nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2017‒08‒06
sixteen papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Disclosure Rules and Declared Essential Patents By Rudi Bekkers; Christian Catalini; Arianna Martinelli; Cesare Righi; Timothy Simcoe
  2. Effects of Foreign Direct Investment on Intellectual Property, Patents and R&D By Arun, Korhan; Yıldırım, Durmuş Çağrı
  3. The Young, the Old and the Innovative: The Impact of R&D on Firm Performance in ICT versus Other Sectors By Koutroumpis, Pantelis; Leiponen, Aija; Thomas, Llewellyn D W
  4. ‘To sell or not to sell’: Licensing versus Selling by an outside innovator By Banerjee, Swapnendu; Poddar, Sougata
  5. Brevet d’invention et croissance économique : une analyse dans le cadre de l’économie tunisienne durant la période 1970 - 2010 By Mabrouki, Mohamed
  6. Knowledge flows, firms' competencies, and patent citations: an analysis of the trajectory of IBM By Jorge Britto; Leonardo Costa Ribeiro; Lucas Araújo; Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque
  7. Innovation and location in German knowledge intensive business service firms By Brunow, Stephan; Hammer, Andrea; Mc Cann, Philip
  8. Are higher wages good for business? An assessment under alternative innovation and investment scenarios By Caiani, Alessandro; Russo, Alberto; Gallegati, Mauro
  9. Collaborative learning as a tool for social innovation By Matei, Ani; Tirziu, Andreea-Maria
  10. How much Keynes and how much Schumpeter? An Estimated Macromodel of the US Economy By Philipp Pfeiffer
  11. Analyse empirique de la relation entre les décisions de renouvellement des brevets et les montants d’annuités By Mabrouki, Mohamed
  12. Corporate Venture Capital and the Nature of Innovation By Maxin, Hannes
  13. Are You the Right Partner ? R&D Agreement as a Screening Device By Conti, Chiara; Marini, Marco A.
  14. Openness, ICT and Entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice Asongu; Jacinta C. Nwachukwu
  15. Dynamics of Smart Specialisation Agri-food Trans-regional Cooperation By Katerina Ciampi Stancova; Alessio Cavicchi
  16. What drives social contagion in the adoption of solar photovoltaic technology By Andrea Baranzini, Stefano Carattini, Martin Peclat

  1. By: Rudi Bekkers; Christian Catalini; Arianna Martinelli; Cesare Righi; Timothy Simcoe
    Abstract: Many standard setting organizations (SSOs) require participants to disclose patents that might be infringed by implementing a proposed standard, and commit to license their “essential” patents on terms that are at least fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND). Data from these SSO intellectual property disclosures have been used in academic studies to provide a window into the standard setting process, and in legal proceedings to assess parties’ relative contributions to a standard. We develop a simple model of the disclosure process to illustrate the link between SSO rules and patent-holder incentives, and examine some of the model’s predictions using a novel dataset constructed from the disclosure archives of thirteen major SSOs. The central message of the paper is that subtle differences in the rules used by different SSOs can influence which patents are disclosed, the terms of licensing commitments, and ultimately long-run citation and litigation rates for the underlying patents.
    JEL: D22 K2 K21 L15 L17 L24 L63
    Date: 2017–07
  2. By: Arun, Korhan; Yıldırım, Durmuş Çağrı
    Abstract: As innovative firms have considerable competitive advantage; more foreign direct investment (FDI) research has been related to the innovation. The primary aim of this study is to explore how intra-regional economies interact with host countries’ innovative performance, and how they are affected by FDI. Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey, located in the South Caucasus region, are selected as examples. Numbers of patent applications, R&D expenditure (% of GDP), and intellectual property payments are chosen as factors indicative of innovation. While this research tries to explore whether these three countries, connected by large trades, can act as a clustered group; Panel cointegration and Panel OLS models are used for analysis. The results show that FDI is an important variable affecting the level of innovation in the panel analysis. Nevertheless, individual relationships with FDI vary, and cointegration analysis shows heterogeneity. That is, foreign direct investment could play a central role in increasing the level of innovation for Azerbaijan and Georgia, but it is not an important determinant of Turkey's economic innovation level. Countries should realize that when their economies are becoming stronger, FDI is not a useful tool for escalating innovation, rather they should be in clusters that can leverage innovation.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Innovation, Panel Data Analysis, Panel OLS, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia
    JEL: F21 O32 O34
    Date: 2017–06
  3. By: Koutroumpis, Pantelis; Leiponen, Aija; Thomas, Llewellyn D W
    Abstract: Although innovation opportunities within the ICT industry are assumed high in comparison with other industries because of their rapidly evolving technological trajectory, little empirical research systematically investigates the distribution of returns to R&D investment across industries and types of firms. Building on the technological opportunity framework, we examine the effect of R&D on firm revenues in a large panel of European firms and study its variation with the age, size, and sub-sector of firms. We confirm that R&D investments in ICT firms have a larger effect on their revenue performance when compared to non-ICT firms and that the effect is higher for small firms and for firms in Internet services and ICT component manufacturing. At the firm level, our results suggest that smaller and, surprisingly, older ICT firms are technologically opportunistic and exhibit the flexibility and adaptability to both identify and respond to technological opportunities and develop innovative products and services. We highlight some implications for R&D investment and policy.
    Keywords: ICT, R&D, firm performance, technological opportunity, firm age, firm size
    JEL: O31 O32 D24
    Date: 2017–08–02
  4. By: Banerjee, Swapnendu; Poddar, Sougata
    Abstract: Abstract Study of patent licensing in spatial competition is relatively sparse. We study optimal licensing policies of an outside innovator in spatial framework when the potential licensees are asymmetric. We also introduce the notion of selling the property rights of innovation. We then examine the incentive of the innovator who sell the rights and compare that with conventional licensing contracts. We address this problem in linear city with two competing asymmetric firms (potential licensees). We show the optimal licensing policy is pure royalty to both firms when cost differentials between the firms are relatively small, otherwise it is fixed fee licensing to the efficient firm only. Interestingly, we show the innovator is always better-off selling innovation to one of the firms. This holds irrespective of the size of the innovation (drastic or non-drastic) and the degree of pre-innovation cost asymmetry between the firms. Social welfare is greater under selling than licensing.
    Keywords: Outside innovator, Cost-reducing innovation, Patent Licensing, Patent Selling, Welfare, Linear city model
    JEL: D43 D45 L13
    Date: 2017–07–19
  5. By: Mabrouki, Mohamed
    Abstract: This study aims to empirically analyze the relationship between patent and economic growth, adopting the VAR approach. Indeed, in order to determine whether, in the context of the Tunisian economy and in the period from 1975 to 2010, the development of technological innovation promotes economic growth , we test an intuition of endogenous growth theory , analyzing the relationship between product growth rate (GDP) and the number of growth rates of patents filed by residents. The results indicate a statistically significant positive effect between patents filed during the previous period (t-1) and current economic growth (t). What reflects the importance of knowledge as being a decisive factor of growth.
    Keywords: Patent , Innovation, Growth , VAR , Tunisia
    JEL: C1 C22 O31 O4 O47
    Date: 2017–01
  6. By: Jorge Britto (UFF, Brazil); Leonardo Costa Ribeiro (Inmetro, Brazil); Lucas Araújo (UFF, Brazil); Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque (CEDEPLAR/UFMG, Brazil)
    Abstract: In a knowledge economy, the creation, distribution and use of knowledge become decisive factors to reinforce firms' competitiveness. At the firm level, the process of innovation involves, fundamentally, the creation of new knowledge, which implies the integration and recombination of existing knowledge that may come from different sources and locations. The analytical difficulties to deal with this subject generate a literature that tries to quantify and analyze knowledge flows between economic agents using patent citations. Those citations may provide clues for intra and inter-firms knowledge flows. The paper analyses information about patents granted by IBM in the USPTO, which is used to map knowledge flows and to correlate these flows with the evolution of IBM competences and growth strategies.
    Keywords: Patent Citations; Knowledge flows; Firms Competences, IBM Competences; IBM Strategy
    JEL: O32 O34 O39
    Date: 2017–07
  7. By: Brunow, Stephan (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Hammer, Andrea; Mc Cann, Philip
    Abstract: "Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS) are widely perceived as being important drivers of technological progress and innovation. KIBS are generally understood as depending, driving and thriving on knowledge exchanges and therefore, geographical proximity to markets, customers and suppliers would be expected to be a critical factor in their performance. This paper investigates how the innovation performance and processes of KIBS firms are related to their distance from the nearest city and also to the size of the nearest city. For this purpose we make use of detailed firm level data and consider Germany as a research field. While most current evidence on this topic emerges from Canada, we complements and add to this existing literature on the geography of KIBS by examining these issues in the German spatial setting which largely conforms to a textbook type of spatial urban hierarchy. Our probit results indeed find that there are very strong distance decay and city size effects, and these also vary according to the innovation type." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Innovation, unternehmensbezogene Dienstleistungen, Wissensarbeit, regionale Faktoren, Stadt-Umland-Beziehungen
    JEL: D22 L84 O31 R12
    Date: 2017–07–24
  8. By: Caiani, Alessandro; Russo, Alberto; Gallegati, Mauro
    Abstract: This paper aims at investigating the interplay between inequality, innovation dynamics, and investment behaviors in shaping the long-run patterns of development of a closed economy. By extending the analysis proposed in Caiani et al. (2017) we explore the effects of alternative wage regimes under different investment and technological change scenarios. Experiments results seem to de-emphasize the role of technological progress as a possible source of greater inequality. Overall, simulation results are consistent with the predominance of a wage-led growth regime in most of the scenarios analyzed: a faster growth of low and middle level workers’ wages, relative to managers’, generally exert beneficial effects on the economy and allows to counteract the labor-saving effects of technological progress. Furthermore, contrary to what is sometimes argued in the academic and political debate, a distribution more favorable to workers does not compromise firms’ profitability, but rather strengthen it creating a more favorable macroeconomic environment which encourages further innovations, stimulates investment, and sustains economic growth.
    Keywords: Innovation; Investment; Inequality; Agent-Based Macroeconomics; Stock Flow Consistent Models
    JEL: E22 E64 O41
    Date: 2017–01–31
  9. By: Matei, Ani; Tirziu, Andreea-Maria
    Abstract: The innovative pedagogy is enhanced by learning and teaching or training programmes focused on social innovation and social entrepreneurship. In this context, the academic capacity building represents a fundamental element. This paper aims to present a framework of developmental traditions that have a great influence on collective learning in order to be used as a way to boost social innovation. It shows the literature that focuses on collaborative learning and how it can be used as an instrument to boost social innovation. The methodology used to carry out the research is both bibliographic – opting here to study the work of specialists in the field, authors from Romania and abroad, and empirical – thus the theoretical approach is supported through relevant case studies from the European context and conclusions. The present and future generations will make a difference in the society they live in, with the help of the academic learning and teaching courses, when more institutions oriented on education take into consideration this type of development process. The results of this paper will show that social media tools have an important role in this context, therefore educational institutions should build spaces adapted for community learning, by using platforms and fields to which students, local communities, different stakeholders, public and private organizations have access and through which they can have the possibility to organize meetings of common interest regarding the education issue. We have identified that although technology is a main element in all life’s activities, there should also be taken into consideration the capability and willingness of individuals and institutions to cooperate and innovate, not only by electronic means, but also through traditional ways of participating in the development process of a society.
    Keywords: Collaborative learning, social innovation, social entrepreneurship, education, digital era
    Date: 2017–07–03
  10. By: Philipp Pfeiffer (Technische Universität Berlin)
    Abstract: The macroeconomic experience of the last decade stressed the importance of jointly studying the growth and business cycle fluctuations behavior of the economy. To analyze this issue, we embed a model of Schumpeterian growth into an estimated medium-scale DSGE model. Results from a Bayesian estimation suggest that investment risk premia are a key driver of the slump following the Great Recession. Endogenous innovation dynamics amplifies financial crises and helps explain the slow recovery. Moreover, financial conditions also account for a substantial share of R&D investment dynamics.
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Mabrouki, Mohamed
    Abstract: This study aims to empirically analyze the effect of scales of fees fixed by the Patent Office on renewal decisions. The objective is to discuss the empirical validity of the hypothesis, which is the heart of all renewal models, namely the renewal decisions are based on economic criteria: agents will renew their patents if the value of patent held during an additional year exceeds the cost of renewal. Indeed, we test on French data for the period from 1970 to 2000, the relationship between the proportions of renewed patents and amounts of annuities. The results indicate a statistically significant negative effect between these two variables. This confirms the theoretical assumption that the effective life of the patent can be influenced by the amount and profile of these annuities. The analysis used can improve our understanding in favor of the patent system as a means of action on innovation through the renewal system.
    Keywords: Patent,Renewal, annuities, panel
    JEL: C01 O3 O34
    Date: 2017–01
  12. By: Maxin, Hannes
    Abstract: This paper investigates a model where two corporate venture capital firms (CVCs) decide whether to finance a new venture stand-alone or together, called syndication. The CVCs obtain a cash flow if the venture succeeds. In addition, the venture has a positive or negative effect on an asset of the CVCs parental companies. This effect may differ among the parental companies. I show that the CVC faced with the weaker positive effect becomes the stand-alone investor only if the expected cash flow is low. Otherwise, in equilibrium, there are only syndicates or stand-alone investments of the CVC with the stronger positive effect. However, if one CVC faces a positive effect on its parental company's asset whereby the opponent faces a negative effect, then a syndicate is still possible. The model generates empirical predictions for syndicates consisting of several CVCs.
    Keywords: Corporate Venture Capital, Venture Capital, Nonmonetary Support, Nature of Innovation
    JEL: G24 M13
    Date: 2017–08
  13. By: Conti, Chiara; Marini, Marco A.
    Abstract: This paper focusseses on the strategic use of firms' R&D agreements to overcome R&D inefficiencies in presence of asymmetric information and research spillovers. We introduce a duopoly game where initially one firm is not fully informed on its rival's R&D productivity. We show that, without R&D agreements, the usual underinvestment problem can be exacerbated by the presence of asymmetric information. However, by proposing a R&D agreement, the uninformed firm may not only gain from the internalization of R&D investment spillovers, but also use it strategically as a screening device to assess the true type of its rival. According to the model, firms are more likely to pursuit R&D agreements in presence of similar productivity and less when their productivity gap is high. This is consistent with the empirical findings highlighting the importance of firms' similarities for R&D collaborations.
    Keywords: Asymmetric Information; Screening; Duopoly; R&D investments; R&D Spillovers; R&D agreements.
    JEL: D43 D8 D82 L00 L13 L19
    Date: 2017–07–27
  14. By: Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun); Jacinta C. Nwachukwu (Coventry University, UK)
    Abstract: This study has examined how information and communication technology (ICT) influences openness to improve the conditions of doing business in sub-Saharan Africa. The data is for the period 2000-2012. ICT is proxied with Internet and mobile phone penetration rates whereas openness is measured in terms of financial and trade globalisation. Ten indicators of doing business are used, namely: (i) cost of business start-up procedures; (ii) procedure to enforce a contract; (iii) start-up procedures to register a business; (iv) time required to build a warehouse; (v) time required to enforce a contract; (vi) time required to register a property; (vii) time required to start a business; (viii) time to export; (ix) time to prepare and pay taxes and (x) time to resolve an insolvency. The empirical evidence is based on Generalised Method of Moments with forward orthogonal deviations. While we find substantial evidence that ICT complements openness to improve conditions for entrepreneurship, the effects are contingent on the dynamics of openness, ICT and entrepreneurship. Theoretical and practical policy implications are discussed. The inquiry is based on two contemporary development concerns: the need for policy to leverage on the ICT penetration potential in the sub-region and the relevance of entrepreneurship in addressing associated issues of population growth such as unemployment.
    Keywords: Openness; ICT; Entrepreneurship; Africa
    JEL: F40 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2017–01
  15. By: Katerina Ciampi Stancova (European Commission - JRC); Alessio Cavicchi
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to inform the community of researchers, policymakers and practitioners about the dynamics of setting up the Thematic Smart Specialisation Platform on Agri-food, and to provide information about its functioning and governance. This work outlines the milestones of the process and the main achievements. The paper proposes the steps to be followed by policymakers and regional officers who are motivated to lead, support and actively contribute to a thematic platform within the Thematic Smart Specialisation Platform on Agri-food. At the same time, it discusses specific cases of such partnerships and describes the motivations and objectives of the regions that decided to embark on the journey towards establishment of specific thematic partnerships through this Platform.
    Keywords: Regional innovation policy, smart specialisation, trans-regional cooperation, Thematic Smart Specialisation Platform on Agri-food.
    Date: 2017–07
  16. By: Andrea Baranzini, Stefano Carattini, Martin Peclat
    Abstract: Increasing the use of renewable energy is central to address climate change. Recent research has suggested the existence of social contagion in the adoption of solar panels, which may contribute to accelerate the transition to a low-carbon economy. While the existing literature has focused on residential adoption only, we extend the analysis to private firms and farms, and include solar panels with different characteristics. We exploit a unique large dataset providing detailed information on about 60,000 solar installations in Switzerland, including their specific location at the street level and details on the timing of the technological adoption, and couple it with rich socioeconomic data at the municipality level. Our detailed data allow us to adopt an empirical strategy addressing the main threats to identification associated with social contagion, including homophily and reflection. We find that households’ decisions to adopt the solar technology are dependent on pre-existing adoption, and in particular on spatially close and recent installations. Firms and farms solar PV adoptions react to neighboring PV panels, although in a lesser extent than households. Furthermore, companies are more influenced by panels installed by other companies, compared to panels installed by households. By distinguishing between building-integrated and building-attached PV systems and including capacity categories, we provide evidence that both learning and imitation are important components of social contagion. As a result, our findings provide new insights on the mechanisms of social contagion and how they could be leveraged with targeted interventions.
    Date: 2017–07

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