nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2017‒09‒10
23 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Clean Energy Innovation in Latin America By Miller, Justin; Viscidi, Lisa
  2. Explicating the role of innovation intermediaries in the 'unknown': a contingency approach By Marine Agogué; Elsa Berthet; Tobias Fredberg; Pascal Le Masson; Blanche Segrestin; Martin Stoetzel; Martin Wiener; Anna Yström
  3. Per Unit vs. Ad Valorem Royalty Licensing By Cuihong Fan; Byoung Heon Jun; Elmar G. Wolfstetter
  4. Accessibility, absorptive capacity and innovation in European urban areas By Clément Gorin
  5. FabLab – a new space for commons-based peer production By Isabelle Liotard
  6. Should we manage the process of inventing? Designing for patentability By Olga Kokshagina; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil
  7. Measuring Productivity and Absorptive Capacity Evolution in OECD Economies By De Visscher, Stef; Eberhardt, Markus; Everaert, Gerdie
  8. Impact of innovation policy on firm innovation – A comparison of Finland and Sweden, 1970-2013 By Torregrosa, Sara; Pelkonen, Antti; Oksanen, Juha; Kander, Astrid
  9. Shacklean Uncertainty and Cultural Embeddedness as Innovation Constraints in the UK By Tubadji, Annie; Nijkamp, Peter; Santarelli, Enrico
  10. Innovation Adoption and Liquidity Constraints in the Presence of Grassroots Extension Agents: Evidence from the Peruvian Highlands By Bonjean, Isabelle; Platteau, Jean-Philippe; Verardi, Vincenzo
  11. Leading in the Unknown with Imperfect Knowledge: Situational Creative Leadership Strategies for Ideation Management By Hicham Ezzat; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil
  12. Carbon Taxes, Path Dependency, and Directed Technical Change: Evidence from the Auto Industry By Philippe Aghion; Antoine Dechezleprêtre; David Hémous; Ralf Martin; John Van Reenen
  13. Knowledge triangle policies and practices in Germany By Daimer, Stephanie; Dehio, Jochen; Rothgang, Michael
  14. Towards a network model of innovation in sport – the case of product innovation in nautical sport clusters By Anna Gerke
  15. Firm Capabilities, Technological Dynamism and Innovation Internationalisation – a Behavioural Approach By Schubert, Torben; Baier, Elisabeth; Rammer, Christian
  16. Knowledge spillovers and absorptive capacity - institutional evidence from the 'German Mittelstand' By Proeger, Till
  17. How to design new representations and to innovate ? By Gilbert Giacomoni
  18. Moving Citizens and Deterring Criminals: Innovation in Public Transport Facilities By Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo; Duque, Juan Carlos; Urrego, Joaquin A.
  19. Creative Destruction and Subjective Well-Being By Philippe Aghion; Ufuk Akcigit; Angus Deaton; Alexandra Roulet
  20. Building Responsible Innovation Ecosystem, a new approach for inter-organizational cooperation By Joël Ntsondé; Franck Aggeri
  21. Decoding Patent Examination Services By Lluís Gimeno Fabra; Bruno Van Pottelsberghe
  22. Market Structure and Innovation Policies in France By Matthieu Lardeau
  23. Tariffs, R&D, and Two Merger Policies By ARZANDEH, Mehdi; GUNAY, Hikmet

  1. By: Miller, Justin; Viscidi, Lisa
    Abstract: Clean energy research and commercialization have taken off over the last decade. The annual number of clean technology patent documents more than tripled between 2000 and 2014,while venture capital (VC) investment in the clean tech sector overall doubled in 2010-2014 compared to the previous five years, with most clean tech research and investment focused on energy. But more needs to be done. Governments must triple annual spending on energy research and development (R&D) to more than $50 million to meet climate change mitigation goals, according to the International Energy Agency. This report examines clean energy technology development in Brazil, Mexico and Chile, which are among the Latin American countries with the greatest potential to expand clean energy research and commercialization. All three countries are part of “Mission Innovation,” a global initiative to accelerate public and private clean energy innovation, which was launched during the 2015 United Nations climate talks in Paris. Member countries have committed to double clean energy research and development spending over the five years to 2020.
    Keywords: Ambiente, Cambio climático, Energía, Innovación,
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Marine Agogué (HEC Montréal - HEC Montréal); Elsa Berthet (INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Tobias Fredberg (Management of Organizational Renewal and Entrepreneurship - Chalmers University of Technology [Gothenburg]); Pascal Le Masson (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Blanche Segrestin (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Martin Stoetzel (Chair of Information Systems III - University Erlangen-Nuremberg); Martin Wiener (Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research - ZAE Bayern); Anna Yström (Management of Organizational Renewal and Entrepreneurship - Chalmers University of Technology [Gothenburg])
    Abstract: Purpose – Innovation intermediaries have become key actors in open innovation (OI) contexts. Research has improved the understanding of the managerial challenges inherent to intermediation in situations in which problems are rather well defined. Yet, in some OI situations, the relevant actor networks may not be known, there may be no clear common interest, or severe problems may exist with no legitimate common place where they can be discussed. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the research on innovation intermediaries by showing how intermediaries address managerial challenges related to a high degree of unknown. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw upon the extant literature to highlight the common core functions of different types of intermediaries. The authors then introduce the " degree of unknown " as a new contingency variable for the analysis of the role of intermediaries for each of these core functions. The authors illustrate the importance of this new variable with four empirical case studies in different industries and countries in which intermediaries are experiencing situations of high level of unknown. Findings – The authors highlight the specific managerial principles that the four intermediaries applied in creating an environment for collective innovation. Originality/value – Thereby, the authors clarify what intermediation in the unknown may entail.
    Keywords: Innovation intermediaries,Degree of unknown,Open innovation,Innovation management,Collaborative innovation
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Cuihong Fan (Shanghai University of Finance and Economics); Byoung Heon Jun (Department of Economics, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Elmar G. Wolfstetter (Department of Economics, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea)
    Abstract: We consider the licensing of a non-drastic innovation by an innovator who interacts with a potential licensee in a downstream Cournot market. We compare two kinds of license contracts: per unit and ad valorem, combined with fixed fees. Assuming that antitrust authorities apply the same principle to review ad valorem royalty license contracts which they apply to per unit royalty license contracts, we show that per unit royalty licensing is more profitable if the licensor is more efficient in using the innovation, whereas ad valorem royalty licensing is more profitable if the licensee is more efficient. This explains why and when these licensing schemes should be observed.
    Keywords: Innovation, patent licensing, royalty contracts.
    JEL: D21 D43 D44 D45
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Clément Gorin (Univ Lyon, UJM Saint-Etenne, GATE L-SE UMR 5824, F-42023 Saint- Etienne, France)
    Abstract: Empirical studies on the geography of innovation have established that skilled workers’ mobility and collaboration networks shape the diffusion of knowledge across firms and regions. At the same time, the literature on absorptive capacity insisted on the importance of local research capabilities to take advantage of knowledge developed elsewhere. This paper inves- tigates both phenomena in an integrated framework by assuming that mobility and networks provide access to knowledge, but the proportion of accessible knowledge effectively used for innovation depends on absorptive capacity. Such complementaries in regional research efforts are effectively captured using a spatial Durbin model in which the connectivity structure stems from mobility and collaboration patterns. Results confirm the relative importance of these two channels in the diffusion of knowledge, and suggests that human capital increases absorptive capacity. These findings have implications for the geography of innovation. While greater accessibility encourages convergence, the notion of absorptive capacity implies a self-reinforcing effect leading to divergence.
    Keywords: Innovation, Mobility, Network, Absorptive capacity, Spatial Durbin model, Urban areas
    JEL: C33 J61 O31 O33
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Isabelle Liotard (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Over the last 20 years, companies’ innovation practices have been revolutionised with the emergence of Web 2.0 and the possibilities offered by digital technology. Having paved the way with the concepts of open innovation (OI), Chesbrough (2003, 2006) and Von Hippel (2006) have conceptualised a trend that radically alters our classic design and research model. Challenging the traditional principle of innovation, which is internal and “closed”, the concept of OI has shed light on brand new practices that aim to boost a company’s innovative capacity through its relations and exchanges with the exterior. Even though this concept alone does not cover completely new tools (licence agreements or partnerships and networks are well-known mechanisms), it nonetheless remains that Open Innovation promotes new mechanisms that enable companies to open up to the outside world (in the widest sense of the term). Internet-based digital tools make it possible to create intermediation platforms and websites for companies whose aim is to seek out knowledge, skills and expertise beyond their own borders and beyond their well-identified circles of more or less direct partners (Liotard & Revest, 2017). The great strength of Web 2.0 is, then, to open the company up to the exterior, in the broadest sense because the “the exterior” now includes everyone (Internauts, students, employees, etc.), with the unprecedented characteristic of their having no previous connection with the company in question. Crowdsourcing now gives access to a great number of innovative proposals , and contributes to bottom-up forms of innovation. However, these new practices are not the only ones to emerge, and other formats are now radically transforming innovation’s traditional foundations. In particular, spaces known as FabLabs (FL) are currently springing up all over the world. This wave, instigated in 1998 by MIT professor Neil Gerhenfeld, has become widespread, and has led to the constitution of a network of FabLabs in both developed countries and the Global South . Notably, these collaboration spaces, stemming from a desire to share knowledge and openings, call into question production (which becomes local), intellectual property (more open, based on open source files and pooling material), hierarchy (peer communities enable projects to be carried out and FabLabs are emerging as non-hierarchical, horizontal spaces), and lastly, the role of the individual in a certain number of initiatives. These digital manufacturing spaces make digitally-controlled machines and 3D printers available, representing not only a possibility for decentralised production and design for individuals but also offering open production spaces for both small and large companies, which also go there to seek training. The aim of this paper is to shed light on this new type of space and to define the different business models. It is based on a series of interviews we conducted between January and April 2017 with FabManagers from the Paris area and other regions in France
    Keywords: FabLab,innovation,collaborative economy,Do It Yourself
    Date: 2017–06–30
  6. By: Olga Kokshagina (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pascal Le Masson (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Benoit Weil (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The IP design is often neglected by the management literature, whereas the issue of the strategic IP management begins with IP creation. This paper intends to deal with IP as an asset to be designed and focuses on IP design by ensuring novelty and inventive step of the inventions and not their quantity. By building on the most recent design theories like Conceot Knowledge design theory, this research introduces a general framework of patent design that allows controlling for " patentability " criteria, describe a patent in a unique way using actions, effects and associated knowledge and consider reasoning of person skilled in the art. Using the introduced model, the existing patent design methods are compared and their performance characterized using an introduced patent design model. The results show that patent proposal quality depends on the capacity to extend the existing knowledge combinations; to overcome the initial design reasoning of person skilled in the art and ensure sufficient inventive step and novelty. Finally, the patent design model actually demonstrates that there is an unexplored property of design theories-non-substitution-showing that the order in design is irreversible and influences the quality of results.
    Keywords: patentability,patent design,C-K Theory,intellectual property,innovation
    Date: 2017
  7. By: De Visscher, Stef; Eberhardt, Markus; Everaert, Gerdie
    Abstract: We develop a new way to estimate cross-country production functions which allows us to parametrize unobserved non-factor inputs (total factor productivity) as a global technology process combined with country-specific time-varying absorptive capacity. The advantage of our approach is that we do not need to adopt proxies for absorptive capacity such as investments in research and development (R&D) or human capital, or specify explicit channels through which global technology can transfer to individual countries, such as trade, FDI or migration: we provide an endogenously-created index for relative absorptive capacity which is easy to interpret and encompasses potential proxies and channels. Our implementation adopts an unobserved component model and uses a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to obtain posterior estimates for all model parameters. This contribution to empirical methodology allows researchers to employ widely-available data for factor inputs (capital, labor) and GDP or value-added in order to arrive at policy-relevant insights for industrial and innovation policy. Applying our methodology to a panel of 31 advanced economies we chart the dynamic evolution of global TFP and country-specific absorptive capacity and then demonstrate the close relationship between our estimates and salient indicators of growth-enhancing economic policy.
    Keywords: absorptive capacity; common factor model; MCMC; time-varying parameters; total factor productivity; unobserved component model
    JEL: C21 C23 F43 O33
    Date: 2017–08
  8. By: Torregrosa, Sara (Department of Economic History, Lund University); Pelkonen, Antti (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland); Oksanen, Juha (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland); Kander, Astrid (Department of Economic History, Lund University)
    Abstract: To what extent have public policies contributed to the innovation performance of Finland and Sweden in the period 1970-2013? This paper aims to assess the share of innovations stimulated by the public sector, specifically because of receiving public funding or being the result of research collaboration with public institutions. We combine survey and LBIO results on these variables, to overcome reporting biases found in the two methods. The main data comes from the new UDIT dataset, which gathers the most significant innovations of both countries for the period, in total about 4,100 Swedish and 2,600 Finnish innovations. It has been constructed following the LBIO method (Literature Based Innovation Output), which obtains information on relevant commercialized innovations from general technology journals as well as industry specific trade journals. Our results indicate that Finland had a substantially larger public involvement in these innovations than Sweden. This is specially true in the years between 1990 and 2000, when we see a drop in the relative role of the Swedish public sector in innovation output, while the Finnish trends are constant or slightly increasing over the period. However, in both countries public policies lie behind a significant share of the innovations (30-50% in Finland, 15-35% in Sweden), and in the Swedish case we can further assess that the publicly stimulated innovations were more often found among the most significant new products (written about in several articles).
    Keywords: public policy; innovation; LBIO method
    JEL: I28 N70 O38 O57
    Date: 2017–04–26
  9. By: Tubadji, Annie; Nijkamp, Peter; Santarelli, Enrico
    Abstract: We focus on both individual and local uncertainty to explain the innovation potential of entrepreneurs in the NUTS1 UK regions in 2005 and 2009. The ‘potential surprise function’ (Shackle, 1949) clarifying why sometimes promising business choices are truncated is taken as a determinant of an entrepreneur’s innovation decision. GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) data and data on psychological types are used in the empirical analysis. The econometric estimation strategy addresses both the issue of selection bias (due to uncertainty) and that of zero-inflated data (i.e., presence of only a few highly innovative actors in comparison to the majority in our sample). Findings suggest that local uncertainty is the predominant determinant of individual entrepreneurial choice. The regional effect appears to amount to about 4% of the innovation differences across NUTS1 UK regions, while almost one third of it is determined by the local level of uncertainty bias. Thus, the novelty of the present study is that it shows how differences in local cultural tolerance to uncertainty may explain differences in the quantity of truncated innovative ideas among localities.
    Keywords: potential surprise function,entrepreneurship,innovation,knowledge,epistemic uncertainty,cultural embeddedness,Culture Based Development,quality ladder
    JEL: Z10 D81 R11
    Date: 2017
  10. By: Bonjean, Isabelle; Platteau, Jean-Philippe; Verardi, Vincenzo
    Abstract: To analyze the role of the income constraint in slowing innovation adoption, this paper uses a technology diffusion program based on the work of business-oriented grassroots extension agents in the Peruvian Highlands. Taking advantage of a multiplicity of innovations with different characteristics and of information about innovation suppliers who can grant seller credit, we show that the income constraint operates in a limited manner. Moreover, due to higher trust associated with greater familiarity, households are better able to adopt costly and indivisible innovations when a supplier/lender resides in their own community. The story emerging from the program evokes the relatively egalitarian process underlying the Green Revolution as it has taken place in Asian agriculture, in particular. Overall, our conclusion goes against the pessimistic assessment of the impact of extension work in poor areas that emerges from the current literature.
    Keywords: credit; Innovation adoption; liquidity constraint; Trust
    Date: 2017–09
  11. By: Hicham Ezzat (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pascal Le Masson (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Benoit Weil (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In a fast-changing world, constantly innovating remains one of the principal challenges most organizations are facing nowadays. Survival of organizations became principally linked to the creative generation capacity of their staffs. Nonetheless, fixation imposes a key constraint to the aptitude of individuals to constantly come up with innovative ideas. Numerous studies have highlighted the significant role that could be played by leadership in this regard. Nevertheless, most of these works studied leadership's role from a social perspective, reducing the function of creative leaders as facilitators. From a more cognitive perspective, very few works have shed the light on the role of creative leaders during ideation processes. However, very recent studies showed that leaders could efficiently play the role of de-fixators, by preparing carefully their interventions (instructions, feedbacks, etc.) within the ideation process, according to their capacity to recognize the frontier between fixation and de-fixation of a project. In the present paper, we have furthered these findings, by exploring the effect of feedbacks, in specific cases in which leaders lead their teams in the unknown with imperfect knowledge. Based on varying levels of knowledge (leaders' ability to recognize if a particular idea generated by his team is inside or outside fixation), we implemented a theoretical model for ideation management using design and probability theories. Using a theory-driven experimental procedure, we showed in this paper that leadership strategies for ideation management should adopt less generic and universal tactics (such as brainstorming rules for example), but rather more situational approaches depending on followers' capacity to think out of the dominant design. 2
    Keywords: leadership, creativity, ideation, fixation, contingency,Feedback
    Date: 2017–06–11
  12. By: Philippe Aghion (CDF - Collège de France - CdF - Collège de France, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics, CIAR - Canadian Institute for Advanced Research - Université de Montréal, Department of Economics, Harvard University); Antoine Dechezleprêtre (Centre for Economic Performance - LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment - LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science); David Hémous (Insead - INSEAD - INSEAD); Ralf Martin (Imperial College London, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment - LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science, Centre for Economic Performance - LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science); John Van Reenen (National Bureau of Economic Research - National Bureau of Economic Research, Centre for Economic Performance - LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science)
    Abstract: Can directed technical change be used to combat climate change? We construct new firm-level panel data on auto industry innovation distinguishing between “dirty” (internal combustion engine) and “clean” (e.g., electric, hybrid, and hydrogen) patents across 80 countries over several decades. We show that firms tend to innovate more in clean (and less in dirty) technologies when they face higher tax-inclusive fuel prices. Furthermore, there is path dependence in the type of innovation (clean/dirty) both from aggregate spillovers and from the firm’s own innovation history. We simulate the increases in carbon taxes needed to allow clean technologies to overtake dirty technologies.
    Keywords: Carbon Taxes
    Date: 2016–01
  13. By: Daimer, Stephanie; Dehio, Jochen; Rothgang, Michael
    Abstract: This publication discusses results from a study on knowledge triangle (KT) policies and practices in Germany. Our study analyzes characteristics of the situation in Germany, where the interaction between the different policy levels is rather crucial for understanding KT policies and (non-university) public research institutions play an important role in the KT. We see different forms of interaction between the different angles of the KT: between research and innovation (with a clear focus on the "third mission" of higher education institutions), between research and education (strongly reinforced in the past few years by instruments aiming at a higher quality of education), and between innovation and education (e.g. via participation of representatives from the economy and society in the accreditation process of new B.A. and M.A. study programmes). The second part presents results from case studies of two German higher education institutions. We see that the interaction between different policy levels is crucial for understanding KT policies, and that (non-university) public research institutions (PRIs) play an important role in the KT. Third mission policies and science-industry linkages are thriving, but their adoption by higher education institutions and public research institutes varies greatly depending on the institutions' structure, culture and location (regional context).
    Date: 2017
  14. By: Anna Gerke (Audencia Recherche - Audencia Business School)
    Abstract: Sport and sport equipment are permanently subject to innovation. The current research on innovation sources in sport industries has focused on user innovation and firm-internal sources of innovation. This paper uses the network approach to analyze external links as sources of product innovation in nautical sport clusters. It addresses the question: how can sport organizations effectively use interorganizational links for innovation? An empirical study identifies and compares innovation practices in the Auckland sailing cluster in New Zealand with the Victorian surfing cluster in Australia. In total 52 firms, non-profit-organizations, and governing bodies were interviewed. In spite of much existing research focusing on internal firm resources and end users as sources of innovation in the sport sector, interorganizational linkages provide rich sources of innovation for organizations located in clustered sport industries. This research identifies 11 practices that can be imitated by other organizations located in sport clusters or similar settings. Eight practices occur in both clusters while three only occur in one of both. This paper contributes to knowledge on mechanisms for information and knowledge transfer that leverage innovation via interorganizational linkages.
    Keywords: interorganizational links, product innovation, sport clusters, networks, sailing, surfing
    Date: 2017–06–15
  15. By: Schubert, Torben (CIRCLE, Lund University); Baier, Elisabeth (HWTK, Baden-Baden); Rammer, Christian (ZEW, Mannheim)
    Abstract: We develop a behavioural framework of bounded rational decision-making under uncertainty by which we analyse the effect of technological dynamism in the firm’s environment on its decisions to internationalise innovation. Arguing that the firm’s technological performance lev-el affects its risk-preferences, a key-prediction is that firms with low technological compe-tences will internationalise innovation when faced by technological uncertainty while firms with high competences will withdraw from international innovation. A fully rational absorptive-capacity framework would predict the opposite relationship because it ignores the role of dif-ferential risk-preferences. We test our framework using data from the German Community Innovation Survey (CIS).
    Keywords: innovation internationalisation; speed of technological change; bounded rationality; prospect theory; uncertainty; technological capabilities
    JEL: F21 F23 L22 O32
    Date: 2017–09–01
  16. By: Proeger, Till
    Abstract: Recent extensions to the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship (KSTE) show that the successful commercialization of new knowledge by incumbents depends on their absorptive capacities. For policy-makers focusing on increasing incumbents' innovative performance, the systematic reduction of knowledge filter through improved absorptive capacities thus becomes a crucial goal. While the general working mechanisms of knowledge filter have been analyzed within the KSTE framework, few institutional solutions to increase absorptive capacities have been put forth. This study provides an initial case study explaining a specific institutional framework fostering the systematic penetration of knowledge filters by incumbent firms in the case of German SMEs. Using a set of 177 in-depth interviews with firm representatives, the system of interrelated organizations, institutional arrangements, shared values and economic incentives associated with the institutional structures for knowledge spillovers for German SMEs are described. I identify institutional characteristics connected to the dual system of vocational training, regulatory measures and economic incentives mutually enforcing and fostering broad knowledge spillovers. This exploratory approach enables deriving hypotheses for the further study of knowledge filters as well as policy implications for the design of institutions increasing incumbents' absorptive capacities.
    Keywords: absorptive capacity,entrepreneurship,knowledge filter,knowledge spillovertheory of entrepreneurship,networks,small and medium enterprises
    JEL: D21 D82 H41 K23 L14
    Date: 2017
  17. By: Gilbert Giacomoni (AgroParisTech - Institut des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l'Environnement, IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12)
    Abstract: Innovation can be defined as a process that stems from the design of an idea, a behavior or a new object, to its acceptance and its widespread application. It could offer stakeholders in a business or more generally in a community, the opportunity to reach Eurêka – the « open sesame of well-being and success. This article focuses on the understanding of the process from the point of view of design science and the science of decision-making. It provides a new conceptual framework designed from theoretical developments and from interventions-based researches done in large well-known established groups as well as in start-ups. Finally, this article concludes on the fundamental mechanisms and the exploratory methodology that should be adopted to design a collective strategy and evaluate human potential.
    Abstract: L’innovation peut se définir comme un processus qui conduit de la conception d’une idée, d’un comportement ou d’un objet nouveau à son acceptation et à son application généralisée. Elle peut offrir aux parties prenantes, au sein d’une entreprise ou plus généralement d’une communauté humaine, l’opportunité d’accéder à l’Eurêka – sésame de bien-être et de réussite. Cet article se focalise sur la compréhension de ce processus du point de vue des sciences de la conception et de la décision. Il apporte un cadre conceptuel nouveau issu de développements théoriques et de recherches-interventions en entreprises grand public ou en création. Enfin, il conclut sur les mécanismes fondamentaux et sur la méthodologie exploratoire qu’il conviendrait de suivre en termes de stratégie collective et d’évaluation des potentiels.
    Keywords: innovation processes, collective strategy, design, decision, knowledge
    Date: 2017–05–17
  18. By: Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo; Duque, Juan Carlos; Urrego, Joaquin A.
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between urban public transportation innovation and crime. In 2004, the city of Medellin in Colombia developed an innovative public transportation system based on cable cars (Metrocable) to reach dense, isolated and dangerous neighborhoods. Using Spatial Difference in Difference approaches and a rich dataset at spatial analytical level, using max-p modeling, we explore the effects of the Metrocable on crime and its mechanisms. We find a significant impact on homicides reduction in the treated neighborhoods, especially in the medium run. Homicides decreased around 41% more than the general crime reduction in the city between 2004 and 2006, and by 49% between 2004 and 2012. We explore two mechanisms through which this intervention may affect the level of criminality, one is reducing the travel costs and improving accessibility to the rest of the city for low-income population (socioeconomic mechanism); the other is the increasing of the probability of apprehension for potential and active o enders (deterrent mechanism).
    Keywords: Ciudades, Innovación, Investigación socioeconómica, Pobreza, Seguridad ciudadana, Transporte,
    Date: 2016
  19. By: Philippe Aghion (CIAR - Canadian Institute for Advanced Research - Université de Montréal, Department of Economics, Harvard University, NBER - National Bureau of Economic Research - National Bureau of Economic Research, CDF - Collège de France - CdF - Collège de France, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics, LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science); Ufuk Akcigit (Princeton University [Pinceton], University of Chicago); Angus Deaton (Princeton University [Pinceton]); Alexandra Roulet (Department of Economics, Harvard University)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the relationship between turnover-driven growth and subjective well-being. Our model of innovation-led growth and unemployment predicts that: (i) the effect of creative destruction on expected individual welfare should be unambiguously positive if we control for unemployment, less so if we do not; (ii) job creation has a positive and job destruction has a negative impact on well-being; (iii) job destruction has a less negative impact in areas with more generous unemployment insurance policies; and (iv) job creation has a more positive effect on individuals that are more forward-looking. The empirical analysis using cross-sectional MSA (metropolitan statistical area) -level and individual-level data provide empirical support to these predictions.
    Keywords: Well being
    Date: 2016–10
  20. By: Joël Ntsondé (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Franck Aggeri (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In order to develop more sustainable projects and deal with the current global environmental crisis, an increasing number of actors are willing to set up models of circular economy and need to develop cooperative approaches to handle the complexity inherent to these models. However, in management literature, the field of collective strategies and inter-organizational cooperation is relatively emerging and still need to be expanded, especially regarding sustainable development issues. So the underlying question we address in this paper is to determine which processes socio-economic actors rely on to build up these collective strategies and inter-organizational cooperation. Empirically, our research focuses on food waste reduction initiatives, using a qualitative method to study several projects which aimed at applying models of circular economy to the food production and distribution chain in Paris Region in France. This research led us to identify a new form of collective action that we outline by introducing the concept of responsible innovation ecosystem. This concept can be used in management to understand how heterogeneous actors can cooperate to develop innovative and sustainable projects.
    Keywords: heterogeneous actors,innovation ecosystem, inter-organizational cooperation, responsible innovation, collective innovation, circular economy, food waste
    Date: 2017–06–21
  21. By: Lluís Gimeno Fabra; Bruno Van Pottelsberghe
    Abstract: This paper puts forward a new methodology to characterize and compare the examination practice of most patent offices. The methodology codifies public information into a typology of chronological key examiner actions. This approach translates into a quantitative characterization of search completeness (i.e. classification and citation practices), certainty, speed, and stringency, or grant rate. The methodology is tested on a sample of 100 random families of a non-controversial field, comprising EPO, JPO and USPTO members. The results show profound differences across offices in respect to search completeness, certainty, and speed and indicate heterogeneous levels of stringency.
    Date: 2017–09
  22. By: Matthieu Lardeau (CRCGM - Centre de Recherche Clermontois en Gestion et Management - UdA - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand)
    Abstract: The news media industry in France has a long tradition. Le Mercure Franc¸ois is known as the first news review. It started to appear in 1611. In 1631, The´ophraste Renaudot launched the first periodical paper, La Gazette. The first daily newspaper appeared in 1777: Le Journal de Paris. In 1830s, France became known as one of the three pioneers of the modern daily press in Europe. At that time, the newspaper industry was very innovative. For instance, the French penny press based on a new business model was introduced by journalist entrepreneurs Emile de Girardin and Armand Dutacq. They founded La Presse and Le Sie`cle in June and July 1836 respectively. These mass newspapers offered a content mixing news, romanfeuilleton and commercials. Due to the mass production, they could offer a lower subscription price (Eveno, 2003). In 1863, Moı¨se Millaud launched Le Petit Journal. It used an innovative business model based on the use of modern printing machine (de la Motte and Przyblyski, 1999). In the turmoil after World War II (1944–1947), the evolution of the printed press was influenced by the intervention of the French government. The government decided to set conditions on the structure of the newspaper market with strong constraints. Although France played an important role in the development of the press and freedom of the press for centuries, it does not have a leading position anymore. France is ranked 38th in the world regarding the press freedom index (Reporters Sans Frontières, 2015). The main reason for this position is that France does not provide effective protection for the confidentiality of journalists’ sources
    Keywords: media innovation, regulations, media ownership, innovation, newspaper,France
    Date: 2017
  23. By: ARZANDEH, Mehdi; GUNAY, Hikmet
    Abstract: In an international Cournot oligopoly model, we compare two different merger policies when firms are merging endogenously and engage in research and development (R&D). In the benchmark model, countries set optimal tariff levels but do not have merger policy. If ex-ante identical firms merge internationally, they have an ex-post cost advantage over the outsiders due to tariff savings. This gives the merger an incentive to increase its R&D investment, which increases the cost dispersion further; therefore, the merger paradox, where each firm wants to be an outsider, disappears when R&D is efficient. As a result, we find different equilibrium market structures depending on the efficiency of R&D. In the second part, we compare two different merger policies, one that puts emphasis on welfare (roughly the Canadian merger policy) and another one that puts emphasis on consumer surplus (roughly the European Union’s merger policy). We show that under the “welfare-increasing” merger policy, monopoly is the equilibrium market structure when R&D is very efficient. This explains why a merger, which created a monopoly, was approved in Canada. As R&D becomes less efficient, the equilibrium market structures become less concentrated under the two different merger policies. Each merger policy can be global welfare maximizing depending on the efficiency of R&D; however, the “consumer-surplus-increasing” merger policy is optimal for a wider range of parameters.
    Keywords: Competition Policy, Merger Policy, R&D, Endogenous Mergers, Tariff, Trade, Policy, Cournot oligopoly, Merger Paradox
    Date: 2017–09

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