptions, stronger IPR encourage by a larger extent the imports of intermediates through vertical integration. Using U.S. Related-Party Trade database, we find empirical evidence supportive of the positive link between level of IPR and the relative share of imports from vertically integrated manufacturers.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights, MNF, FDI, outsourcing, international trade
    JEL: F12 F23 O34
    Date: 2017–11
  11. By: Andrea Bellucci (European Commission - Joint Research Centre and MoFiR); Luca Pennacchio (Università di Napoli Parthenope); Alberto Zazzaro (University of Naples Federico II, CSEF and MoFiR.)
    Abstract: This paper provides novel empirical evidence on the effectiveness of regional research and innovation policies for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It investigated two subsidy programs implemented at the regional level in central Italy. One program targeted SMEs’ individual investments in research, and the other focused on collaborative research between SMEs and universities. Using a matched difference-in-differences approach, the empirical analysis showed that the two programs had different effects. The first was successful in stimulating additional private R&D investment and improving firms’ performance. The second had weaker effects, mostly restricted to R&D expenditure and employment. These effects were not always uniformly distributed among project participants.
    Keywords: Public Subsidies; R&D; Impact Evaluation; SMEs; Cooperation; Regional Policy.
    JEL: H25 L52 O31 O38 R58
    Date: 2017–11–12
  12. By: Adela Conchado (Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Alberto Aguilera 23, 28015 Madrid, Spain); Pedro Linares (Universidad Pontificia Comillas – Instituto de Investigación Tecnológica, Economics for Energy)
    Abstract: Innovation policy needs to respond to the complexity posed by sustainability goals and the globalization of innovation processes. Yet, current representations of technological innovation systems are not well suited to facilitate this view: they are built taking the diffusion of a technology as the main objective, rather than reflecting more broadly on its contributions to sustainability; and they have often focused on the interactions within a geography and not on interconnections among geographies. In this paper we propose a new ‘cut’ to technological innovation that puts the consideration of sustainability outcomes and international dynamics at its core: the Outcome-oriented Innovation Framework (OoIF). OoIF builds on key concepts from various strands of the innovation literature: innovation systems, innovation economics and sustainability transitions. We present the framework in detail, and provide a diagrammatic representation for it. We also reflect on its limitations, contributions and applications -particularly on how it allows to analyze the distribution of outcomes across differentiated activities and geographies.
    Keywords: technological innovation systems, innovation policy, sustainability, international dynamics, globalization
    Date: 2017–11
  13. By: Mariana Chioncel; Jana Zifciakova (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The 2016 series of the RIO Country Report analyses and assesses the development and performance of the national research and innovation system of the EU-28 Member States and related policies with the aim of monitoring and evaluating the EU policy implementation as well as facilitating policy learning in the Member States.
    Keywords: research and innovation, Romania, innovation system
    Date: 2017–10
  14. By: Rauf Gönenç (OECD); Béatrice Guérard (OECD)
    Abstract: Austria’s transition to a digital economy and society is slower than in other high-income small open European economies. The rate and pace of utilisation of eight main ICT applications shows that Austrian firms follow peer country counterparts with a gap, which has widened in most areas in recent years. Two dynamics drive digital transitions and Austria has room for progress in both of them. First, the potential for digitalisation in all firms, and especially in the smaller ones (where gaps are largest) should be freed-up by upgrading the full range of ICT-generic, ICT-specific and ICT-complementary skills. Second, Austria needs to make its business environment more conducive to firm entry and exit. The rate of entry of new firms and their growth are crucial for the diffusion of new business models and ICT innovations but fall behind peer countries. The adoption of ICT innovations by households also follows a staggered path: young and highly educated Austrians adopt ICT applications in similar ways to their counterparts in peer countries, while middle and older age cohorts display noticeable gaps. This calls for policies to help lagging groups become more acquainted with innovations. A whole-of-government approach, including large-scale utilisation of e-government applications in enterprises and households, should help to embrace change and facilitate the flourishing of innovative businesses, work practices and lifestyles throughout Austria. This Working Paper relates to the 2017 OECD Economic Survey of Austria ( y-austria.htm)
    Keywords: diffusion of innovations, digitalisation, information technologies, technological innovation
    JEL: D24 L60 L81 L96 M15 O14 O32 O33 O38
    Date: 2017–11–20
  15. By: Haans, Richard (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Abstract: Concerns that sophisticated algorithms and autonomous machines are replacing human labor have driven a recent interest in creativity as a key factor in maintaining innovation and economic growth. Within management and entrepreneurship research, the dominant definition of creativity is that it entails the generation of ideas or products that are both novel and useful. Novelty—being new, unique, or different, relative to central practices or views—and usefulness—being appropriate, correct, or valuable to the task at hand—are therefore each seen as necessary conditions for something to be classified as creative. In spite of its importance, a major obstacle to the study of creativity has been the translation of this simple two-criterion conceptual definition into an operational one to be utilized in empirical study. This dissertation aims to take a step back and answer the question of whether, how, and under what conditions novelty is related to usefulness. Following recent advances in the study of creativity it emphasizes that, although creativity may be jointly composed of the novelty and usefulness, these are distinct concepts that should best be considered as such. This dissertation contributes to research on creativity, management, and entrepreneurship by providing new insights into the conditions under which creativity emerges—yielding new insights as to why some novel offerings see widespread use whereas other ostensibly similar offerings linger in obscurity. This dissertation consists of four essays that address the overarching research question from a variety of theoretical lenses, and each essay is centered on a setting where creativity is of particular importance: university students who are close to starting knowledge-intensive and skilled work, the creative industries, and academia.
    Date: 2017
  16. By: Goldman, Jim; Peress, Joël
    Abstract: Entrepreneurs undertake more R&D when financiers are better informed about their projects because they expect to receive more funding for successful projects. Conversely, financiers learn more about projects when entrepreneurs perform more R&D because then the opportunity cost of mis-investing is higher. Thus R&D and financial analysis are mutually reinforcing. Evidence based on two quasi-natural experiments supports this interaction. Quantitatively, investors' learning accounts for over a quarter of the total effect of a policy designed to stimulate R&D. A calibration suggests that the interaction's contribution to income growth represents a third of the total contributions of learning and R&D.
    Keywords: capital allocation; Financial Development; growth; Innovation; learning; technological progress
    JEL: G20 O31 O4
    Date: 2017–11
  17. By: Uluc Aysun (Department of Economics, College of Business Administration, University of Central Florida); Zeynep Kabukcuoglu (Department of Economics, Villanova School of Business, Villanova University)
    Abstract: This paper conducts the first analysis of how interest rates are related to firms' allocation of investment between R&D and non-R&D activities and how R&D incentives alter this relationship. It theoretically predicts that if firms receive incentives mostly in the form of grants and subsidies that reduce their dependence on external finance, their share of R&D spending increases (decreases) during a credit tightening (easing). Conversely, if tax credits are the primary incentive, rms' decrease (increase) their share of R&D spending during a credit tightening (easing). The paper demonstrates empirical support for these predictions by using rm-level financial and sector-level R&D incentives data and a unique methodology that focuses on the within firm allocation of investment.
    Keywords: R&D, finance, grants, tax credits, COMPUSTAT
    JEL: D22 G31 G32 O31 O38
    Date: 2017–11
  18. By: Muge Adalet McGowan (OECD); Dan Andrews (OECD); Valentine Millot (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper explores the link between the design of insolvency regimes across countries and laggard firms’ multi-factor productivity (MFP) growth, using new OECD indicators of the design of insolvency regimes. Firm-level analysis shows that reforms to insolvency regimes that lower barriers to corporate restructuring are associated with higher MFP growth of laggard firms. These results are consistent with the idea that insolvency regimes that do not unduly inhibit corporate restructuring can incentivise experimentation and provide scope to reconfigure production and organisational structures in order to faciliate technological adoption. The results also highlight policy complementarities, with insolvency regimes that reduce the cost of entrepreneurial failure potentially enhancing the MFP gains from lowering administrative entry barriers in product markets. Finally, we find that reducing debt bias in corporate tax systems and well-developed venture capital markets are associated higher laggard firm MFP growth, suggesting that equity financing can also be an important driver of technological diffusion. These findings carry strong policy implications, in light of the fact that there is much scope to reform insolvency regimes in many OECD countries and given evidence that stalling technological diffusion has contributed to the aggregate productivity slowdown.
    Keywords: equity financing, insolvency, laggard firms, Productivity, technological diffusion, venture capital
    JEL: D24 G33 G34 K35 O16 O40 O43 O47
    Date: 2017–11–06
  19. By: Jean-Michel Dalle; Matthijs den Besten; Carlo Menon (OECD)
    Abstract: This note describes a new database on innovative start-ups and companies, called Crunchbase, with a focus on its potential for economic and managerial research. Crunchbase is rapidly being discovered by scholars from different fields. It has notably already informed studies on specific sectors as well as studies of networks in the start-up ecosystem. This note first describes the contents of Crunchbase and then reviews academic research that has used it. We further suggest that many more valuable avenues for economic and managerial research can be opened through the combination of Crunchbase with selected supplementary data sources and provide two such examples.
    Keywords: patents, start-ups, venture capital
    JEL: L26 M13 O31
    Date: 2017–11–03
  20. By: José Pedro Pontes; Carlos Eduardo Lobo e Silva
    Abstract: This paper deals with the location of R&D by vertical multinational firms. By taking the colocation of laboratories and productive plants as a benchmark, we can see that the spatial separation of both emerges under two conditions – high intensity of R&D spillovers and strong size asymmetry between countries. The latter condition is effective since it is related with a rising international inequality of wages. If the spatial separation of R&D and manufacturing takes place, headquarters services (namely R&D units) will be likely located in the smaller country. The converse pattern, where laboratories are place in the larger country, may arise if production is high-tech and the localized externalities of research activity are strong. Hence, this article confirms the main results of the literature on this topic but in the context of a different framework which allows us to tackle two usually disregarded topics: the transfer cost of technology; and the direct engagement of industrial workers in R&D spillovers. These aspects are dealt with by presupposing that, in addition to a “technological” externality among researchers, there is an “educational” externality exerted by researchers upon neighbouring industrial workers. When a country loses its laboratories, the inhabitants become intellectually “impoverished” and their labour starts to have a lesser efficiency.
    Keywords: Location of R&D; Vertical Multinationals; Spillovers; Nash Equilibria in a Large Group of Agents.
    JEL: F23 O32 R12
    Date: 2017–11
  21. By: Caroline Paunov (OECD); Sandra Planes-Satorra (OECD); Tadanori Moriguchi (Japan Patent Office)
    Abstract: Knowledge transfer between industry and science is fundamental to innovation. There are important differences across scientific disciplines and sectors of activity in that, for instance, the financial and pharmaceutical sectors have different demands for science inputs. This paper reviews the data sources and associated methodologies available to measure different types of science-industry interaction. It applies these insights to re-assess the contributions of social sciences to industry and the disciplinary needs of the ICT sector. The paper finds that commonly used methodologies fail to shed light on a number of important industry-science interaction channels, and introduce biases in assessing connections. Using new evidence from labour force and university graduate surveys can help to some extent. The paper shows how these additional data allow to better capture the contributions of social scientists and the complexity of disciplinary demands of the digital economy. However, new data sources and methods should be further explored.
    Keywords: academic disciplines, industry sectors, information and communication technologies (ICT), innovation, knowledge transfer, review of data sources and associated methodologies, Science-industry linkages, social sciences
    JEL: I23 O31 O33
    Date: 2017–11–17
  22. By: Karoline S. Rogge (SPRU– Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9RH, UK; Fraunhofer Institute Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe, Germany); Elisabeth Dütschke (Fraunhofer Institute Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe, Germany)
    Abstract: The credibility of climate policy has been identified as paramount factor for low-carbon investment and innovation and is thus key for the cost-effective achievement of the decarbonization objectives set out in the Paris Agreement. Yet, despite its importance we have only limited insights into how such policy credibility is formed. To address this gap we explore whether and to what extent corporate perceptions of policy credibility depend on the current policy mix with its national targets, concrete policy instruments and their consistency as well as policy making and implementation. For this, we use the case of the German Energiewende and rely on data collected in 2014 through a survey of German manufacturers of renewable power generation technologies. We analyze the answers of 390 companies through a linear regression to identify policy mix related determinants of perceived policy credibility - measured by a novel indicator based on four survey items. We find that corporate perceptions of policy credibility are mainly shaped by two characteristics of the policy mix, namely the coherence of policy making and implementation, followed by the consistency of the policy mix. Elements of the policy mix matter as well, in particular changes in the design of the core demand pull instrument (the Renewable Energy Sources Act, EEG) and the nuclear phase-out policy, but also the German targets for the expansion of renewable energies play a role. These insights enable us to derive more general implications for policy makers around the world interested in promoting the innovation-led decarbonization of the economy by safeguarding and increasing policy credibility.
    Keywords: policy mix, credibility, consistency, coherence, comprehensiveness, energy transition
    Date: 2017–11
  23. By: Przemyslaw Kowalski (OECD); Daniel Rabaioli (OECD); Sebastian Vallejo (OECD)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to inform the ongoing debate on the policies being used to encourage international technology transfer (ITT) and, of these, which have the potential to distort trade or investment and which may effectively promote ITT. The paper develops a first-cut approach to cataloguing ITT-related measures across countries. Following the literature, technology transfer-related policies are grouped into six categories: 1) absorptive capacity policies; 2) measures related to intellectual property rights (IPR); 3) FDI promotion measures; 4) FDI restrictions and FDI screening; 5) performance requirements; and 6) investment incentives. A list of regulatory questions about measures in place is devised for the four categories 3 through 6 on which information is currently particularly scarce. Summary results are presented for twenty four developing and developed countries which are important actors in global FDI, technology and product markets. The findings of the literature addressing both the impact of these measures on technology transfer and on market competition are summarised for each of the four policy categories. The paper also explores the extent to which various ITT measures are covered by existing international agreements, with a view to helping inform future approaches. The concluding section elaborates on policy implications.
    Keywords: competition, FDI, innovation, intellectual property, international technology transfer, international trade
    JEL: F1 F13 F15 F23 O3
    Date: 2017–11–20

This nep-ino issue is ©2017 by Uwe Cantner. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.