nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2017‒07‒02
nineteen papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Bridging Organizations between University and Industry: from Science to Contract Research By Angelo Bonomi
  2. Innovation and Inequality in a Small World By Ines Lindner; Holger Strulik
  3. Innovation, patent location and tax planning by multinationals By Øystein Bieltvedt Skeie; Åsa Johansson; Carlo Menon; Stéphane Sorbe
  4. Does social inducement lead to higher open innovation investment? An experimental study By Dai, Shuanping; Yang, Guanzhong
  5. DO FIRMS INNOVATE ABROAD? - The Case of Swedish R&D in India By Jeremiah, Rupin
  6. Employment Effect of Innovation By d'Artis Kancs; Boriss Siliverstovs
  7. Dynamic Increasing Returns and Innovation Diffusion: bringing Polya Urn processes to the empirical data By Giovanni Dosi; Alessio Moneta; Elena Stepanova
  9. Development and Analysis of Economic Models of Innovation Incentives By Levin, Mark; Matrosova, Kseniya
  10. Toward an Assessment of the U.S. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program at the National Institutes of Health By Link, Albert; Scott, John
  11. Pendency and Thickets By Dietl, Marek; Skrok, Å ukasz; Benalcazar, Pablo; GÄ…tkowski, Mateusz; Rockett, Katharine
  12. The Diffusion of New Institutions: Evidence from Renaissance Venice's Patent System By Comino, Stefano; Galasso, Alberto; Graziano, Clara
  13. The Annual Survey of Entrepreneurs: An Update By Lucia Foster; Patrice Norman
  14. Living labs – instruments of social innovation in rural areas By Tirziu, Andreea-Maria; Vrabie, Catalin
  15. Promoting social innovation in rural areas through living labs By Tirziu, Andreea-Maria
  16. The role of inter-organizational proximity on the evolution of the European Aerospace R&D collaboration network. By Pier Paolo Angelini
  17. Valuation of an R&D project with three types of uncertainty By Michi Nishihara
  18. Agricultural Production and Technical Change Around the World, 1961-2010 By Malacarne, Janet Horsager; Artz, Georgeanne M.; Orazem, Peter
  19. A networkmodel for the complex behavior of the rate of profit : exploring a simulation model with overplapping technological revolutions By Leonardo Costa Ribeiro; Leonardo Gomes de Deus; Pedro Mendes Loureiro; Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque

  1. By: Angelo Bonomi (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth,Turin, Italy)
    Abstract: Two bridging organizations, NIS and Agroinnova, formed both in 2003 internally to the University of Turin, have been studied through a good practice benchmarking in view to assess their validity in the science to business process especially concerning Italian SMEs. References for benchmarking have been established by suitable definitions of technology, technology innovation and a structured model of technology followed by a description of the innovation process as a sequence of steps. Benchmarking attention has been focused on contract research and technology transfer office activities. The results of the study show that such type of bridging organizations, and especially their spin-offs in contract research, may be a good possibility to foster the science to business process. However bottlenecks exist and concern the low diffusion of an entrepreneurial mentality that limits generation of innovative ideas for new technologies despite a large activity in scientific research. Bottlenecks concerning SMEs are mainly lack of experience in R&D and technology management. Fostering of science to business process by a simple increase of funds does not appear effective without a change in mentalities, adoption of suitable industrial policies and new concepts for bridging structures and financial aids to SMEs.
    JEL: O32 O38 I23
  2. By: Ines Lindner (VU Amsterdam and Tinbergen Institute, The Netherlands); Holger Strulik (University of Goettingen, Germany)
    Abstract: We present a multi-country theory of economic growth and R&D-driven technological progress in which countries are connected by a network of knowledge exchange. Technological progress in any country depends on the state of technology in the countries it exchanges knowledge with. The diffusion of knowledge throughout the world explains a period of increasing world inequality after the take-off of the forerunners of the industrial revolution, followed by decreasing relative inequality. Knowledge diffusion through a Small World network produces an extraordinary diversity of country growth performances, including the overtaking of individual countries and the replacement of the technologically leading country in the course of world development.
    Keywords: networks, knowledge diffusion, economic growth, world income distribution
    JEL: O10 O40 D85 F43
    Date: 2017–06–23
  3. By: Øystein Bieltvedt Skeie; Åsa Johansson; Carlo Menon; Stéphane Sorbe
    Abstract: This paper assesses the effect of international differences in taxes on the choice of patent location by multinational enterprises (MNEs). The analysis is based on a large sample of patents and firms from the OECD-PATSTAT and OECD-ORBIS databases over 2004-10. The approach is to compare the number of patent applications of MNE entities with different links to other countries and thus different sets of location choices, while controlling for other factors affecting patenting behaviour. The results suggest that lower corporate taxes, either in the form of a lower statutory rate or a preferential intellectual property regime, are associated with more patent applications. Both the location of research activities, which is proxied by the location of patent inventors, and the legal ownership of patents are found to be sensitive to corporate taxes. For instance, a 5 percentage point cut in the preferential tax rate on patent income is associated with a 6% increase in patent applications. On average, about two-thirds of the increase comes from patents invented at home and one third from patents invented abroad, but the relative importance of these two effects is likely to vary with the design of the preferential regime and especially the existence of activity requirements. In addition, strong anti-avoidance measures against tax planning are found to reduce patent shifting by MNEs. Innovation, localisation des brevets et planification fiscale des multinationales Cet article évalue l'effet des différences internationales d’imposition sur le choix de l'emplacement des brevets par les entreprises multinationales. L'analyse est basée sur un large échantillon de brevets et d’entreprises des bases de données OCDE-PATSTAT et OCDE-ORBIS sur 2004-10. L'approche consiste à comparer le nombre de demandes de brevets d'entités de multinationales ayant différents liens vers d'autres pays et donc différents ensembles de choix de localisation, tout en contrôlant pour les autres facteurs qui influent sur le comportement en matière de brevets. Les résultats suggèrent qu’un niveau plus faible d’impôt sur les sociétés, soit sous la forme d'un taux légal inférieur soit d’un régime de propriété intellectuelle préférentiel, est associé à davantage de demandes de brevets. Tant la localisation des activités de recherche, qui est approchée par le lieu de résidence des inventeurs de brevets, que la propriété juridique des brevets seraient sensibles à l'impôt sur les sociétés. Par exemple, une baisse de 5 points de pourcentage du taux d'imposition préférentiel sur le revenu de brevet est associée à une augmentation de 6% des demandes de brevet. En moyenne, environ deux tiers de l'augmentation provient de brevets inventés dans le pays en question et un tiers des brevets inventés à l'étranger, mais l'importance relative de ces deux effets est susceptible de varier en fonction de la conception du régime préférentiel et plus particulièrement de l'existence d'exigences de localisation d’activité. En outre, de fortes mesures anti-évitement contre la planification fiscale réduiraient selon les estimations de l’article les transferts de brevets par les multinationales.
    Keywords: BEPS, corporate taxation, multinational enterprises, patents, research and development, tax planning
    JEL: F23 H26 O34
    Date: 2017–02–16
  4. By: Dai, Shuanping; Yang, Guanzhong
    Abstract: Open innovation has attracted an avalanche of interests from many practitioners and scholars, and is gradually becoming an acceptable scientific and managerial paradigm over the past few decades. Traditionally, however, innovative activities ought to be confidential within certain groups or individuals before the marketing process, and will be protected strictly by the intellectual property rights laws, for the sake of innovators' economic benefits and encouraging further innovation attempts. This paper aims at addressing the question of how to stimulate firms and managers to invest more resources to open innovation, and focuses on social inducement's effectiveness, in the art of a pre-recorded video, using an experimental approach. We established two open innovation investment models in which investors decide to allocate resources to open and traditional innovation projects. In the first model, we introduce the spillover effect and assume that traditional innovation projects may profit from open innovation investment. We then consider uncertainty to make the investment more realistic in the second model. The effect of social inducement on open innovation provision has been investigated in all the three settings, i. e. No Video, Full Video and Half Video. The striking result is that social inducement increases open innovation investment, but only if both induced subjects and non-induced subjects exist; meanwhile, economic uncertainty also matters.
    Keywords: open innovation,social inducement,conditional cooperation,economic uncertainty
    JEL: C92 H41 O31
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Jeremiah, Rupin (Dept. of Management and Organization)
    Abstract: This is a study of Swedish firms that have offshored their innovation functions to India. How innovation is arranged offshore is the question this paper answers. The sample is a set of Swedish firms with an R&D facility in India. Data are collected from interviews with decision makers from both the Swedish and the Indian sides, responsible for implementing the offshoring decisions. The result is an innovation configuration model which explores how Swedish firms derive value from innovation abroad.
    Keywords: Innovation configuration; Offshoring; Unlearning
    Date: 2017–03–29
  6. By: d'Artis Kancs; Boriss Siliverstovs (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: The present paper estimates and decomposes the employment e?ect of innovation by R&D intensity levels. Our micro-econometric analysis is based on a large international panel data set from the EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard. Employing ?exible semi-parametric methods – the generalised propensity score – allows us to recover the full functional relationship between the R&D investment and ?rm employment, and to address important econometric issues, which is not possible in the standard estimation approach used in the previous literature. Our results suggest that modest innovators do not create and may even destruct jobs by raising their R&D expenditures. Most of the jobs in the economy are created by innovation followers: increasing innovation by 1% may increase employment up to 0.7%. The job creation e?ect of innovation reaches its peak when the R&D intensity is around 100% of the total capital expenditure, after which the positive employment e?ect declines and becomes statistically insigni?cant. Innovation leaders do not create jobs by further increasing their R&D expenditures, which are already very high.
    Date: 2017–02
  7. By: Giovanni Dosi; Alessio Moneta; Elena Stepanova
    Abstract: The patterns of innovation diffusion are well approximated by the logistic curves. This is the robust empirical fact confirmed by many studies in innovations dynamics. Here we show that the logistic pattern of innovation diffusion can be replicated by the time-dependent stochastic process with positive feedbacks along the diffusion trajectory. The dynamic increasing returns process is modeled by generalized Polya urns. So far, urn models have been mostly used to study the [path-dependent] limit properties. On the contrary, this work focuses on the transient [finite time] properties studying the conditions under which urn models capture the logistic trajectories which often track empirical diffusion process. As examples, we calibrate the process to match several cases of diffusion of motor ships in European countries.
    Keywords: Polya urn schemes, Innovation diffusion, Logistic diffusion pattern, Dynamic increasing returns
    Date: 2017–06–26
  8. By: Jeremiah, Rupin (Dept. of Management and Organization)
    Abstract: This is a study of Swedish firms that have offshored their innovation functions to India. How managers view offshoring decision choices within and across firms and how can we evaluate the decision making is the subject of this study. The sample is a set of Swedish firms with some R&D facility in India. Data are collected from interviews with managers and decision makers from both the Swedish and the Indian sides, responsible for implementing the offshoring decisions. The result is the development of a decision quality evaluation framework which can be used to possibly make better quality decisions when offshoring innovation.
    Keywords: Decision quality; Innovation offshoring
    Date: 2017–03–29
  9. By: Levin, Mark (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Matrosova, Kseniya (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: This paper is an analysis of the innovation incentives. The aim of this study is to create the model describing innovation processes, and to research the mechanisms stimulating innovation in the economic systems. The first section is devoted to the review of the models and approaches for analyzing the effects of the market competition on the innovation activity of firms. The second section describes several models of behavior of companies in the domestic and international market. The final section presents the original model of the effectiveness of the schemes of innovation incentives at different levels of diffusion of innovation and technological development.
    Keywords: innovation, innovation incentives, diffusion of innovation, simulation analysis, competition, èííîâàöèè, ñòèìóëèðîâàíèå, äèôôóçèÿ èííîâàöèé, èìèòàöèîííîå ìîäåëèðîâàíèå, êîíêóðåíöèÿ
    Date: 2017–06
  10. By: Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Scott, John (Dartmouth College)
    Abstract: The Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982, which established the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, is arguably the hallmark policy initiative in the United States to support technology development and commercialization in small firms. While scholars have studied this program in detail, there has yet to be a systematic assessment of how well it is meeting its legislated goals of stimulating technological innovation and increasing private sector commercialization. We use a unique set of data on projects funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) SBIR program to assess the extent to which these program goals are being met. We find that, relative to a counterfactual control group, NIH can be characterized as supporting, on average, the development of high commercialization risk technologies, and we suggest that this finding aligns with the goals of the SBIR program and may in fact be for the common weal.
    Keywords: SBIR program; technology; innovation; commercial risk
    JEL: O31 O38
    Date: 2017–06–05
  11. By: Dietl, Marek; Skrok, Å ukasz; Benalcazar, Pablo; GÄ…tkowski, Mateusz; Rockett, Katharine
    Abstract: This article empirically investigates the results of an expert-based method to identify ‘patent thickets’ for a unique USPTO dataset. The research aims to identify the overall effect of patent thickets on patent pendency. We find that patents belonging to a thicket are, on average, granted protection sooner. At the same time, we show that patent groups with higher thicket frequency have higher average pendency time, as do patents within larger thickets. Both suggest spillovers in processing time across patents. We additionally find mild support that the first patent in a thicket has a longer pendency period.
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Comino, Stefano; Galasso, Alberto; Graziano, Clara
    Abstract: What factors affect the diffusion of new economic institutions? This paper examines this question exploiting the introduction of the first regularized patent system which appeared in the Venetian Republic in 1474. We begin by developing a model which links patenting activity of craft guilds with provisions in their statutes. The model predicts that guild statutes that are more effective at preventing outsider's entry and at mitigating price competition lead to less patenting. We test this prediction on a new dataset which combines detailed information on craft guilds and patents in the Venetian Republic during the Renaissance. We find a negative association between patenting activity and guild statutory norms which strongly restrict entry and price competition. We show that guilds which originated from medieval religious confraternities were more likely to regulate entry and competition, and that the effect on patenting is robust to instrumenting guild statutes with their quasi-exogenous religious origin. We also find that patenting was more widespread among guilds geographically distant from Venice, and among guilds in cities with lower political connection which we measure exploiting a new database on noble families and their marriages with members of the great council. Our analysis suggests that local economic and political conditions may have a substantial impact on the diffusion of new economic institutions.
    Keywords: Competition; Guilds; institutions; patents
    JEL: K23 O33 O34
    Date: 2017–06
  13. By: Lucia Foster; Patrice Norman
    Abstract: We provide an update on the Annual Survey of Entrepreneurs (ASE), which is a relatively new Census Bureau business survey. About 290,000 employer firms in the private, non-agricultural U.S. economy are in the ASE sample. Its content is relatively constant over collections, allowing for comparability over time; however, each year there are approximately ten new questions in a changing topical module. Earlier topical modules covered innovation (2014) and management practices (2015). The topical module for reference year 2016 covers business advice and planning, finance, and regulations. The ASE is collected through a partnership of the Census Bureau with the Kauffman Foundation and the Minority Business Development Agency. Qualified researchers on approved projects may request access to the ASE micro data through the Federal Statistical Research Data Center (FSRDC) network.
    Keywords: Census Bureau, entrepreneurship, firm-level data, topical module
    Date: 2017–01
  14. By: Tirziu, Andreea-Maria; Vrabie, Catalin
    Abstract: In a country where nearly half the population lives in rural areas, it is difficult to link concepts such as smart cities, Internet of Things to the local government’s priority list. However, lately there have been numerous initiatives to improve access to information using ICT in the rural communities as well. The purpose of this article is not to exhaustively measure the already adopted means, but merely to provide a series of items retrieved as barriers to ICT projects meant to develop these communities. Following the studies conducted so far (in Romania there are about 2,700 communes – the lowest administrative entities of our country), it was observed that the digital divide is found in 100% of these areas. At the urban level – especially in the big cities, pilot projects for developing digital literacy among the elder population had a relatively high success. Such programs have been initiated at the level of the communes whose living standard is higher (the ones that are located near large cities). Their successes, though certainly less visible than in the urban communities, are noteworthy. Most such programs have targeted educational and health fields. The article we propose aims to show these programs’ implementation degree in Romania, providing as examples the most successful cases that help the social innovation process. The intention with which we start this study is to create a list of objectives that the initiators of these programs have to take into account during the preparation of those programs.
    Keywords: living labs, social innovation, rural areas
    JEL: O35
    Date: 2017–05–04
  15. By: Tirziu, Andreea-Maria
    Abstract: In Romania, nearly half the population lives in rural areas, therefore it is difficult to associate concepts like smart cities and Internet of Things to the local government’s priority list. Nonetheless, recently there have been various initiatives to increase access to information using ICT methods in the rural communities as well. The purpose of this paper is not to exhaustively measure the already adopted means, but simply to provide a series of items considered barriers to ICT projects meant to contribute to these communities’ development. By researching the studies conducted so far (in Romania, there are about 2700 communes, these being the lowest administrative units), it was observed that the digital divide is found in 100% of these areas. At the urban level, mainly in the big cities, pilot projects for developing digital literacy among the senior population had a relatively high success. This type of programs has been initiated at the level of the communes with higher living standards, generally the ones located near large cities. Their success, though surely less visible than in the cities, is notable. The majority of these programs have the educational and health fields as targets. This article aims to show these programs’ implementation degree in Romania, providing as examples the most successful cases that help the social innovation process. The intention is to generate a list of objectives that the initiators of these programs have to take into consideration during the programs’ preparatory process.
    Keywords: social innovation, rural areas’ development, living labs
    JEL: O35
    Date: 2017–06–15
  16. By: Pier Paolo Angelini
    Abstract: The influence exerted by five dimensions of inter-organizational proximity (geographical, organizational, network, institutional and technological) on the evolution of the collaboration networks subsidized by the European Union Framework Programmes in the Aerospace sector is studied. The role of the proximity dimensions is controlled by means of a longitudinal analysis with a stochastic actor-oriented model, which will be run on four observations of the network starting in the fourth (1994-1998) and ending in the seventh Framework Programme (2007-2013). Results show that organizational proximity is the most important driver for the longitudinal evolution of the network. Further, this form of proximity is constant in time, analogously to the geographical one which, on its side, only moderately affects network’s evolution. Network proximity plays a weak but positive influence, while the institutional and technological dimensions do not affect the evolution of the network. Anyway, when proximity is evaluated on single institutional and technological types, different roles are detected. Regarding the former, research centres have a preference for inter-organizational mixing, while firms prefer to cooperate with firms. As for the latter, a repulsive tendency among system integrators is appreciated. Organizations’ patenting activity, introduced as a control variable, does not play a significant role on network’s evolution. Length: 41 pages
    Keywords: Longitudinal network analysis; Stochastic actor-oriented models; European Framework Programmes; Inter-organizational proximity; R&D collaboration networks; Aerospace. JEL Codes: O33; D85; C63Creation-Date: 2014-03
  17. By: Michi Nishihara (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: This paper develops an R&D decision-making model in the real options framework. The model is generic enough to capture three types of uncertainty in an R&D project, namely, uncertainty of research duration and costs, market value of technology, and a competitor fs technology development. I derive analytical solutions, which help practitioners and researchers to evaluate various cases of R&D investment. Further, by analyzing the model with a wide range of parameter values, I reveal the following effects of the three types of uncertainty on R&D investment: Higher uncertainty of research duration and costs, unlike market value uncertainty, speeds up investment, especially combined with a higher risk of competition. The investment timing can be U-shaped in the strength of competition because of the trade-off between the preemptive investment effect and the decreased project value effect. These results can account for empirical findings about the uncertainty-investment relation in industries with high R&D intensity and severe competition.
    Keywords: Capital budgeting; Decision analysis; Risk; R&D; Real options
    JEL: G31 G33
    Date: 2017–06
  18. By: Malacarne, Janet Horsager; Artz, Georgeanne M.; Orazem, Peter
    Abstract: This paper extends the induced innovation research of Hayami and Ruttan by including 129 more countries, extending the time frame to 50 years and explaining the production process for those countries using a Cobb-Douglas function. From this data, the paper illustrates trade-offs between five inputs in agricultural production in empirical isoquants, and measures the progress of agricultural productivity by the magnitude of the shift in isoquants toward the origin. We can further test the implications of technical change on the productivity of the inputs: labor, land, fertilizer, and capital. We illustrate the response of input demands to rising agricultural wages and estimate scale and substitution effects using the fundamental law of derived demand. Lastly, we explore possible explanations for variation in agricultural productivity increases across countries by examining the relationship between countries’ trade protection policies and democracy level and unit labor costs.
    Date: 2017–05–20
  19. By: Leonardo Costa Ribeiro (Inmetro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Leonardo Gomes de Deus (Cedeplar-UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil); Pedro Mendes Loureiro (SOAS, London, UK); Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque (Cedeplar-UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil)
    Abstract: This article proposes a network model to replicate the behaviour of the profit rate in the long run. Specifically, it accounts for the results of an empirical investigation of the profit rate in the US, which show that it has fractal properties and its complexity changes over time. The starting point of the model is Marx’s insights on the interplay between the tendency of the rate to fall and its countertendencies. It combines these insights with the persistent generation of new commodities – inventions – and a specific set of new branches of production that triggers technological revolutions. A simulation running this network model successfully replicates historical features of the system.
    Keywords: Rate of profit; Technological revolutions; Marx; Complex systems; Metamorphoses of capitalism; Simulation models
    JEL: P16 O33 B51
    Date: 2017–06

This nep-ino issue is ©2017 by Uwe Cantner. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.