nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2017‒04‒23
29 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Achieving Innovation Without Formal R&D: Philippine Case Study of Garment Firms By Rosellon, Maureen Ane D.; Del Prado, Fatima Lourdes E.
  2. How Antitrust Enforcement Can Spur Innovation By Watzinger, Martin; Fackler, Thomas A.; Nagler, Markus
  3. R&D heterogeneity and implications for growth By Sigurd Galaasen; Alfonso Irarrazabal
  4. Drivers of productivity in Vietnamese SMEs: The role of management standards and innovation By Elisa Calza; Micheline Goedhuys; Neda Trifkovic
  5. Development of sustainable product innovations By Stig Ottosson
  6. Agricultural research impact assessment: issues, methods and challenges By Pierre Benoit Joly; Laurence Colinet; Ariane Gaunand; Stephane Lemarié; Mireille Matt
  7. What determines misallocation in innovation? A study of regional innovation in China By Li, Hao-Ching; Lee, Wen-Chieh; Ko, Bo-Ting
  8. Technology lock-in with horizontal and vertical innovations through limited R&D spending By Anton Bondarev; Bondarev Anton; Greiner Alfred
  9. An Entropy-Constrained Model of Induced Technical Change with a Single Innovation Possibility Frontier By Jangho Yang
  10. Structural Reforms, Innovation and Economic Growth By Kosuke Aoki; Naoko Hara; Maiko Koga
  11. The Infant Industry Argument: Tariffs, NTMs and Innovation By Igor Bagayev; Ronald B. Davies
  12. Who Wants Democratic Innovations, and Why? By Claudia Landwehr; Thorsten Faas
  13. Die Rolle von KMU für Forschung und Innovation in Deutschland: Studie im Auftrag der Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation By Rammer, Christian; Gottschalk, Sandra; Peters, Bettina; Bersch, Johannes; Erdsiek, Daniel
  14. Stagnation traps By Benigno, Gianluca; Fornaro, Luca
  15. University location and city development: the effects of Victoria University on the Western Melbourne economy By John R. Madden
  16. Dynamic Entrepreneurship: On the Performance of U.S. Research Joint Ventures By Bray, Jeremy; Link, Albert
  17. Impact of Patent Scope on subsequent Inventions: Findings from a new Measure By OKADA, Yoshimi; NAITO, Yusuke; NAGAOKA, Sadao
  18. Structural Propagation of Productivity Shocks: The Case of Korea By Nakano, Satoshi; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Jiyoung
  19. Lessons from the US: innovation policy By Geoffrey Owen
  20. D. 1.1 Methodology of project emergence in interclustering and intersectoral context (1) By Julien Ambrosino; Jérémy Legardeur; Dimitri Masson; Pauline Théophane
  21. Irrigation, Collectivism and Long-Run Technological Divergence By Johannes C. Buggle
  22. Technological gatekeepers, regional inventor networks and inventive performance By Julie Le Gallo; Anne Plunket
  23. Technological Progress, Labour Productivity and Economic Growth: Disentangling the Negative and Positive Effects By MERTER MERT
  24. Technology and Knowledge Transfers in Production Networks: Case Study on Philippine Food Manufacturing Firms By Rosellon, Maureen Ane D.; Del Prado, Fatima Lourdes E.
  25. Exploring the relationship between technological improvement and innovation diffusion: An empirical test By JongRoul Woo; Christopher L. Magee
  26. Messung möglicher Auswirkungen der Exzellenzinitiative sowie des Pakts für Forschung und Innovation auf die geförderten Hochschulen und außeruniversitären Forschungseinrichtungen By Möller, Torger
  27. Patent Applications – Structures, Trends and Recent Developments 2015 By Neuhäusler, Peter; Rothengatter, Oliver; Frietsch, Rainer
  28. Intangible Assets and Stock Returns (Japanese) By TAKIZAWA Miho; TONOGI Konomi; MIYAGAWA Tsutomu
  29. What to Buy When Forum Shopping? Analyzing Court Selection in Patent Litigation By Gaessler, Fabian; Lefouili, Yassine

  1. By: Rosellon, Maureen Ane D.; Del Prado, Fatima Lourdes E.
    Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that technological innovations that can come from research and development (R&D) are crucial to industry competitiveness and sustained economic growth. Although R&D remains to be the central focus of policymaking and research, not all firms can afford and do R&D activities. Non-R&D innovation, which is a common economic phenomenon, is often ignored in the policy research arena. Using three case studies, this paper attempts to address this gap. It describes how firms in low-technology sector adapt to fast-changing industry needs and respond to market demands, and generate products and services at a lower cost and within shorter cycle-times without the aid of a traditional R&D program. Findings indicate product or process upgrading even without the presence of a formal R&D unit is possible. To be able to carry out upgrading/innovation activities, it is necessary to hire the appropriate personnel that will undertake specific tasks in order to execute the product specifications required by the clients. Machinery/technology acquisition was also found to be indispensable, as it not only allows the firms to produce the required product but it also makes production cost efficient. Finally, the business strategy or decision of the owner/manager of the firm also plays an important role on the decision to innovate.
    Keywords: Philippines, innovation, non-R&D innovation, non-R&D activities, garments
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Watzinger, Martin (University of Munich); Fackler, Thomas A. (University of Munich); Nagler, Markus (University of Munich)
    Abstract: We study the 1956 consent decree against the Bell System to investigate whether patents held by a dominant firm are harmful for innovation and if so, whether compulsory licensing can provide an effective remedy. The consent decree settled an antitrust lawsuit that charged Bell with having foreclosed the market for telecommunications equipment. The terms of the decree allowed Bell to remain a vertically integrated monopolist in the telecommunications industry, but as a remedy, Bell had to license all its existing patents royalty-free. Thus, the path-breaking technologies developed by the Bell Laboratories became freely available to all US companies. We show that in the first five years compulsory licensing increased follow-on innovation building on Bell patents by 17%. This effect is driven mainly by young and small companies. Yet, innovation increased only outside the telecommunications equipment industry. The lack of a positive innovation effect in the telecommunications industry suggests that market foreclosure impedes innovation and that compulsory licensing without structural remedies is ineffective in ending it. The increase of follow-on innovation by small and young companies is in line with the hypothesis that patents held by a dominant firm act as a barrier to entry for start-ups. We show that the removal of this barrier increased long-run U.S. innovation, corroborating historical accounts.
    Keywords: ;
    JEL: O30 O33 O34 K21 L40
    Date: 2017–03–25
  3. By: Sigurd Galaasen; Alfonso Irarrazabal
    Abstract: This paper quantifies the determinants of R&D investment heterogeneity and its implications for growth. We estimate a Schumpeterian growth model with heterogeneous firms, à la Lentz and Mortensen (2008), in which firms differ with respect to innovation efficiency. Using observations on size, productivity, and R&D expenditures from a panel of Norwegian manufacturing firms we find that the model has a good fit to the data. In particular, it fits the distribution of R&D investment (mean, dispersion and skewness) as well as the negative correlation between research intensity and size. Moreover, the model generates firm-level investment responses to R&D subsidies that are in line with micro evidence from a natural experiment. The model estimates imply that a large part of aggregate productivity growth (72 percent) is the result of the market directing R&D resources to the more innovative firms. Finally, we study the link between firm heterogeneity and R&D subsidies, and show that the growth effects of subsidies depend crucially on how the policy influences the equilibrium distribution of firms. We address these questions by estimating an equilibrium model of firm-level innovation and growth. We adopt the micro-macro framework growth in Klette and Kortum (2004). Using observations on size, productivity and R&D expenditures from a panel of Norwegian manufacturing firms, we estimate an extended version of the Klette-Kortum model, developed in Lentz and Mortensen (2008). The model estimates imply that a large part of aggregate productivity growth (72 percent) is the result of the market directing R&D resources to the more innovative firms. Using the estimated model we also show that the growth effects of R&D subsidies depend crucially on how the policy influences the equilibrium distribution of firms.
    Keywords: Norway, Growth, General equilibrium modeling
    Date: 2016–07–04
  4. By: Elisa Calza; Micheline Goedhuys; Neda Trifkovic
    Abstract: Using a rich panel dataset of SMEs active in the manufacturing sector in Viet Nam, this paper investigates the drivers of firm productivity, focusing on the role played by international management standards certification. We develop and test the hypothesis that, controlling for technological innovation (product and process) and other variables related to technological capabilities, international standards are still conducive to higher productivity, through improved management practices associated with their adoption. In line with the requirement of continuous improvement implied by most international standards, the main findings show that the possession of an internationally recognized standard certificate leads to significant productivity premium. We further investigate the relationship between technological innovation and standard adoption. We find that the likelihood of certificate adoption is higher when firms implement technological innovations and that the effect of certification on productivity is particularly strong for firms with technological innovation.
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Stig Ottosson (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: Today the terms sustainable development and sustainable innovation are often used. But what is meant by these terms, other than that they in some ways are connected to the terms ?green? and ?ecological?? Studying the literature on the topic leads to the conclusion that there is no precise or established definition of sustainable innovation, sustainability and sustainable development.A conclusion in the paper is that we now need to focus on how to develop new sustainable product innovations, and for these, product development is the most important element as the solutions will affect the environment during the whole Product Life Cycle of the products. Another conclusion is that Dynamic Product Development (DPD?) is a model that seems to satisfy the different definitions on sustainability that have been proposed.The result of a product development project is based on the product developer?s knowledge, experience, and ability. The leadership of an entrepreneur (or intrapreneur) is also important for the level of sustainability of an innovation that is achieved. Therefore, the product developers and entrepreneurs need to be educated in a broader perspective than is common in the technical field today. The product developers must also be monitored in the actual work situation to ensure that new products that are not sustainable are not being marketed. This, in turn, calls for a similar, broader perspective in management education.
    Keywords: Innovation; innovation process; innovation project; sustainability; sustainable innovation.
    JEL: A00 C51 C63
  6. By: Pierre Benoit Joly (LISIS - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Sciences, Innovations, Société - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - ESIEE Paris - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Laurence Colinet (Collège de Direction - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Ariane Gaunand (Délégation à l'évaluation - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Stephane Lemarié (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble 2); Mireille Matt (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble 2)
    Abstract: The Research Impact Assessment (RIA) is expected to increase the efficiency with which public funds are used, and to improve more broadly the functioning of the research and innovation system and its contribution to address a wide range of socio-economic and environmental issues. Both standard economic approaches, which aim to estimate the economic benefits of research investments, and case-study approaches, which aim to analyse the processes of impact generation, have been applied to agricultural research in practice. Standard economic approaches generally focus on public research as information on private efforts in agricultural research is limited, and on economic impacts such as productivity growth. Case studies provide richer information, through a narrative, and highlight the complex relationships among the various variables, events and actors, but it is difficult to standardise results and scale them up. The challenge for RIA is to take into account broader impacts that go beyond science and economic impacts, and to improve knowledge on impact-generating mechanisms. This has become more difficult as agricultural research and innovation systems are increasingly open and complex, and changing quickly. Observation of practices applied to agricultural research in five selected organisations confirms the difference found in RIA between academic research and in practice. In both, the assessment systems pursue the same objectives: 1) Learning: enhance the know-how to produce an environment conducive to socio-economic impact; 2) Capacity building: spread the culture of socio-economic impact to its researchers; and 3) Reporting to stakeholders: from accountability purposes to advocacy targeted to various audiences. The accountability objective, including estimating returns on the financial investment, poses complex challenges and is in tension with the learning and capacity building objectives. The future of RIA will depend on the capacity to improve estimation methods and gather quality information (which also takes into account non-economic impacts) and the sharing of good practices.
    Keywords: research impact evaluation,agricultural research,research impact assessment,RIA,public research,agronomic research,recherche publique,recherche agricole,recherche agronomique,évaluation de l'impact,politique de la recherche,impact économique
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Li, Hao-Ching; Lee, Wen-Chieh; Ko, Bo-Ting
    Abstract: This paper sounds an alarm about disparate efficiencies among China’s regions in the allocation of innovation inputs. A theoretical measure of misallocation is adopted to gauge the distortions that exacerbate the inefficiency of resource allocations across geographic innovation units; these units’ usage of innovative inputs reveals the level of misallocations prevalent within the Chinese economy. The measure of innovation misallocation is computed by utilizing a micro dataset based on information from the China Statistical Yearbook for Science and Technology (CSYST) from 1999 to 2012. In addition, this paper probes the factors that co-move with China’s innovation resource misallocations. We find that, although an advanced financial market is beneficial to innovation efficiency in China, both the government’s extensive development of transportation infrastructure and the preferential treatment given to state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) negatively correlate with innovation efficiency. We conclude that emerging economies that are experiencing R&D input expansion, such as China, should be cautious in ensuring efficient resource allocations.
    Keywords: Resource misallocation; Innovation efficiency; Financial market; Infrastructure investment; Preferential treatment
    JEL: O11 O32 O47
    Date: 2016–05–10
  8. By: Anton Bondarev; Bondarev Anton; Greiner Alfred (University of Basel)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze an inter-temporal optimization problem of a representative firm that invests in horizontal and vertical innovations and that faces a constraint with respect to total R&D spending. We find that there can exist two different steady-states of the economy when the amount of research spending falls short of an endogenously determined threshold: one with higher productivities and less new technologies being developed, and the other with more technoligies being created and lower productivities. But, for a higher amount of R&D spending the steady-state becomes uniqueand the firm produces the whole spectrum of available technologies. Thus, a lock-in effect may arise that, however, van be overcome by raising R&D spending sufficiently.
    Keywords: Multiple steady-states, lock-in, innovations, R&D constraint, optimal control
    JEL: C61 D92 O32
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Jangho Yang (Department of Economics, New School for Social Research)
    Abstract: This paper proposes an entropy-constrained model of induced technical change (ITC) and estimates the innovation possibilities frontier (IPF) of the OECD countries. The ITC model captures endogenous dynamics of technical progress driven by competition among capitalists to lower production costs. However, its assumption that the typical capitalist is able to maximize cost reductions with complete certainty leads to the implausible result that all capitalists end up being on the technological frontier. The entropy constrained ITC model generalizes the canonical model by allowing the economic agent to have a positive degree of uncertainty. This leads to a qualitatively different result in that the solution of the same maximization problem is not a single point on the frontier but a probability distribution of the possible states of the technological change. The Bayesian inference is then employed and successfully recovers the single IPF of the entropy constrained ITC model for the OECD countries.
    Keywords: Induced technical change, innovation possibilities frontier, entropy constrained model, Bayesian inference
    JEL: C11 C15 D01 D24 D80 O33 O4
    Date: 2017–04
  10. By: Kosuke Aoki (University of Tokyo); Naoko Hara (Bank of Japan); Maiko Koga (Bank of Japan)
    Abstract: This paper constructs a growth model of the distance from the world technology frontier to argue that firms' incentives to innovate and the government's decision on implementing reforms can be mutually reinforcing. This complementarity may, however, result in a country falling into a self-perpetuating low productivity trap. Certain types of structural change, initiated either by the private sector or by the government, can help the country to escape from this trap.
    Keywords: Economic Growth; Economic Reform; Productivity Gap
    JEL: O11 O43
    Date: 2017–04–13
  11. By: Igor Bagayev; Ronald B. Davies
    Abstract: One rationale for the infant industry argument is that, by protecting domestic firms from foreign competition, this increases rents and investment in innovation and other growth enhancing measures. Using data on 4,750 firms across 13 developing countries, we examine whether protection via tariffs or non-tariff measures (SPS and TBT specifically) increase innovation in either products or processes. We find no such evidence; instead we find a small negative impact of protection, particularly tariffs and TBTs, on innovation.
    Keywords: Non-tariff measures; Technical barriers to trade; Innovation; Infant industry
    JEL: F13 H57 F12
    Date: 2017–01
  12. By: Claudia Landwehr (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz); Thorsten Faas (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz)
    Abstract: Commentators and academic experts alike have voiced increasing anxieties over the state and future of representative democracy in recent years. Their concern lends momentum to calls for democratic innovations, such as (more) direct democracy and deliberative citizen forums. We argue that the institutional design of decision making processes as well as each of these proposed reforms affect resulting decisions and have distributive consequences, rendering any innovation more attractive to some citizens than to others. At the same time, the different opportunities for participation that alternative processes and institutions offer (e.g. voting vs. deliberation) may have more appeal to some citizens than others, which poses a potential threat to the idea of democratic equality. However, research providing empirical findings concerning these questions is still very rare. On the basis of data from the German GESIS Panel, we seek to explore determinants of preferences over democratic innovations, focusing on the effects of individual characteristics and potential instrumental preferences. In light of our findings we conclude that while the call for democratic innovations should be taken seriously and the potentials of citizens participation should be used to revitalize democracy, any reform should be assessed in light of the old question “who benefits?”.
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Rammer, Christian; Gottschalk, Sandra; Peters, Bettina; Bersch, Johannes; Erdsiek, Daniel
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Benigno, Gianluca; Fornaro, Luca
    Abstract: We provide a Keynesian growth theory in which pessimistic expectations can lead to very persistent, or even permanent, slumps characterized by unemployment and weak growth. We refer to these episodes as stagnation traps , because they consist in the joint occurrence of a liquidity and a growth trap. In a stagnation trap, the central bank is unable to restore full employment because weak growth depresses aggregate demand and pushes the interest rate against the zero lower bound, while growth is weak because low aggregate demand results in low profits, limiting firms' investment in innovation. Policies aiming at restoring growth can successfully lead the economy out of a stagnation trap, thus rationalizing the notion of job creating growth. JEL Classification: E32, E43, E52, O42
    Keywords: Endogenous Growth, Growth Traps, Liquidity Traps, Multiple Equilibria, Secular Stagnation
    Date: 2017–03
  15. By: John R. Madden
    Abstract: Does the presence of a local university affect the economic development of an area within a large city? This paper focuses on the Western region of Melbourne, which accounts for 18 per cent of the city's population of 4.5 million. Only one of Melbourne's seven universities has located campuses in Western Melbourne, a region containing many areas of social disadvantage. The importance of the University to the region's economy in 2013 is analysed with the aid of a 6-region CGE model, four of the regions covering Greater Melbourne. The analysis is undertaken by simulating a counterfactual that there was no university in the region during the period 1992 to 2013. Under the counterfactual, students who in actuality had studied in Western Melbourne in the period are assumed to have either attended a university in another Melbourne region or forgone a university education. The simulation accounted for a relocation of both the University's demand-side impacts (operating expenditures and student living costs) and its supply-side impacts (knowledge effects). A particular feature of the analysis was the estimation of the interregional relocation of local productivity effects flowing in 2013 from returns to the stocks of human capital and research knowledge accumulated over the years from 1992. For the human capital effects this involved, for each Melbourne region, undertaking detailed estimates of changes in annual university completions, annual migration rates, labour force participation rates, interregional commuting and returns to university qualifications. Key assumptions related to the effects of university proximity on tertiary participation and of place of study on regional attachment. For local R&D effects, regional estimates were made of annual R&D expenditure, knowledge decay, returns to R&D expenditure and regional knowledge spillovers. The simulation results suggested that the presence of a university in Western Melbourne had a significant effect on the region's GDP, but due to interregional commuting the local university had a more muted effect on the real consumption of the region's households.
    Keywords: Regional development, higher education, spatial distribution of urban economic activity, regional CGE modelling
    JEL: D58 I23 I25 O15 O18 R12 R15
    Date: 2017–04
  16. By: Bray, Jeremy (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper we present descriptive findings on the research success of U.S. research joint ventures (RJVs). Using survey-based data of a sample of U.S. RJVs, we build on the theory of dynamic entrepreneurship to develop an empirical model of cross-RJV differences in performance. We find that ventures that include a university as a research member are relatively more successful, measured in terms of research goals completed, than ventures that do not. We also find that those RJVs that have a longer research duration and that are led by a firm with prior RJV experience are similarly more successful. Our empirical analysis also shows that membership size is not a significant covariate with research success. We conclude the paper with a call for additional research and with a policy statement that is based on our finding of a positive and significant relationship between university membership and RJV success.
    Keywords: research joint venture (RJV); National Cooperative Research Act (NCRA); R&D; universities; innovation; networks
    JEL: O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2017–04–21
  17. By: OKADA, Yoshimi; NAITO, Yusuke; NAGAOKA, Sadao
    Abstract: While patent scope defined by patent claims provides crucial information on the contribution of underlying inventions to the state of the art, its existing measures do not seem to appropriately capture it, especially with respect to the generality of the inventive concept. This study investigates how significantly the breadth of the first claim can predict the patent's knowledge impact on subsequent inventions in complex and discrete technologies using the inverse of the first claim length as the indicator. There are two major findings. First, this indicator has very significant predictive power for the knowledge impact of the underlying invention as measured by applicant forward citations, controlling for two existing indicators of patent scope (the number of patent claims and the number of different patent classification codes assigned) in both technology areas. Second, its predictive power for the incidence of top-ranked patents increases in higher quantiles in the complex but not the discrete technology area, unlike the other indicators. This is consistent with an economic model predicting that the knowledge impact of an invention with broad scope has a high variance, depending on the emergence of complementary inventions that enhance the impact of the initial invention.
    Keywords: patent scope, claim breadth, first claim length, knowledge, complex technology
    JEL: O34
    Date: 2017–02
  18. By: Nakano, Satoshi; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Jiyoung
    Abstract: We model the transition of technological structure that is associated with the changes in cost induced by the innovation that occurred, using a system of multi-sector, multi-factor production functions. Structural propagation is quantified by using a system of unit-cost functions compatible with multi-level CES, plain CES, Cobb--Douglas, and Leontief production functions whose parameters we estimate via two timely distant input--output accounts. The economy-wide welfare gain obtainable for an exogenously given innovation will hence be quantified via the technological structure after structural propagation. Welfare gain due to productivity doubling for the medical and health services (public) industry is studied as an example, using the 2000--2005 Korean linked input--output table as the source of data.
    Keywords: Input-output tables, Productivity, South Korea, General equilibrium, Structural propagation
    JEL: C67 D57
    Date: 2016–02
  19. By: Geoffrey Owen
    Abstract: A commentary by Sir Geoffrey Owen, Head of Industrial Policy at Policy Exchange and former Editor of the Financial Times. Sir Geoffrey examines the reasons for US leadership in two key sectors, information technology and biotechnology, highlighting the important role played by new entrepreneurial firms.
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2017–03
  20. By: Julien Ambrosino (Aerospace Valley, IMS - Laboratoire de l'intégration, du matériau au système - Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1 - Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA)); Jérémy Legardeur (IMS - Laboratoire de l'intégration, du matériau au système - Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1 - Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA)); Dimitri Masson (ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA)); Pauline Théophane (Aerospace Valley)
    Abstract: The animation of creative sessions permits to identify new opportunities for collaborative innovation projects. To support this process, a dedicated methodology called STAR (Structured and sTructuring Animation methodology for emeRgence) facilitates project emergence in interclustering and cross-sectoral context during innovation clubs. This deliverable gives animation guidelines to cluster facilitators of the NEPTUNE project in order to explain how the STAR methodology shall be used during the NEPTUNE innovation clubs sessions. Each step of the animation process is described following the same format: 1. prerequisites to check that the facilitator has enough information before starting a step, 2. description of the step, which details the aims and how to use the animation tools dedicated to this step, 3. expected outputs from the use of the STAR methodology. For each step, recommendations are specified to limit issues during animation and avoid misunderstandings. The STAR methodology intends to offer the best conditions to bring out innovation projects without claiming to be a systematic methodology to be exhaustively followed. Thus, the steps, advices and notes composing this document are to be taken as recommendations and should be adapted to each situation. To support clusters managers in animating the NEPTUNE innovation clubs sessions, this deliverable will be completed with a face-to-face Training session for clusters managers (D1.3).
    Keywords: creativity,innovation,methodology,STAR,tool,management
    Date: 2016–09–22
  21. By: Johannes C. Buggle
    Abstract: This paper explores the historical origins of collectivist cultural norms and their longterm economic consequences. In its first part, I test the hypothesis that collectivism emerged historically in pre-industrial agricultural economies in which group effort was crucial for subsistence. I find a positive and significant association between the traditional use of irrigation - a production mode that required extensive collaboration and coordination within groups of farmers - and collectivist norms today. Instrumenting traditional irrigation by the environmental suitability for irrigated agriculture lead to similar results that point at a causal interpretation of the findings. I find that the effects persist in migrants, and investigate factors that hinder the transmission of collectivism. The second part of the paper shows that by affecting culture, past irrigated agriculture continues to influence contemporaneous innovation at the national and individual level. While irrigated agriculture is associated with greater technological progress in pre-modern societies, this relationship is reversed in the long-run. In addition, by favoring attitudes towards obedience, past irrigation also predicts patterns of job specialization and selection into routine-intensive jobs of countries and individuals.
    Keywords: Agriculture; Culture, Collectivism, Persistence, Innovation, Job Tasks
    JEL: N00 O10 O30 Z10
    Date: 2017–04
  22. By: Julie Le Gallo (AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement); Anne Plunket (BETA - Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The paper investigates, in a regional context, the impact of gatekeepers on the quality of inventions at the patent team level based on a social network analysis. Given the lack of consensus in the literature, we explore two definitions of gatekeepers and distinguish their impact from external stars. Our results show that gatekeepers indeed influence the quality of the patents to which they participate. However, the quality of their patents is reduced if gatekeepers and their team members are located in the same region compared to multi-location teams and this holds for both definitions. External stars do not contribute to inventive quality even if they work within multi-location teams. Finally, inventor teams benefit from socially close gatekeepers located within their region, even if they have no gatekeepers within their team.
    Keywords: teams,global pipelines,inventor networks,technological gatekeepers,patent quality
    Date: 2016–11–22
  23. By: MERTER MERT (Gazi University)
    Abstract: This study simply claims that technological progress has positive and negative effects on the labour productivity, so, on the economic growth. Technological progress may have a negative effect on economic growth because of skills obsolescence of labour. For this reason, if the nature of technological progress is assumed as Harrod-neutral for the steady-state analysis, then, the net effect of the technological progress on the economic growth can be examined. Using Hicks-neutrality, it cannot be possible to investigate positive and negative effects. The present study offers a simple calculation procedure in order to disentangle the positive and negative effects. Finally, the study tries to introduce capital-deepening-induced technological progress, if the growth rate and contribution of technological progress is found negative while there is positive economic growth and the steady state conditions are hold at the final state.
    Keywords: Economic growth, technological progress, skills obsolescence.
    JEL: O40 O39
  24. By: Rosellon, Maureen Ane D.; Del Prado, Fatima Lourdes E.
    Abstract: This paper investigates firm-to-firm technology and knowledge sharing in firms from the food manufacturing sector. Traditionally driven by secret recipes and family-grounded procedures, food processing firms are naturally unwilling and indisposed to embrace collaborative undertaking and develop external ties due to perceived risks of leakage of company specific assets. This paper attempts to document the practical experiences of two manufacturing firms and their views on sharing technology and knowledge to their partners in the production network.
    Keywords: Philippines, technology transfer, knowledge transfer, production networks, knowledge sharing, food manufacturing
    Date: 2017
  25. By: JongRoul Woo; Christopher L. Magee
    Abstract: It is now clear that different technological domains have significantly different rates of performance improvement. Theoretically, such differing rates should influence the relative rate of diffusion of the products since improvement in performance during the diffusion process increases the desirability of the product diffusing. However, there has not been a broad empirical attempt to examine this effect and to explain the underlying cause. Therefore, this paper reviews the theoretical basis and focuses upon empirical tests of this effect and its underlying cause. The results for 18 different diffusing products show the expected relationship-faster diffusion for more rapidly improving products- between technological improvement and diffusion with strong statistical significance. The empirical examination also demonstrates that performance improvement does not slow down in the latter parts of diffusion when penetration does slow down. This finding is also consistent with theories of diffusion based upon utility but not with ideas that explain performance increases as due to competition among firms.
    Date: 2017–04
  26. By: Möller, Torger
    Abstract: Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die Auswirkungen der Exzellenzinitiative und des Pakts für Forschung und Innovation auf die deutschen Hochschulen und außeruniversitären Forschungsorganisationen. Zu diesem Zweck werden verschiedene Untersuchungseinheiten gebildet: Neben den vier außeruniversitären Forschungsorganisationen Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Leibniz-Gemeinschaft und Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft werden vier Universitätsgruppen nach dem Grad ihrer Involviertheit in der Exzellenzinitiative unterschieden. Die Datengrundlage bildet die amtliche Wissenschaftsstatistik und eine bibliometrische Analyse auf der Basis des Web of Science. Die angewandten Indikatoren wurden aus den wissenschaftspolitischen Zielen der Exzellenzinitiative und des Pakts für Forschung und Innovation abgeleitet. Ergebnisse werden jahresbezogen von 2003 bis 2012 dargestellt. Das Jahr 2005 markiert dabei das letzte Jahr vor der finanziellen Förderung beider Programme.
    Date: 2016
  27. By: Neuhäusler, Peter; Rothengatter, Oliver; Frietsch, Rainer
    Date: 2016
  28. By: TAKIZAWA Miho; TONOGI Konomi; MIYAGAWA Tsutomu
    Abstract: Using Japanese listed companies' research and development (R&D) investment and stock prices, we empirically examine how R&D capital stock held by firms are related to their stock returns. Our empirical result based on the sorted portfolio, which is constructed by using the ratio of firms' R&D capital stock to total assets (R&D intensity), shows that such R&D intensity has a positive correlation with excess return on the stock price. This result suggests that short-sighted investors tend to underestimate the stock prices of firms that actively invest in intangible assets because they neglect future benefits arising from intangibles.
    Date: 2017–03
  29. By: Gaessler, Fabian; Lefouili, Yassine
    Abstract: This paper examines court selection by plaintiffs in patent litigation. We build a forum shopping model that provides a set of predictions regarding plaintiffs' court preferences, and the way these preferences depend on the market proximity between the plaintiff and the defendant. Then, using a rich dataset of patent litigation at German regional courts between 2003 and 2008, we estimate the determinants of court selection with alternative-specific conditional logit models. In line with our theoretical predictions, our empirical results show that plaintiffs prefer courts that have shorter proceedings, especially when they compete against the defendants they face. Further, we find negative effects of the plaintiff's, as well as the defendant's, distance to court on the plaintiff's court selection. Our empirical analysis also allows us to infer whether plaintiffs perceive a given court as more or less pro-patentee than another one.
    Keywords: Litigation, patents, forum shopping, Germany.
    JEL: K41 L38 O34
    Date: 2017–03

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