nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒12‒11
twenty-two papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Innovation and Access to Finance By Michele Cincera; Anabela Santos
  2. Optimal Taxation and R&D Policies By Akcigit, Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Stantcheva, Stefanie
  3. The Innovation-R&D Nexus- Evidence from the Indian Manufacturing Sector By Sunil Kanwar; Shailu Singh
  4. Advanced Manufacturing Activities of Top R&D investors: Geographical and Technological Patterns By Petros Gkotsis; Antonio Vezzani
  5. A Dinâmica Inovativa das Empresas de Pequeno Porte no Brasil By Graziela Ferrero Zucoloto; Mauro Oddo Nogueira
  6. Access to informal venture capital and ambitious entrepreneurship – cross country evidence By Avdeitchikova, Sofia; Nyström, Kristina
  7. Innovación y emprendedurismo: Ordenando el rompecabezas de la Nueva Gestión Empresarial de la Innovación By Faiña Medín, J. Andres; Losada-Lopez, Chema; Montes-Solla, Paulino
  8. Success factors of innovation networks: Lessons from agriculture in Flanders By Lambrecht, Evelien; Kühne, Bianka; Gellynck, Xavier
  9. China’s pursuit of environmentally sustainable development: Harnessing the new engine of technological innovation By Jin, Wei; Zhang, ZhongXiang
  10. Product Homogeneity, Knowledge Spillovers, and Innovation: Why Energy Sector is Perplexed by a Slow Pace of Technological Progress By Jin, Wei; Zhang, ZhongXiang
  11. Foreign Competition and Domestic Innovation: Evidence from U.S. Patents By David Autor; David Dorn; Gordon H. Hanson; Pian Shu; Gary Pisano
  12. The contribution of different public innovation funding programs to SMEs' export performance By Liu, Rebecca; Rammer, Christian
  13. Contribution of Patent Examination to Making the Patent Scope Consistent with the Invention: Evidence from Japan By OKADA Yoshimi; NAITO Yusuke; NAGAOKA Sadao
  14. Drivers, effects and peculiarities of innovation activities in the food industry: a comparison across EU Member States using CIS data By Ciliberti, Stefano; Bröring, Stefanie; Martino, Gaetano
  15. Measuring and Analyzing the Shares of Economic Growth Sources in the Mining Sector of Iran: A Neoclassical Growth Accounting Approach By Mahmood Mahmoudzadeh; Seyyed Ali Zeytoon Nejad Moosavian
  16. When should a winner take all, or pay some? Innovation and imitation incentives in a dynamic duopoly By Billette de Villemeur, Etienne; Ruble, Richard; Versaevel, Bruno
  17. PhD by Publication as an Argument for Innovation and Technology Transfer: with Emphasis on Africa By Asongu, Simplice A; Nwachukwu, Jacinta
  18. Fostering entrepreneurial education in Agribusiness through experiential learning By Cavicchi, Alessio; Rinaldi, Chiara; Santini, Cristina
  19. Do migrants transfer productive knowledge back to their origin countries? By Jérome VALETTE
  20. Eurêka La leçon d'Archimède By Gilbert Giacomoni
  21. Legal and economic arguments for an IP protection system in the Pacific Alliance: A focus on an integrated patent system By Vasquez, Maria del Carmen
  22. Policy Experimentation and Intergovernmental Grants in a Federal System By Giampaolo Garzarelli; Lyndal Keeton

  1. By: Michele Cincera (The International Centre for Innovation, Technology and Education Studies (iCite), Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management, University of Brussels, Belgium); Anabela Santos (The International Centre for Innovation, Technology and Education Studies (iCite), Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management, University of Brussels, Belgium)
    Abstract: Promoting Research and Development (R&D) activities is the main goal of the EU 2020 Strategy in order to achieve an R&D spending at least 3% of GDP. The Innovation Union is one of the seven flagship initiatives of the EU 2020 Strategy, which has the aims: to improve access to finance for R&D; to get innovative ideas to market; to ensure growth and jobs (European Commission, 2014b). The aim of the present paper is to identify and explain the main mechanisms related to four commitments of Innovation Union: i) Commitment 10 (Put in place EU level financial instruments to attract private finance); ii) Commitment 11 (Ensure cross-border operation of venture capital funds); iii) Commitment 12 (Strengthen cross-border matching of innovative firms with Investors); iv) Commitment 13 (Review State Aid Framework for Research, Development and Innovation). To this purpose, a review of both theoretical and empirical literatures about ’Innovation, Access to Finance and SMEs’ based on more than 80 scientific and other articles and analyses is presented. The paper provides an analysis of the main alternative financial instruments to bank loans, namely Risk-Sharing Facility Financing, Venture Capital, Business Angels and public subsidies. We found some evidence in the literature that Venture Capital could have a limited impact in enhancing innovation in the long-term and that some public support schemes could be more effective than other, depending on the firm’s maturity state.
    Keywords: EU 2020 strategy, innovation, finance, Innovation Union
  2. By: Akcigit, Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Stantcheva, Stefanie
    Abstract: We study the optimal design of R&D policies and corporate taxation when the outputs of innovation are not appropriable in the absence of intellectual property rights policies and there are non-internalized technology spillovers across firms. Firms are heterogeneous in their research productivity, i.e., in the efficiency with which they convert a given set of R&D inputs into successful innovations. There is asymmetric information about firm productivity and about its stochastic evolution over time that prevents the first best solution to the technology spillover. The problem is thus posed as one of dynamic mechanism design with externalities. We characterize the optimal constrained efficient allocations over firms' life cycles and for firms of different productivities. We show that the constrained efficient allocations can be implemented either by a patent system plus a price subsidy for the monopolists' products, together with a parsimonious R&D subsidy function or, equivalently, by a prize mechanism. We estimate our model using firm-level data matched to patent data and quantify the optimal policies. Simpler innovation policies, such as linear R&D subsidies and linear profit taxes, lead to large revenue losses relative to the optimal mechanism.
    Keywords: Corporate taxation; innovation; patents; R&D; Subsidies; Tax credits
    JEL: H21 H23 H25 H32 O31 O32 O33 O38
    Date: 2016–12
  3. By: Sunil Kanwar (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics); Shailu Singh (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics)
    Abstract: While there is consensus that innovation is a prime motive force in the process of modern economic growth, there continues to be lack of clarity about how best to capture this process of innovation. Although it is relatively clear that research and development expenditure constitutes an important, perhaps even the most important, input into the innovation process, its relationship with the output of this process remains enigmatic. A sizeable literature considers this relationship in the developed country context, though primarily the US, and sheds light on a number of aspects. Evidence for developing countries, in contrast, is sparse. This study intends to fill this gap by exploring the innovation-R&D relationship as exemplified by the influence of knowledge capital on patents, in the context of the emerging economy of India. Using a relatively large sample of 380 manufacturing firms spanning 22 industries over the recent period 2001-2010, we find weak evidence at best for this relationship. A one unit (dollar or rupee) increase in the knowledge capital stock is likely to raise the expected patent count by only about 0.7%, which given the current average patent count per firm per year, is only a marginal change. In addition, we also find that patent experience and the firm’s access to resources are both strongly significant factors explaining changes in expected patent counts, although their magnitudes are equally small. Our semi-elasticity estimate w.r.t knowledge capital translates to an elasticity of about 0.02 at the means, which is in line with that for enterprises in Spanish manufacturing. However, it is an order of magnitude smaller than the 0.1 to 0.2 reported for the Dutch pharmaceuticals sector, and the 0.3 to 0.6 for firms in the US manufacturing sector. Given the many reasons why most firms appear not to patent even when they conduct some research, policy makers would have to address multiple issues to bring about a more effective conversion of research into formal intellectual property in the developing country context.
    Keywords: Patents, r&d, manufacturing, India
    Date: 2016–11
  4. By: Petros Gkotsis (European Commission – JRC); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: Advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) and other key enabling technologies (KETs) are expected to have a major impact on productivity, efficiency, profitability and employment in major industrial sectors worldwide. Thus, development of AMTs and KETs is considered essential if the European Union is to achieve the strategic goals set out in the European Commission’s Employment, Growth and Investment priorities. Indeed, AMTs and KETs are among the top priorities identified as necessary to support the competitiveness of European industries in the context of the European flagship on industrial modernisation. This study builds upon and extends results that were obtained in the context of the Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Competitiveness AMTEC project, in which the technological profiles of the patent portfolios of the EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard companies were constructed using patent-based analysis. In particular, their technological competences were investigated and it was found that European companies invest in KETs, and in particular in AMTs, as these technologies are considered to be vital for maintaining current competitiveness. However, other countries also invest heavily in AMTs and KETs. It is therefore very important for the EU to define a strategy that aims to find a suitable position in the global value and innovation chains and that selectively augments existing capabilities. To this end, a methodology based on patent analysis was applied to assess the capacity of the world’s top R&D investors in developing AMTs. Particular emphasis was placed on complex AMT patents that also pertain to at least one of the five KETs. These patents are considered important because they represent AMT applications used for the development of KETs in general or, conversely, they represent other KET applications that can be incorporated into AMT systems. The main questions addressed by this study were (1) In which countries are the most important inventors of AMTs and applicants for AMT-related patents located? (2) Is it possible to analyse internationalisation patterns and knowledge flows between world regions and countries? and (3) Are there any special patterns and clusters between AMT-related technological fields and the five core KETs and, if so, which companies are responsible for the development of these technological applications? Developing and patenting AMT-related technologies is particularly important for firms in the Aerospace & defence, Industrials, Automobiles & parts and Electronics & electrical equipment sectors. Moreover, the more specialised a sector is in developing AMT-related technologies, the less internationalised the AMT-related activities of the firms in the sector appear to be. In general AMT-related R&D activities of European- and US-based firms are more internationalised than the activities of Japanese- and Asian-based companies. It was found that many Scoreboard firms based in the USA, Japan, Germany, France and the UK own and develop a large number of AMT-related patents. However, there are also many inventors of AMT-related technologies based in other countries, such as China, India, Canada, Italy, Belgium and Spain. Finally, the ratio of complex AMT patents to the total number of AMT-related patents is close to 8%, the vast majority being patents that relate to micro- and nano-electronics, advanced materials or photonics. Companies that own these complex patents are often relatively small firms that are highly specialised in the development of AMT-related applications.
    Keywords: Advanced Manufacturing Technologies, Key Enabling Technologies, Patents, Industry
    Date: 2016–11
  5. By: Graziela Ferrero Zucoloto; Mauro Oddo Nogueira
    Abstract: Este trabalho analisa o perfil inovativo das empresas industriais brasileiras segundo seu porte. Os dados utilizados foram obtidos a partir da Pesquisa de Inovação Tecnológica (Pintec) de 2011, publicada pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). As empresas foram agregadas, de acordo com seu porte, em três grupos: micro e pequenas (entre 10 e 99 funcionários), médias (de 100 a 499 empregados) e grandes (500 ou mais empregados). Foram analisadas não somente as taxas de inovação desses grupos mas também o grau de inovatividade, as diferenças nas atividades inovativas empregadas, o grau de cooperação e o uso de incentivos públicos, entre outros. Adicionalmente, o trabalho realiza uma análise setorial das empresas, segundo os portes estabelecidos. Entre os principais resultados, concluiu-se que, apesar de apresentarem taxas de inovação superiores às das pequenas, os esforços inovativos das grandes firmas são, proporcionalmente, mais elevados, com ênfase na aquisição de máquinas e equipamentos (M&E), atividade associada à modernização do processo produtivo. Ainda, as empresas de pequeno porte são as principais responsáveis pela introdução de novos produtos no mercado nacional e mundial, representando cerca de três quartos do total. Em relação ao esforço em pesquisa e desenvolvimento (P&D), nos setores de baixa tecnologia, a distância das micro e pequenas empresas (MPEs) para as grandes é expressiva, enquanto nas indústrias de maior intensidade tecnológica, como a de farmoquímica e farmacêutica e a de informática e eletrônicos, as empresas de menor porte apresentam esforço tecnológico superior ao das grandes empresas. This paper analyzes the innovative performance of Brazilian industrial companies according to their size. We obtained the data from the Innovation Survey 2011, published by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). We grouped the companies according to their size: micro and small (between 10 and 99 employees), medium (100-499 employees) and large (500 or more employees). The paper not only analyzed the innovation rates of such groups, but the degree of innovativeness, differences in innovative activities, the degree of cooperation, use of public incentives, among others. In addition, the work carries out a sectoral analysis of the companies, according to the established sizes. Among the main results, it concluded that despite the large firms present innovative rates higher than small ones, innovative efforts of these are proportionally higher, with emphasis on the acquisition of machine, which is associated with the modernization of the production process. Still, small businesses are the main responsible for the introduction of new products in the domestic and world market, accounting for about ¾ full. Regarding the R&D efforts in low-tech sectors, the distance of SMEs to large firms is significant, while in the more technology-intensive industries, such as pharmaceutical, information technology and electronics, the smaller companies have technological effort higher than that of large companies.
    Date: 2016–11
  6. By: Avdeitchikova, Sofia (Oxford Research); Nyström, Kristina (The Ratio Institute)
    Abstract: Many empirical studies have emphasized the importance of institutional venture capital for enabling high growth entrepreneurship and innovation. Yet, there are reasons to believe that provision of informal venture capital will have as significant, if not more significant effect on entrepreneurship. Based on Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for 33 countries for the years 2001-2010, we study the relationship between the presence of informal investors in a country and the levels of general and ambitious entrepreneurship, defined as entrepreneurs that have intentions to grow their business, internationalize and/or innovate. Some of the main findings are that the overall level of access to informal venture capital is positively related to general entrepreneurship and ambitious entrepreneurship in terms of innovativeness, while access to arms-length money (i.e. informal investments made by work colleagues or strangers) appears to be positively related to ambitious entrepreneurship in terms of job growth expectations. The relationship between availability of arms-length money and the innovativeness of the entrepreneurial activities appears however to be negative.
    Keywords: Venturecapital
    JEL: G24
    Date: 2016–11–21
  7. By: Faiña Medín, J. Andres; Losada-Lopez, Chema; Montes-Solla, Paulino
    Abstract: This essay aims to clarify the puzzle of new principles and techniques in the field of business management of innovation. These new principles and techniques were born in a widely-connected world with an increasing presence of startups and innovative companies in order to meet pervasive market uncertainty and facilitate implementation of “new-to-market” innovations. The focus is placed on the implications for competitive strategy and business management of innovation. Instead of drawing on Schumpeterian concepts, we use the modern notion of “disruptive” innovations (those upsetting the rules of the game and old structures in a business or industry), as well as the principles and techniques recently developed to approach the uncertainties and costs of innovations: customer development and lean startup. We compare two paradigmatic styles of innovation: the startups’ stereotype (the American style) and that of “innovation transfer” (German-European style). Then, we discuss the main orientations of innovation policy with regard to the new industrial initiatives (Industry 4.0 in Germany and Europe and advanced manufacturing in USA) and their counterpoint of startups' innovating creativity across a connected world at the edge of an information revolution.
    Keywords: Innovación, Emprendedurismo, Nueva Gestión Empresarial
    JEL: M13 M15 O31 O32 O38 O39
    Date: 2016–10–27
  8. By: Lambrecht, Evelien; Kühne, Bianka; Gellynck, Xavier
    Abstract: Innovation has been identified as a critical asset for SMEs to survive (Hitt et al., 2001; Lee et al., 2001). However, SMEs that need to improve their innovation process often lack the essential resources to innovate when relying solely on their in-house activities (Batterink et al., 2010). A large body of literature therefore highlights the role of external partnerships, or networks (Lazzarini et al., 2001; Pittaway et al., 2004; Sawhney et al., 2006). Despite the increasing number of studies focusing on the relationship between networking and innovation, there is still considerable ambiguity and debate within literature regarding appropriate network characteristics for successful innovations (Nieto and Santamaria, 2007; Pittaway et al., 2004). Furthermore, the existing studies focus mostly on high tech companies (Edquist 2006, van Galen 2008). The objective of our study is to gain insight into the network characteristics critical for successful innovations within the agricultural sector in Flanders. The study is based on interviews and focus group discussions with farmers and network coordinators active in Flanders. In total, 109 respondents were consulted. This research is based on four innovation characteristics which seem crucial for each innovation (Kanter, 1988). For each of these innovation characteristics, we investigated how networks could contribute, via their network characteristics. The results showed that networks serves as a net for knowledge about e.g. new technologies, or changing legislation in order that farmers are faster aware of developments. When farmers have multiple contacts, they have a higher chance to discover new things. Thereby, it is important that knowledge providers are part of the network and connected with the different actors, and not only provide their information to the farmers as an external actor. Also the face-to-face communication within a network is an essential issue. Furthermore, coalition can play a crucial role for some innovations, as a lot of farmers are not able to implement their idea because for example the retailer or research institute is not supportive or interested. If the farmers set up a self-initiated coalition, it can be easier to initiate the innovative idea. Fourth, it is important that individual actors from the agricultural system revisit their actual role. Successful innovation processes often originate in situations where creativity is not limited within one unit. Based on the findings, recommendations for farmers as well as network coordinators are formulated to increase the innovation capacity.
    Keywords: Innovation, Networks, Success factors, Agriculture, Flanders, Agribusiness,
    Date: 2015–05
  9. By: Jin, Wei; Zhang, ZhongXiang
    Abstract: Whether China continues its business-as-usual investment-driven, environment-polluting growth pattern or adopts an investment and innovation-driven, environmentally sustainable development holds important implications for both national and global environmental governance. Building on a Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans growth model that features endogenous technological change induced by R&D and knowledge stock accumulation, this paper presents an exposition, both analytically and numerically, of the mechanism underlining China’s economic transition from an investment-driven, pollution-intensive to an investment and innovation-driven, environmentally sustainable growth path. We show that if R&D technological innovation is incorporated into China’s growth mechanism, then at some tipping point in time when marginal welfare gain of R&D for knowledge accumulation becomes equalized with that of investment for physical asset deployment, China’s economy will launch capital investment and R&D simultaneously and make a transition to a sustainable growth path along which consumption, capital investment, and R&D have a balanced share of 5: 4: 1, consumption, capital stock, and knowledge stock all grow at a rate of 4.9%, and environmental quality improves at a rate of 2.5%. In contrast, if R&D technological innovation is not harnessed as a new growth engine, then China’s economy will follow its business-as-usual investment-driven growth path along which standalone accumulation of dirty physical capital stock will lead to a more than 200-fold increase in environmental pollution.
    Keywords: Endogenous technological change, sustainable development, economic growth model, China’s economic transition, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q55, Q58, Q43, Q48, O13, O31, O33, O44, F18,
    Date: 2016–01
  10. By: Jin, Wei; Zhang, ZhongXiang
    Abstract: There is a growing body of literature mentioning the slow pace of energy technological progress as compared to other technologies like information technology (IT), but the reasons why energy sector is perplexed by slow innovation remain unexplained. Based on a variety-expanding endogenous technological change model, this paper provides a rigorous economic exposition of the mechanism that underlies the slow progress of energy technological innovation. We show that in decentralized market equilibrium the growth rate of energy technology variety is lower than that of IT variety. This stems from both market fundamentals where the homogeneity of end-use energy goods is less likely to harness the pecuniary externality embedded in the household’s love-for-variety preference, and technology fundamentals where the capital-intensiveness of energy technology inhibits the non-pecuniary technological externality due to knowledge spillovers. We further show that a social planner solution can promote energy technological progress, yet still cannot achieve an outcome in which energy technology variety grows faster than IT variety. By targeting subsidies on energy technology R&D and the use of intermediate primary energy inputs by secondary energy producers, the decentralized market equilibrium can achieve an outcome in which energy technology grows faster than IT.
    Keywords: Energy Technological Innovation, Product Homogeneity, Knowledge Spillovers, Love-for-variety Effect, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession, Q55, Q58, Q41, Q43, Q48, O31,
  11. By: David Autor; David Dorn; Gordon H. Hanson; Pian Shu; Gary Pisano
    Abstract: Manufacturing is the locus of U.S. innovation, accounting for more than three quarters of U.S. corporate patents. The rise of import competition from China has represented a major competitive shock to the sector, which in theory could benefit or stifle innovation. In this paper we empirically examine how rising import competition from China has affected U.S. innovation. We confront two empirical challenges in assessing the impact. We map all U.S. utility patents granted by March 2013 to firm-level data using a novel internet-based matching algorithm that corrects for a preponderance of false negatives when using firm names alone. And we contend with the fact that patenting is highly concentrated in certain product categories and that this concentration has been shifting over time. Accounting for secular trends in innovative activities, we find that the impact of the change in import exposure on the change in patents produced is strongly negative. It remains so once we add an extensive set of further industry- and firm-level controls. Rising import exposure also reduces global employment, global sales, and global R&D expenditure at the firm level. It would appear that a simple mechanism in which greater foreign competition induces U.S. manufacturing firms to contract their operations along multiple margins of activity goes a long way toward explaining the response of U.S. innovation to the China trade shock.
    JEL: F14 F6 O31 O34
    Date: 2016–12
  12. By: Liu, Rebecca; Rammer, Christian
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of different public innovation funding programs on the innovation output and export performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). We evaluate the effectiveness of regional, national and European funding programs implemented in Germany for both product and process innovations. Our panel study shows that public financial support contributes to higher innovation outputs, which in turn translates into higher export success in later years. This relation however only holds for certain sources of public funding and certain types of innovation output. Innovation support from the European Union and national programs for cutting-edge technology that results in higher sales with new-to-market products shows a significant positive effect on SMEs' export performance. For funding programs run by regional authorities, we find similar though relatively smaller impacts on both innovation output and exporting. Bottom-up funding at the national level-which allows firms to freely define the design of the funded innovation projects in terms of content and cooperation-increases sales with innovations that are only new to the firm, but these innovations have limited impacts on export success. Our results suggest that public innovation programs should challenge SMEs to go for more ambitious innovations in order to strengthen their competitiveness.
    Keywords: Public Funding,SMEs,Innovation Outputs,Exporting,Panel Study,Matching
    JEL: O32 O38 F14
    Date: 2016
  13. By: OKADA Yoshimi; NAITO Yusuke; NAGAOKA Sadao
    Abstract: Delineating the patent scope consistently with the contribution of the disclosed invention is one of the most crucial requirements for a patent system to promote innovation effectively. Given the incentive of an applicant to set a scope for the patent as broad as possible, an important task of the Patent Office is to narrow it so that it becomes commensurate with the invention. This study analyzes empirically how significantly the Patent Office delivers this important function through patent examination, focusing on product patents in four major technology areas. We find that, often (i.e., two-thirds of the granted patents), the patent's scope is narrowed as an outcome of the patent examination. In addition, both the incidence and the extent of such narrowing increase when the applicant chooses broader claims and decrease when the quality of prior art disclosure by the applicant is higher, suggesting that patent examination indeed contributes to making the patent scope consistent with the contribution of the invention. We also found that a more important patent application experiences more the narrowing event, consistent with our simple model of examination where an examiner aims at reducing the economic cost due to excess claim such as deadweight loss, subject to time constraint.
    Date: 2016–11
  14. By: Ciliberti, Stefano; Bröring, Stefanie; Martino, Gaetano
    Abstract: Innovation is a clear target of the Europe 2020 growth strategy. It has been widely postulated that cooperation is especially important for innovation in the food industry because it has traditionally been regarded as a “low tech” sector. This paper analyses how different forms of cooperation affect innovation activities in the EU’s food industry. In particular, the study addresses the question of how cooperation between companies and key chain agents influences innovative activity. To do so, we analysed data at the country level drawn from the Community Innovation Survey (CIS). The aggregated data allowed us to investigate national system-level processes that must be considered the outcomes of micro-level decisions and policies. A random effect linear model is formulated and estimated to analyse the panel data obtained from five CIS waves. The model indicates that cooperation with universities positively affects innovative activity and, surprisingly, that government financial support has not been an effective instrument to foster innovation by food companies.
    Keywords: Innovation, food industry, cooperation, supplier integration, Agribusiness,
    Date: 2015–05
  15. By: Mahmood Mahmoudzadeh; Seyyed Ali Zeytoon Nejad Moosavian
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to measure the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth and determine the share of each of the economic growth sources in the mining sector of Iran. The time period of this study is 1355-1385 of the Solar Hijri calendar (roughly overlaying with the time period of 1976-2006 of the Gregorian calendar). In this paper, the shares of total factor productivity growth (TFPG) and factors' accumulations in the economic growth of the mining sector are estimated using a neoclassical growth accounting approach. Based on the estimated restricted Cobb-Douglas production function and the results obtained from the Solow residual equation, the annual growth rates of TFP were measured for each year. According to the findings, the average annual growth rate of TFP has been 2.94% during the time period of the present study. The other findings of this study indicate that the average contributions of TFPG, labor accumulation and capital accumulation in the economic growth of the mining sector have been 56%, 23%, and 21%, respectively, during the time period of the study. As such, it can be concluded that the policy of benefiting from available factors in the mining sector together with the policy of accumulating factors have simultaneously caused the value-added growth of this sector. Therefore, considering the desired performance of the mining sector in terms of its sizable productivity growth, it can be argued that the mining sector can aid Iran's economic development plans to achieve their assigned economic objectives, one of which is to increase the share of total factor productivity growth in economic growth.
    Date: 2016–12
  16. By: Billette de Villemeur, Etienne; Ruble, Richard; Versaevel, Bruno
    Abstract: We develop a model of investment in duopoly with asymmetric costs of innovating and imitating and endogenous firm roles. Dynamic competition involves either attrition or preemption, the former being likelier with high demand growth and uncertainty. Industry value is maximized when firms neither stall nor hasten entry, and we show that social welfare has local maxima in both the attrition and preemption ranges. In all cases the socially optimal cost of imitation is positive. Attrition is optimal if consumer surplus rises sufficiently under duopoly, whereas with static business-stealing, preemption is optimal if discounting is important enough. Finally we discuss endogenous entry barriers and contracting, finding that firms are more likely to rely on secrecy and patents at low imitation costs and that simple licensing schemes are welfare improving.
    Keywords: Dynamic oligopoly; Knowledge spillover; Real options
    JEL: G31 L13 O33
    Date: 2016–12
  17. By: Asongu, Simplice A; Nwachukwu, Jacinta
    Abstract: The contribution of African researchers to knowledge by means of scientific publications is low compared to other regions of the world. This paper presents an argument in favour of PhD by Publication as a tool for innovation and technology transfer. Building on the literature on the key role of a knowledge economy in 21st century development and catch-up processes, we argue that: (i) in order for PhD dissertations to be more useful to society, they should be harmonised with scientific publications which centre on improving the design and quality of existing and new products in developing countries. (ii) Obtaining a doctorate degree should not simply be reduced to a change in candidate’s title as is often the case with a traditional thesis. (iii) The PhD by Publication is a more effective route to ensuring that the contribution to knowledge is widely disseminated. The conceptual framework consists primarily of the clarification of the models of PhD by Publication and the linkages between the doctoral education, innovation, technology transfer and development catch-up. Implications for scientific research policies in the light of contemporary challenges to African development are discussed.
    Keywords: Doctoral education; PhD by Publication; technology transfer; innovation; development
    JEL: A20 F42 O10 O30 O34
    Date: 2016–08
  18. By: Cavicchi, Alessio; Rinaldi, Chiara; Santini, Cristina
    Abstract: This work examines the relationship between experiential learning and entrepreneurial education in the Agribusiness field. After having outlined the challenges that higher education has to meet business and students’ needs, the work outlines emerging insights from research that contributse to underline how effective could be an academic approach focused on experience. An overview of the latest development in the methodological field is presented; the paper, finally introduces the measures and initiative undertaken at the European level for promoting entrepreneurial education and initiatives by implementing experiential learning methods.
    Keywords: Agribusiness,
    Date: 2015–05
  19. By: Jérome VALETTE
    Abstract: This paper analyses whether international migrants contribute to foster innovation in developing countries by inducing a transfer of productive knowledge from destination to the migrants’ home countries. Using the Economic Complexity Index as a proxy for the amount of productive knowledge embedded in each countries, and bilateral migrant stocks to 20 OECD destination countries, we show that international emigration is a strong channel of technological transmission. Diasporas foster the local adoption of new technologies by connecting high technology countries with low ones, reducing the uncertainty surrounding their profitability. Our empirical results support the fact that technological transfers are more likely to occur out of more technologically advanced destinations and when emigration rates particularly high.
    Keywords: International migration, Technology transfer, Export sophistication, Diaspora externalities.
    JEL: F63 O33 F22
    Date: 2016–12
  20. By: Gilbert Giacomoni (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: L’innovation peut se définir comme un processus qui conduit de la conception d’une idée, d’un comportement ou d’un objet nouveau à son acceptation et à son application généralisée. Elle peut offrir aux parties prenantes, au sein d’une entreprise ou plus généralement d’une communauté humaine, l’opportunité d’accéder à l’Eurêka – sésame de bien-être et de réussite. Cet article se focalise sur la compréhension de ce processus du point de vue des sciences de la conception et de la décision. Il apporte un cadre conceptuel nouveau issu de développements théoriques et de recherches-interventions en entreprises grand public ou en création. Enfin, il conclut sur les mécanismes fondamentaux et sur la méthodologie exploratoire qu’il conviendrait de suivre en termes de stratégie collective et d’évaluation des potentiels.
    Keywords: processus d’innovation, bien-être, stratégie collective, évaluation de potentiels, conception, décision
    Date: 2016–09–30
  21. By: Vasquez, Maria del Carmen
    Abstract: SECO Working Paper 16/2016 by María del Carmen Vásquez Callo and Camilo Pérez Restrepo
    Date: 2016–12–06
  22. By: Giampaolo Garzarelli (Department of Social Sciences and Economics, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy & IPEG, Johannesburg, South Africa.); Lyndal Keeton (IPEG & School of Economic and Business Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.)
    Abstract: Policymaking is a challenging production activity. A public sector organization that is often invoked to aid with this challenging activity is fiscal federalism, for a federation can act as a laboratory for policy experimentation. Yet there is no approach linking laboratory federalism to intergovernmental grants. This lacuna is puzzling, for grants are fundamental policy tools for federations. We develop an approach that fills this lacuna by interpreting grants as fiscal institutions for policy innovation: policy experimentation is encouraged or discouraged depending on the degree of grant conditionality, and a simple heuristic expresses mistake-ridden learning from experimentation.
    Keywords: Fiscal institutional design through political compromise, Incentives in laboratory federalism, Intergovernmental grant conditionality, Policy innovation through trial and error, Policy experimentation space.
    JEL: D78 H77
    Date: 2016–11

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