nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2017‒01‒29
24 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. How Antitrust Enforcement Can Spur Innovation: Bell Labs and the 1956 Consent Decree By Fackler, Thomas A.; Nagler, Markus; Schnitzer, Monika; Watzinger, Martin
  2. Prestige and Profit: The Royal Society of Arts and Incentives for Innovation, 1750-1850 By B. Zorina Khan
  3. Innovation Effects on Employment in High-Tech and Low-Tech industries: Evidence from Large International Firms within the Triad By Aldieri, Luigi; Vinci, Concetto Paolo
  4. Design, innovation and firm performance in European firms By Sandro Montresor; Antonio Vezzani
  5. Reversed Citations and the Localization of Knowledge Spillovers By Ashish Arora; Sharon Belenzon; Honggi Lee
  6. The Rise of American Ingenuity: Innovation and Inventors of the Golden Age By Ufuk Akcigit; John Grigsby; Tom Nicholas
  7. Joint and Cross-border Patents as Proxies for International Technology Diffusion By Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Ju-Ting Tang
  8. Country level efficiency and national systems of entrepreneurship: a data envelopment analysis approach By Esteban Lafuente; László Szerb; Zoltan J. Acs
  9. New Stuff or Better Ways: What Matters to Survive International Markets? By Adriana Peluffo; Ernesto Silva
  10. Screening for Patent Quality : Examination, Fees, and the Courts By Schankerman, Mark; Schütt, Florian
  11. Catching-up and falling behind: Effects of learning in an R&D differential game with spillovers By Anton Bondarev; Alfred Greiner
  12. Quantile regression for Panel data: An empirical approach for knowledge spillovers endogeneity By Aldieri, Luigi; Vinci, Concetto Paolo
  13. Regional Innovation Centers and Reforms in Samarkand Agricultural Institute By Ganiev, Ibragim
  14. Is Modern Technology Responsible for Jobless Recoveries? By Graetz, Georg; Michaels, Guy
  15. Os principais parques científicos e tecnológicos gaúchos: estrutura e características By Tartaruga, Iván G. Peyré
  16. Beyond technical skills training: the impact of credit counselling on entrepreneurial behavior of ugandan youth By Juliet Ssekandi; Zeridah Zigiti; Daniel Joloba; Benjamin Kachero; Samuel Galiwango
  17. Feasibility Study of Establishing Regional Innovation Center in Samarkand Agricultural Institute By Sanaev, Golib
  18. Regional Agricultural Innovation System(RAIS): Transferability of Korean Experiences to Uzbekistan By Kim, Kyung-Ryang
  19. Fostering Productivity for Income Convergence in the Czech Republic By Falilou Fall; Christine Lewis
  20. Technology adoption in emission trading programs with market power By André, Francisco J.; Arguedas, Carmen.
  21. Working Paper 235 - Social Networks, Agricultural Innovations, and Farm Productivity in Ethiopia By AfDB AfDB
  22. Marktforschungsmethoden für Innovationen und Produktverbesserungen By Buerke, Günter
  23. License and entry strategies for outside innovator in duopoly By Hattori, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito
  24. Die Bedeutung von Situiertheit für die praktische Konstitution von Konsultationsnetzwerken in F&E By Roth, Philip

  1. By: Fackler, Thomas A.; Nagler, Markus; Schnitzer, Monika; Watzinger, Martin
    Abstract: We study the 1956 consent decree against the Bell System to investigate whether patents held by a dominant firm are harmful for innovation and if so, whether compulsory licensing can provide an effective remedy. The consent decree settled an antitrust lawsuit that charged Bell with having foreclosed the market for telecommunications equipment. The terms of the decree allowed Bell to remain a vertically integrated monopolist in the telecommunications industry, but as a remedy, Bell had to license all its existing patents royalty-free. Thus, the path-breaking technologies developed by the Bell Laboratories became freely available to all US companies. We show that in the first five years compulsory licensing increased follow-on innovation building on Bell patents by 17%. This effect is driven mainly by young and small companies. Yet, innovation increased only outside the telecommunications equipment industry. The lack of a positive innovation effect in the telecommunications industry suggests that market foreclosure impedes innovation and that compulsory licensing without structural remedies is ineffective in ending it. The increase of follow-on innovation by small and young companies is in line with the hypothesis that patents held by a dominant firm act as a barrier to entry for start-ups. We show that the removal of this barrier increased long-run U.S. innovation, corroborating historical accounts.
    Keywords: Antitrust; Compulsory Licensing; innovation; Intellectual Property
    JEL: K21 L40 O3 O33 O34
    Date: 2017–01
  2. By: B. Zorina Khan
    Abstract: Debates have long centered around the relative merits of prizes and other incentives for technological innovation. Some economists have cited the experience of the prestigious Royal Society of Arts (RSA), which offered honorary and cash awards, as proof of the efficacy of innovation prizes. The Society initially was averse to patents and prohibited the award of prizes for patented inventions. This study examines data on several thousand of these inducement prizes, matched with patent records and biographical information about the applicants. The empirical analysis shows that inventors of items that were valuable in the marketplace typically chose to obtain patents and to bypass the prize system. Owing to such adverse selection, prizes were negatively related to subsequent areas of important technological discovery. The RSA ultimately became disillusioned with the prize system, which they recognized had done little to promote technological progress and industrialization. The Society acknowledged that its efforts had been “futile” because of its hostility to patents, and switched from offering inducement prizes towards lobbying for reforms to strengthen the patent system. The findings suggest some skepticism is warranted about claims regarding the role that elites and nonmarket-oriented institutions played in generating technological innovation and long-term economic development.
    JEL: D02 N13 O31 O33 O34 O43
    Date: 2017–01
  3. By: Aldieri, Luigi; Vinci, Concetto Paolo
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the role of financial shocks, such as the economic crisis since 2006, in the reallocation process of employment flows in high-tech and low-tech industries. The contributions of the paper to the literature are threefold. First, a general framework of employment growth is estimated by using a dataset made of 879 large international firms observed for the period 2002-2010 and localized in three economic areas: USA, Japan and Europe. Second, we develop a database merging the firms’ data with EPO patents data. In particular, the innovation variable is proxied by the R&D capital stock. Third contribution to the literature is to analyse the extent to which the economic crisis may affect the sensitivity of employment with respect to own innovation but also with respect to outside innovation, the R&D spillovers, in high-tech and low-tech industries. The empirical results suggest some important and significant results. This comparative finding could be the source of relevant industrial policy implications.
    Keywords: Regional economics; Innovation; R&D spillovers; employment
    JEL: J20 O31 O33 R1
    Date: 2017–01
  4. By: Sandro Montresor (Kore University of Enna, IT); Antonio Vezzani (JRC)
    Abstract: This paper provides some new theoretical speculations and empirical evidence on the relationship between design, innovation and economic performance at the firm level. We posit that design investments may provide firms with a higher capacity of introducing product/process innovations, but that the ensuing economic performance is rather associated to the role of design within the firm. Moreover, once controlled for the firm’s non-technological innovativeness and other knowledge-production inputs, the role of design does also relate to the introduction of innovative products and/or processes. We provide a systematic empirical test for these arguments on a sample of more than 12,000 European firms from the last EC Innobarometer survey. The econometric estimates are consistent with our expectations. However, while a higher innovativeness is also associated with a non-systematic resort to design, a higher innovation-based performance is coupled with an increasingly more central role of design, providing this is at least non-occasional. Innovations do actually look “design-led” overall, but innovating successfully apparently requires the firm to retain such a driver central to its business model.
    Keywords: Design, Innovation, Firm performance
    JEL: O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2017–01
  5. By: Ashish Arora; Sharon Belenzon; Honggi Lee
    Abstract: Spillover of knowledge is considered to be an important cause of agglomeration of inventive activity. Many studies argue that knowledge spillovers are localized based on the observation that patents tend to cite nearby patents disproportionately. Specifically, patent citations are interpreted as mapping the transmission of knowledge from the cited invention to the citing invention. The localization of patent citations is therefore taken as evidence that such knowledge transmission is also localized. Localization of knowledge transmission, however, may not be the only reason for why patent citations are localized. Using a set of citations that are unlikely to be associated with knowledge transmission from the cited to the citing invention, we present evidence that challenges the view that localization of citations is driven by localized knowledge transmission. Though localized knowledge transmission may well exist, it is unlikely to be captured by patent citations
    JEL: O32 O34
    Date: 2017–01
  6. By: Ufuk Akcigit; John Grigsby; Tom Nicholas
    Abstract: We examine the golden age of U.S. innovation by undertaking a major data collection exercise linking historical U.S. patents to state and county-level aggregates and matching inventors to Federal Censuses between 1880 and 1940. We identify a causal relationship between patented inventions and long-run economic growth and outline a basic framework for analyzing key macro and micro-level determinants. We find a positive relationship between innovation and drivers of regional performance including population density, financial development and geographic connectedness. We also explore the impact of social structure measured by slavery and religion. We then profile the characteristics of inventors and their life cycle finding that inventors were highly educated, positively selected through exit early in their careers, made time allocation decisions such as delayed marriage, and tended to migrate to places that were conducive to innovation. Father's income was positively correlated with becoming an inventor, though not when controlling for the child's education. We show there were strong financial returns to technological development. Finally, we document an inverted-U shaped relationship between inequality and innovation but also show that innovative places tended to be more socially mobile. Our new data help to address important questions related to innovation and long-run growth dynamics.
    JEL: N11 N12 O31 O40
    Date: 2017–01
  7. By: Chia-Lin Chang (Department of Applied Economics Department of Finance National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan.); Michael McAleer; Ju-Ting Tang
    Abstract: With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sensibly invested in international cooperation, learning, innovation, technology diffusion and knowledge, and outward direct investment. In this paper, we use a panel data set of 40 countries from 1981 to 2008 and a negative binomial model, using a novel set of cross-border patents and joint patents as proxy variables for technology diffusion, in order to investigate such diffusion. The empirical results suggest that, if it is desired to shift from foreign to domestic technology, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for business enterprises and higher education, exports and technology. If the focus is on increasing bilateral technology diffusion, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for higher education and technology. It is also found that outward foreign direct investment has no significant impact on either joint or cross-border patents, whereas inward foreign direct investment has a significant negative impact on cross-border patents but no impact on joint patents. Moreover, government expenditure on higher education has a significant impact on both cross-border and joint patents.
    Keywords: International technology diffusion, Exports, Imports, Joint patent, Cross-border patent, R&D, Negative binomial panel data.
    JEL: F14 F21 O30 O57
    Date: 2016–12
  8. By: Esteban Lafuente; László Szerb; Zoltan J. Acs
    Abstract: This paper tests the efficiency hypothesis of the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Using a comprehensive database for 63 countries for 2012, we employ data envelopment analysis to directly test how countries capitalize on their available entrepreneurial resources. Results support the efficiency hypothesis of knowledge spillover entrepreneurship. We find that innovation-driven economies make a more efficient use of their resources, and that the accumulation of market potential by existing incumbent businesses explains country-level inefficiency. Regardless of the stage of development, knowledge formation is a response to market opportunities and a healthy national system of entrepreneurship is associated with knowledge spillovers that are a prerequisite for higher levels of efficiency. Public policies promoting economic growth should consider national systems of entrepreneurship as a critical priority, so that entrepreneurs can effectively allocate resources in the economy.
    Keywords: Knowledge spillover theory; GEDI; GEM; Efficiency; Data envelopment analysis; Clusters
    JEL: C4 L20 M13 O10
    Date: 2016–12
  9. By: Adriana Peluffo (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Ernesto Silva (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía)
    Abstract: Innovation and export decisions are closely interlinked. Both activities contribute to firm performance in various ways: exporting provides a wider market to sell products, while innovation provides new and better products to supply those markets and/or more efficient ways to reduce costs. The connection of innovation and exporting is of major interest to developing countries aiming to achieve higher growth and wellbeing given foreign markets are both a new challenge and a source of knowledge for firms. This study analyzes how different types of innovation affect export behavior at the firm level, as well as the consequence of exporting on further innovation activities. We use an unbalanced panel of Uruguayan manufacturing firms which provides information from 2000 to 2012. We use logistic regression and matching with difference-in-differences techniques. Using LOGIT models, we find that previous innovation increases the probability of exporting. Unlike other studies, productivity-enhancing (or cost-reducing) innovation shows a stronger correlation than product innovation. However, using Matching and Difference-in-Differences we were not able to establish a causality link from innovation to exporting. We find no consistent evidence of an impact of previous exports on innovation activities.
    Keywords: product innovation, process innovation, exporting
    JEL: F14 D21 C23 O31 O33
    Date: 2016–11
  10. By: Schankerman, Mark; Schütt, Florian (Tilburg University, TILEC)
    Abstract: We develop an integrated framework to study how governments can improve the quality of patent screening. We focus on four key policy instruments: patent office examination, pre- and post-grant fees, and challenges in the courts. We show that there are important complementarities among these instruments, and identify conditions under which they can be used to achieve either partial or complete screening. We simulate the model to study the welfare effects of different policy reforms. We show that intensifying patent office examination, frontloading patent fees and capping litigation costs all generate welfare gains, while replacing examination with a pure registration system reduces welfare.
    Keywords: innovation; patents; screening; litigation; courts; patent fees
    JEL: D82 K41 L24 O31 O34 O38
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Anton Bondarev; Alfred Greiner (University of Basel)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the dynamics of an R&D di erential game allowing for technological spillovers and sigmoid learning functions of multiproduct oligopolies. We demonstrate how the presence of learning together with spillovers may generate a rich set of outcomes, varying from constant leadership to catching-up and falling behind as well as from technology lock-in to a situation with a large number of high quality products. These types of outcomes are qualitatively di erent both from the single rm dynamics with learning and from the duopoly case with spillovers and without learning.
    Keywords: endogenous market structure; learning by doing; technological spillovers; heterogeneous innovations; differential games
    JEL: C61 C73 L13 L16 O32 O33
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Aldieri, Luigi; Vinci, Concetto Paolo
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which knowledge spillovers effects are sensitive to different levels of innovation. We develop a theoretical model in which the core of spillover effect is showed and then we implement the empirical model to test for the results. In particular, we run the quantile regression for panel data estimator (Baker, Powell and Smith, 2016), to correct the bias stemming from the endogenous regressors in a panel data sample. The findings identify a significant heterogeneity of technology spillovers across quantiles: the highest value of spillovers is observed at the lowest quartile of innovation distribution. The results might be interpreted to provide some useful implications for industrial policy strategy
    Keywords: Innovation; Spillovers; Quantile regression; Knowledge diffusion
    JEL: C21 O32 O33
    Date: 2017–01
  13. By: Ganiev, Ibragim
    Abstract: The selected paper presented at the IAMO Samarkand Conference
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2016–11–03
  14. By: Graetz, Georg; Michaels, Guy
    Abstract: Since the early 1990s, recoveries from recessions in the US have been plagued by weak employment growth. One possible explanation for these 'jobless' recoveries is rooted in technological change: middle-skill jobs, often involving routine tasks, are lost during recessions, and the displaced workers take time to transition into other jobs (Jaimovich and Siu, 2014). But technological replacement of middle-skill workers is not unique to the US - it also takes place in other developed countries (Goos, Manning, and Salomons, 2014). So if jobless recoveries in the US are due to technology, we might expect to also see them elsewhere in the developed world. We test this possibility using data on recoveries from 71 recessions in 28 industries and 17 countries from 1970-2011. We find that though GDP recovered more slowly after recent recessions, employment did not. Industries that used more routine tasks, and those more exposed to robotization, did not recently experience slower employment recoveries. Finally, middle-skill employment did not recover more slowly after recent recessions, and this pattern was no different in routine-intensive industries. Taken together, this evidence suggests that technology is not causing jobless recoveries in developed countries outside the US.
    Keywords: Job polarization; jobless recoveries; robots; routine-biased technological change
    JEL: E32 J23 O33
    Date: 2017–01
  15. By: Tartaruga, Iván G. Peyré
    Abstract: In recent years, the development of science and/or technology parks has been one of the most used tools, even if it is controversial, of innovation policy in the world. This kind of experience can promote some fundamental elements for the innovation processes: the dynamics of learning and interaction and the use of local resources. In this context, this article aims to study the three main science and technology parks in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) — Tecnopuc, Tecnosinos e Valetec —, looking at the parks’ firms. So, we analyse firms’ aspects such as areas of expertise, activities of cooperation for innovation, and the use of external financial resources. The results indicate the relative success of these parks in fostering innovation in the territory of Rio Grande do Sul.
    Keywords: science and/or technology parks; innovation; Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Juliet Ssekandi; Zeridah Zigiti; Daniel Joloba; Benjamin Kachero; Samuel Galiwango
    Abstract: There is a low financial credit take among youth in Uganda because potential beneficiaries perceive the associated risk as high. This study assesses the determinants of entrepreneurial risk tolerance among Ugandan youth using experimental data from a randomised control trial and a real-life investment risk experiment. The intervention consists of credit-counselling and sector-specific business training for young men and women aged 18-35 years who own a business to inform them about the obligations and commitments associated with financial credit. The intervention has a significant impact on the demand for credit and related intermediate outcomes such as the ownership of a bank account and the investment in assets. The study finds that the youth actually exhibit lower demand for credit after the business training. This is attributed to an increased awareness of the actual risk associated with taking out credit. The findings of this research reinforce national strategies to promote soft skills for business entrepreneurship, extending beyond the standard business training.
    Keywords: Credit counseling, Youth Venture Capital Fund, Risk Experiment, Uganda, Youth Employment, Randomised experiment, Risk Tolerance
    JEL: O16 M13
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Sanaev, Golib
    Abstract: The selected paper presented at the IAMO Samarkand Conference
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2016–11–03
  18. By: Kim, Kyung-Ryang
    Abstract: The selected paper presented at the IAMO Samarkand Conference
    Keywords: International Development, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2016–11–03
  19. By: Falilou Fall; Christine Lewis
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, the income level of the Czech Republic has converged considerably towards the OECD average. However, after the 2008 global crisis, the convergence process stalled. Shortfalls in labour productivity have developed and are mainly structural. Policies are needed to foster domestic sources of productivity growth. Better targeting of government R&D support and more focused innovation policies that would be aided by a streamlining of policy institutions and interventions are necessary. In particular, tailored policies to increase knowledge-based capital (skills, management capacity, collaboration, etc.) are necessary to increase Czech firms’ productivity. Also, resource reallocation should be facilitated by reforming framework conditions. In particular, bankruptcy rules, competition and regulation policies, access to finance and SME taxation need to be improved to boost SMEs' growth and productivity. Stimuler la productivité pour favoriser la convergence des revenus dans la République tchèque Au cours des deux dernières décennies, le niveau de revenu de la République tchèque s’est nettement rapproché de la moyenne de l’OCDE. Toutefois, après la crise mondiale de 2008, ce processus de convergence a marqué un coup d’arrêt. La productivité n’a pas progressé autant qu’attendu, principalement pour des raisons structurelles. Il est dès lors nécessaire de mettre en place des politiques publiques pour stimuler les sources internes de hausse de la productivité. Rationaliser les institutions chargées de l’élaboration de ces politiques aiderait à mieux cibler le soutien public à la R D et à affiner les politiques de l’innovation. En particulier, des politiques spécifiquement conçues pour développer le capital intellectuel (compétences, capacité de direction, collaboration, etc.) s’imposent pour accroître la productivité des entreprises tchèques. Par ailleurs, il conviendrait de faciliter la réaffectation des ressources en réformant les conditions-cadres en vigueur. En particulier, les règles en matière de faillite, les politiques en matière de concurrence et de réglementation, l’accès aux financement et la fiscalité des PME doivent être améliorés pour accélérer la croissance des petites et moyennes entreprises et doper leur productivité.
    Keywords: innovation, labour productivity, R&D tax incentives, skill mismatch
    JEL: H25 J24 O38 O47 O52
    Date: 2017–01–25
  20. By: André, Francisco J. (Departamento de Análisis Económico. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.); Arguedas, Carmen. (Departamento de Análisis Económico (Teoría e Historia Económica). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.)
    Abstract: In this paper we study the relationship between market power in emission permit markets and endogenous technology adoption. The presence of market power results in a di- vergence of both abatement and technology adoption levels with respect to the benchmark scenario of perfect competition, as long as technology adoption becomes more e¤ective in reducing abatement costs. Also, the initial distribution of permits, in particular, the amount of permits initially given to the dominant rm, is crucial in determining over- or under-investment in relation to the benchmark model. Speci cally, if the dominant rm is initially endowed with more permits than the corresponding cost e¤ective allocation, this results in under- investment by the dominant rm and over- investment by the competitive fringe, regardless of the speci c amount of permits given to the latter rms. The results are reversed if the dominant rm is initially endowed with relatively few permits. Our ndings seem consistent with some empirical evidence about the performance of the power sector in the initial phases of the European Union Emission Trading System.
    Keywords: environmental policy, emission permits, market power, environmentally-friendly technologies
    JEL: C72 D43 D62 L51 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2017–01
  21. By: AfDB AfDB
    Date: 2016–05–13
  22. By: Buerke, Günter
    Abstract: Ständige Produktverbesserungen und Innovationen sind die Essenz für die Überlebensfähigkeit von Unternehmen. Bei Herstellern kümmern sich Forschungs-, Entwicklungs-, Marketing- und/ oder Designbereiche sowie externe Innovationsdienstleister typischerweise um die Findung von Ideen, neuen Materialien oder Technologien und deren Realisierung. Das Marketing stellt mit über dreißig Primär-Marktforschungsmethoden ein breites Instrumentarium, um den Innovationsprozess über alle Phasen hinweg kompetent zu begleiten bzw. zu fördern. In der ersten Phase beginnt dies mindestens mit dem Identifizieren konkreter Suchfelder oder gar dem Finden neuer Ideenmärkte. In der Phase der Ideenakzeptierung stehen Tests im Mittelpunkt, während in der Phase der Ideenrealisierung bereits auch Methoden zu den Fortschritten in der Markteinführung zum Einsatz kommen können. Ausgewählte wichtige Anwendungsfelder der diversen Marktforschungsmethoden in der alternativen oder additiven Nutzung (durchaus auch von Primär- und Sekundärmarktforschung) stellen die Bedarfs-, Technologie-, Patent- und Kundenanalysen sowie die Themenfelder Produktgestaltung, -qualität und -bewertung dar. Das Spektrum an Marktforschungsmethoden reicht von der Sekundär- bis zur Primärmarktforschung. Neben vielen klassischen Methoden zählen dazu auch neuere, webgestützte Verfahren der Ideenfindung wie Webmonitoring und Crowdsourcing. Nicht jedes Verfahren findet in jeder Branche Einsatz. Anhand von drei ausgewählten Branchen, Automobil, Lebensmittel und Print (Zeitungen und Zeitschriften), wird aufgezeigt, welche Verfahren dort gebräuchlich sind oder gar ausschließlich Anwendung finden.
    Keywords: Primärmarktforschung,Sekundärmarktforschung,Innovation,Produktverbesserung,Innovationsprozess
    Date: 2016
  23. By: Hattori, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito
    Abstract: In Proposition 4 of Kamien and Tauman(1986), assuming linear demand and cost functions with fixed fee licensing it was argued that for the outside innovating firm under oligopoly when the number of firms is small (or very large), strategy to enter the market with license of its cost-reducing technology to the incumbent firm (entry with license strategy) is more profitable than strategy to license its technology to the incumbent firm without entering the market (license without entry strategy). However, their result depends on their definition of license fee, and it is inappropriate if the innovating firm can enter the market. If we adopt an alternative more appropriate definition based on the threat by entry of the innovating firm, license without entry strategy is more profitable in the case of linear demand and cost functions. Also we investigate the problem in the case of quadratic cost functions in which entry with license strategy may be optimal. Further we will show that the optimal strategies for the innovating firm when license fees are determined under the assumption that the licensor takes all benefit of new technology and its optimal strategies when license fees are determined according to Nash bargaining solution are the same.
    Keywords: entry, license, duopoly, cost-reducing innovation, innovating firm, incumbent firm
    JEL: D43 L13
    Date: 2017–01–27
  24. By: Roth, Philip
    Abstract: Informelle Konsultationen sind bedeutend dafür, wie sich Innovationsprojekten in Unternehmen entwickeln. Ob und wer informell eingebunden wird, wird bisher primär ausgehend von bestehenden Beziehungen erklärt. Daneben finden sich Ansätze, die Begegnungen für relevant erklären. Ich werde argumentieren, dass es einer differenzierten Betrachtung dieser Begegnungen bedarf, um zu verstehen, welche Begegnungen zu Konsultationen führen, und welche nicht. Dazu werde ich Begegnungen als soziale Situationen konzipieren. Daran anschließend werde ich eine empirische Untersuchung und die damit gewonnenen Erkenntnisse vorstellen. Ich werde am empirischen Material zeigen, dass sich das Zustandekommen von etwa der Hälfte aller aufgezeichneten Konsultationen maßgeblich auf bestimmte Situationen zurückführen lässt, die ich am Material typisieren kann. Abschließend werde ich zeigen, dass gerade die gelegentlichen Konsultationen von besonderem Wert für die Entwicklung der Innovationsprojekte sind.
    Date: 2017

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