nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒11‒20
38 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. R&D, Embodied Technological Change and Employment: Evidence from Italian Microdata By Barbieri, Laura; Piva, Mariacristina; Vivarelli, Marco
  2. Ensuring incentives for innovation and access to medicines: The balance struck in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement on intellectual property (patent and regulatory data) protection for pharmaceutical products By Plank-Brumback, Rosine M.
  3. Patent Assertion Entities in Europe: Their impact on innovation and knowledge transfer in ICT markets By Nikolaus Thumm; Garry Gabison
  4. Measuring Knowledge with Patent Data: an Application to Low Carbon Energy Technologies By Clément Bonnet
  5. Access to medicines and incentives for innovation: The balance struck in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) on intellectual property (patent and data exclusivity) protection for pharmaceutical products By Artecona, Raquel; Plank-Brumback, Rosine M.
  6. “Breakthrough innovations: The impact of foreign acquisition of knowledge" By Damián Tojeiro-Rivero; Rosina Moreno; Erika Badillo
  7. Disentangling the processes of firm growth and R&D investment By Alexander Coad; Nicola Grassano
  8. Patents, exhibitions and markets for innovation in the early twentieth century: Evidence from Turin 1911 International Exhibition By Domini, Giacomo
  9. Innovation System in Development: The Case of Peru By Zuniga, Pluvia
  10. RIO COUNTRY REPORT 2015: United States By Charles Wessner
  11. Exploring cooperation between the Republic of Korea and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) in the areas of innovation and SME internationalization strategies By -
  12. Formal and informal appropriation mechanisms: the role of openness and innovativeness By Zobel, Ann-Kristin; Lokshin, Boris; Hagedoorn, John
  13. RIO Country Report 2015: Israel By Abraham Garcia Torres
  14. Preparing for the Future - The OECD-Countries in Comparison By Horst Hanusch; Yasushi Hara
  15. Variety of Future-Orientation: The Case of G-19 Countries By Horst Hanusch; Yasushi Hara
  16. Revolutionary Developments in the World Economy By Horst Hanusch
  17. Estimating territorial business R&D expenditures using corporate R&D and patent data By Petros Gkotsis; Hector Hernandez; Antonio Vezzani
  18. Public Expenditures, Innovation and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from G20 Countries By Horst Hanusch; Lekha Chakraborty; Swati Khurana
  19. Corruption, innovation and firm growth: Firm-level evidence from Egypt and Tunisia By Goedhuys, Micheline; Mohnen, Pierre; Taha, Tamer
  20. Meeting the Challenges of the EU-2020 Agenda - A Future-Oriented Indicator Analysis for the EU-Countries By Horst Hanusch; Yasushi Hara
  21. Risk analysis in innovation system: a case - study of production of Vitamin A cassava variety among farmers in Nigeria By Ayinde, O.E.
  22. On the Direction of Innovation By Francesco Squintani; Hugo A. Hopenhayn
  23. Identifying the Gender of PCT inventors By Gema Lax Martínez; Julio Raffo; Kaori Saito
  24. Offshore Profit Shifting and Domestic Productivity Measurement By Raymond Mataloni; Kim Ruhl; Dylan Rassier; Fatih Guvenen
  25. Pervasive Enough? General Purpose Technologies as an Emergent Property. By Vladimir Korzinov; Ivan Savin
  26. Mobile Phone Innovation and Inclusive Human Development: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Asongu, Simplice; Boateng, Agyenim; Akamavi, Raphael
  27. The Hand-Loom Weaver and the Power Loom: A Schumpeterian Perspective By Robert Allen
  28. Innovation Policy: What, Why & How By Jakob Edler; Jan Fagerberg
  29. Quantifying the Effects of Expert Selection and Elicitation Design on Experts’ Confidence in their Judgments about Future Energy Technologies By Nemet, Gregory F.; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Verdolini, Elena
  30. Worker Personality: Another Skill Bias beyond Education in the Digital Age By Eckhardt Bode; Stephan Brunow; Ingrid Ott; Alina Sorgner
  31. Climbing the Ladder of Technological Development By Sergio Petralia; Pierre-Alexandre Balland; Andrea Morrison
  32. Asset bubbles, labor market frictions, and R&D-based growth By Ken-ichi Hashimoto; Ryonghun Im
  33. Politiques d’innovation et performances productives des systèmes agroforestiers cacaoyers de la région du Centre Cameroun By Ndzana, Martin
  34. Les auteurs des sciences des organisations du débat actuel sur l’innovation By Yvon Pesqueux
  35. SPICE - Benchmark Case Analyse: Entrepreneurship Education an Hochschulen By Ebbers, Illona; Mikkelsen, Kirsten; Raschke, Claudia
  36. Entrepreneurial Spillovers over Space and Time By Frank M. Fossen; Thorsten Martin
  37. Returns to Food and Agricultural R&D Investments Worldwide, 1958-2015 By Hurley, Terrance M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Rao, Xudong; Andrade, Robert S.
  38. A critical review of entrepreneurial ecosystems: towards a future research agenda By Yana Borissenko; Ron Boschma

  1. By: Barbieri, Laura (Università Cattolica di Piacenza); Piva, Mariacristina (Università Cattolica di Piacenza); Vivarelli, Marco (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: This paper explores the employment impact of innovation activity, taking into account both R&D expenditures and embodied technological change (ETC). We use a novel panel dataset covering 265 innovative Italian firms over the period 1998-2010. The main outcome from the proposed fixed effect estimations is a labor-friendly nature of total innovation expenditures; however, this positive effect is barely significant when the sole in-house R&D expenditures are considered and fades away when ETC is included as a proxy for innovation activities. Moreover, the positive employment impacts of innovation activities and R&D expenditures are totally due to firms operating in high-tech industries and large companies, while no job-creation due to technical change is detectable in traditional sectors and SMEs.
    Keywords: technology, innovation, R&D, embodied technological change, employment
    JEL: O31 O33
    Date: 2016–11
  2. By: Plank-Brumback, Rosine M.
    Abstract: The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) commissioned this study to analyze the implications of the balance struck under the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) between the right to health and access to next-generation medicines on the one hand, and on the other, the private right to intellectual property protection and the need to maintain profit-earning incentives to spur innovation and research and development. The study focuses on the patent and data-related intellectual property protection provisions of the TPPA, specifically regarding pharmaceutical (small-molecule and biologic ) products, including on patent duration, linkage and term extensions as well as clinical test data protection and market exclusivity. The study considers the position of the United States in this respect, as it has been and remains the world’s principal demandeur for high intellectual property rights (IPR) standards in trade agreements, including the TPPA.
    Date: 2016–10–31
  3. By: Nikolaus Thumm (European Commission - JRC); Garry Gabison (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Patent assertion has become a common practice in shaping the balance between technology creation and technology dissemination in the Information and Communication Industry (ICT). The importance of this practice for the functioning of ICT markets has given rise to new entities that enforce patents but do not utilise the patented technology, commonly referred to as patent assertion entities (PAEs). This study provides an overview of patent assertion practices and of PAEs in Europe, taking into consideration their impact on innovation and technology transfer in European ICT markets.
    Keywords: Patenting, patent assertion entities, patent trolls, innovation
    Date: 2016–10
  4. By: Clément Bonnet
    Abstract: We estimate a latent factor model (LFM) to compute an index that measures the quality of an extensive data set of inventions related to Low Carbon Energy Technologies (LCETs) and patented by seven countries during 1980-2010. We use the quality index to compute the stock of knowledge accumulated in the fifteen analyzed LCETs. We investigate the composition of the stock of knowledge and find that important substitutions between technologies have taken place: technologies such as solar thermal and nuclear have been progressively replaced by wind power, solar photovoltaic and to a less extent by few other technologies. This substitution effect can be decomposed into quantity (the number of inventions) and quality (the quality of inventions). Investigating the latter, the quality of nuclear-related inventions has decreased whereas it has increased for solar photovoltaic (PV), wind power and energy storage inventions. Few newer technologies, i.e. hydrogen and sea energy, also show signs of an increase of their average quality of inventions over the last years of the data set. We go further and investigate the inventions distribution in terms of quality and conclude that the potential for signifcant inventions related to nuclear technology has decreased over time whereas higher levels of quality have been reached in newer technological areas. A cross-country comparison is conducted to assess the innovation performance of the seven countries covered by our study. We conclude that technology policies are less efficient when demand-pull and supply-push approaches are not coupled.
    Keywords: patent data, latent factor model, energy technologies, carbon.
    JEL: C30 C11 Q40 Q55
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Artecona, Raquel; Plank-Brumback, Rosine M.
    Abstract: This study addresses the balance struck under the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) between the right to health and access to medicines and the need to maintain the economic incentives to spur innovation and research and development through intellectual property protection. The analysis focuses on the patent and data-related intellectual property protection provisions of the TPPA, specifically regarding pharmaceutical (small-molecule and biologic) products, including on patent duration, linkage and term extensions as well as clinical test data protection and market exclusivity. Special attention is paid to the United States and its negotiating position with respect to those aspects of intellectual property rights, as it has been and remains the world’s principal demandeur for high intellectual property rights (IPR) standards in trade agreements, including the TPPA.
    Date: 2016–11
  6. By: Damián Tojeiro-Rivero (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona. Av.Diagonal 696; 08034 Barcelona, Spain.); Rosina Moreno (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona. Av.Diagonal 696; 08034 Barcelona, Spain.); Erika Badillo (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona. Av.Diagonal 696; 08034 Barcelona, Spain.)
    Abstract: Based on the Spanish Technological Innovation Panel, this paper explores the role of R&D offshoring on innovation performance from 2004 to 2013. Specifically, we focus our attention on the impact of different types of offshoring governance models on the profitability of developing breakthrough innovations. Using a novel methodology for panel data sets, we control for the heterogeneity of firms as well as for the sample selection and endogeneity. Our study provides evidence that firms developing breakthrough innovations tend to benefit more from the external acquisition of knowledge than those engaged in incremental innovations. We also find evidence that acquiring knowledge from firms outside the group is more profitable than doing so with firms within the group. Moreover, the external acquisition of knowledge tends to present a higher return on breakthrough innovation in the case of taking such knowledge from the business sector rather than from universities or research institutions. Finally, the recent financial crisis has led to an increase in the return of the foreign acquisition of knowledge on the generation of breakthrough innovations.
    Keywords: Endogeneity; Panel data; R&D offshoring; Spanish firms; Sample selection; Technological and organizational space. JEL classification:
    Date: 2016–11
  7. By: Alexander Coad (European Commission – JRC); Nicola Grassano (European Commission – JRC Innovation)
    Abstract: What are the secrets for stimulating R&D investment and job creation? This question is of central importance for the EU Innovation Union strategy. This policy brief applies a new econometric technique to the EU Industrial R&D Scoreboard data on the world's top R&D investors, to highlight the key role of sales growth (instead of profits growth) as the engine of R&D investment and job creation.
    Keywords: R&D investment, firm growth, SVAR, sales growth, industrial dynamics
    JEL: O33 O31 C10
    Date: 2016–11
  8. By: Domini, Giacomo (UNU-MERIT, and University of Siena)
    Abstract: This work contributes to the recent literature on international exhibitions, and on the use of data from these events as a proxy for innovation in economic history. In particular, it investigates the nature of international exhibitions, the role they played in the early twentieth century, the reasons why economic agents attended them, the relationship between exhibition data and patent data, and their suitability for measuring innovation. To do so, it makes an in-depth analysis of the International Exhibition held in Turin in 1911, and it matches a new database, built from the catalogue of this event, with data about patents granted in Italy. It is found that exhibiting and patenting did mostly occur separately, as exhibitions mainly worked as markets for products, which attracted firms, while patents were primarily taken out by individuals, most of whom might not be interested in that function. Yet, the presence is observed of a qualified niche of independent inventors, using the exhibition as a market for ideas, i.e. to advertise their findings to a selected public of potential investors, buyers or licensees.
    Keywords: patents, inventions, international exhibitions, markets for innovation, Italy
    JEL: N74 O31 O33
    Date: 2016–11–01
  9. By: Zuniga, Pluvia (UNU-MERIT, and OECD)
    Abstract: Despite an exceptional economic performance achieved over the last decade, Peru still lags behind other middle-income Latin American economies in terms of per capita income and productivity. The Peruvian economy remains relatively undiversified, largely dependent on natural resources. The nationalinnovation system is under development, weakly integrated, and underfunded, with few incentives for its actors to engage in innovation activities and collaborate with others. This note summarises the current state of innovation in Peru and reviews the capacity of the innovation system to generate new competitive advantages in industry. It briefly discusses policies and policy gaps in research and innovation and benchmarks national innovation competences to other relevant economies, based on available indicators and surveys. Following a sequential approach, a strengthened policy agenda for innovation should tackle fundamental weaknesses of the innovation system and set the basis for its expansion and a better articulation. Examples of policy actions to improve research performance and business innovation are provided. The paper concludes with suggestions for reforming the innovation system and provides examples of policy actions.
    Keywords: innovation system, development, Peru, emerging countries, innovation policy
    JEL: O14 L52 L60 L26 O32 O57
    Date: 2016–10–26
  10. By: Charles Wessner (Georgetown University, USA)
    Abstract: RIO R&I International Country Reports analyse and assess the research and innovation system, including the main challenges, framework conditions, regional R&I systems, and international co-operation.
    Keywords: USA, Country Report, Research and Innovation, RIO, policy analysis
    Date: 2016–11
  11. By: -
    Abstract: The CELAC region could benefit from an increase in mutual cooperation with Korea on multiple development pillars, including innovation and SMEs’ internationalization. These two themes figure among the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for the period of 2016 to 2030 and are key topics on the development agendas of CELAC countries and Korea. The first theme, science, technology and innovation (STI), is at the heart of structural transformation and encourages the emergence of new sectors, production networks and businesses. The second theme, SME internationalization strategies, are key for development as SMEs account for the vast majority of firms and provide the largest share of employment in the CELAC region and Korea. This document aims to contribute to the definition of a new phase of cooperation between Korea and Latin America and the Caribbean through the CELAC in the two aforementioned areas.
    Date: 2016–10–30
  12. By: Zobel, Ann-Kristin (Dept. of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zürich); Lokshin, Boris (School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University); Hagedoorn, John (UNU-MERIT, and Royal Holloway University of London)
    Abstract: This paper analyses how firms' degree of openness and innovativeness influence their use of formal and informal appropriation mechanisms. Patents, trademarks, copyrights, and design rights are formal appropriation mechanisms. Secrecy, lead-time, and complexity are examples of informal appropriation mechanisms. Both external search breadth and depth are positively associated with firms' use of informal appropriation mechanisms, while only external search breadth is positively associated with formal appropriation mechanisms. Firms' degree of radical (incremental) innovation orientation is negatively (positively) associated with their use of formal appropriation mechanisms. Analysis of the joint impact of openness and innovativeness, suggests that for radical innovators it is external search breadth (rather than depth) that has a positive association with the use of informal appropriation mechanisms. In contrast, for radical innovators external search depth (rather than breadth) is associated with the use of formal appropriation mechanisms. For incremental innovators, external search breadth (rather than depth) is associated with the use of both formal and informal appropriation mechanisms.
    Keywords: Appropriation Mechanisms, Formal Appropriation, Informal Appropriation, External Search Openness, Incremental Innovators, Radical Innovators
    JEL: O34 O31 O32 K11
    Date: 2016–10–26
  13. By: Abraham Garcia Torres
    Abstract: The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward the main challenges of the research and innovation systems.
    Keywords: Israel, country report, policy analysis, R&I, research and innovation
    Date: 2016–11
  14. By: Horst Hanusch (Institute of Economics, University of Augsburg, Augsburg); Yasushi Hara (Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo)
    Abstract: In modern growth or development theory innovation is a crucial factor which pushes the dynamics of an economy and determines its success in the future. Out of innovations, created in the presence, the potentials for the future of a country are prepared, deciding how its economic fitness and competitiveness will emerge. So, future-orientation is in a natural way connected with innovativeness of a firm, a region or a country and shapes the strength and the specifics of the process of development. Looking around the world economy, one can observe a variety of countries which exist at different levels of development. Each of them has to master its economic future, choosing an own specific development strategy. How the various countries, belonging to different continents and cultures, will succeed in this endeavor is surely one of the most exciting and important issues of coming decades. In this global context our study is focusing on "future preparedness" of a specific group of countries, the so called OECD- countries. The origin of this group dates back to 1960, when 18 European countries and the United States as well as Canada created in Paris an organization dedicated to global development. Today the group consists of 34 member countries which span the globe from North to South America, to Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. They include many of the world’s most advanced countries but also emerging ones like Mexico, Chile and Turkey. The concept of "future preparedness" gets its analytical and empirical relevance when it is placed and investigated within a specific development model. Such a model determines the theoretical basis of the study and provides the necessary ingredients for an empirical application. In our study we will use "Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics" (CNSE) as an analytical framework (Hanusch and Pyka, 2007). This approach is based (a) 2 on the notion of future-orientation penetrating all spheres of socio-economic life in developed as well as in developing countries; (b) on the principle of innovation as the main driving force and the engine of future-orientation and development. Based on the concept of CNSE the central aim of our study is to gain new insights and findings concerning the "future preparedness" of the OECD-countries. To meet this target we (a) rely on the notion of "future-orientation" as a basic prerequisite for being prepared to master the future; (b) try to bring this concept of "future preparedness" on a concrete basis by using indicator analysis embedded in the framework of CNSE; (c) investigate patterns of similarities in the set of indicators; (d) show how these patterns look like by applying cluster analysis; (e) draw some conclusions from the patterns concerning the status and variety of future-orientation in the group of OECD-countries. Future-orientation will be described and characterized in total by 45 indicators, focusing on the real (16), the public (21) and the financial sector (08) of an economy. The indicators reflect many different activities in the various countries related to innovation and the "emerging future" within the concept of CNSE. Dependent on data availability, the indicator sets comprise different years mainly in the period between 2006 and 2012.
    Keywords: Development Models, Neo-Schumpeterian Economics, Indicator Analysis, Future-Oriented Country Analysis (FCA)
    JEL: N10 P00 O10
    Date: 2016–11
  15. By: Horst Hanusch (Institute of Economics, University of Augsburg, Augsburg); Yasushi Hara (Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo)
    Abstract: In modern growth or development theory innovation is a crucial factor which pushes the dynamics of an economy and determines its success in the future. Out of innovations, created in the presence, the potentials for the future of a country are prepared, deciding how its economic fitness and competitiveness will emerge. So, future-orientation is in a natural way connected with innovativeness of a firm, a region or a country and shapes the strength and the specifics of the process of development. Our study is focusing on the group of G-19 countries with respect to their future-orientation shaped and characterized by innovation and the underlying processes of creating and distributing novelties. This group is an economic, financial and political forum which consists of 19 major economies, advanced and developing ones, allocated in Asia, Europe, Euro-Asia, North and South America, The Middle East and Oceania. If you add the European Union you get the G-20 group which is the main economic council of wealthy nations nowadays. The concept of future-orientation, defined by innovativeness, gets its analytical and empirical relevance when it is placed and investigated within a specific development model. Such a model determines the theoretical basis of the study and provides the necessary ingredients for an empirical application. In our study we will use "Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics" (CNSE) as an analytical framework (Hanusch and Pyka, 2007a). This approach is based (a) on the principle of innovation as the main driving force and the engine of development coupled b) with the notion of future-orientation penetrating all spheres of socio-economic life in developed as well as in developing countries. Based on the concept of CNSE the central aim of our study is to gain new insights and findings concerning the variety of future-orientation of the G-19 countries. For that purpose we use an empirical indicator approach which (a) tries to bring the notion of future-orientation on a concrete basis by using indicators embedded in the framework of CNSE; (b) investigates patterns of similarities in the set of indicators; (c) shows how these patterns look like by applying cluster analysis; (d) draws some conclusions from the patterns concerning the status and variety of future-orientation in the group of G-19 countries.
    Keywords: Development Models, Neo-Schumpeterian Economics, Indicator Analysis, Cluster Analysis
    JEL: B52 C8 O57
    Date: 2016–11
  16. By: Horst Hanusch (Institute of Economics, University of Augsburg, Augsburg)
    Abstract: In the last decades the world changed dramatically. From a global point of view three disruptive processes are on their way which can be called revolutionary: a political, a technological and an economic revolution. This paper aims to give an overview when and how these movements started what the essence of these processes is and with which consequences we will have to deal with in the future. Concerning the political revolution the year 1990 can be characterized as a historical landmark because of two reasons: At first, it finished with orthodox communism as it was practiced primarily in the former Soviet Union. Secondly, this year created a new illusion which is described at its best by Francis Fukuyama in his book "The End of History" (1990). The Western form of a liberal representative democracy had overruled communism as its most important counterpart and it promised to stay forever as a political system when combined with a capitalistic market economy. That means in last consequence "the end of history". The paper shows how this illusive thinking has been demolished in the last twenty years and in which way a new regime of political thinking, the "autocratic system" of political decision making, is gaining relevance worldwide in developed as well as in developing countries. Starting in China and spreading over to other countries in the second half of the last century it now even reached countries in Europe which after 1990 tried to install a liberal representative democracy with great empathy, for instance Russia, Hungary, the Czech Republic and recently also Poland. The paper tries to grasp this process, to find answers why the attractiveness of the democratic ideal is fading away in these days and to show which consequences this political transformation process might have for the global economy. The last two decades of the 20 th century set off a third great wave of technological invention and disruptive innovation, the "digital revolution". Radical advances in computing-, information- and communication-technology may deliver a similar mixture of transformation as societies had experienced in the centuries before, getting acquainted to the steam engine, electricity, the telegraph and telephone for instance. The larger part of economists and scientists today sticks to the opinion that this new technological revolution will change fundamentally essential characteristics of the three pillars which constitute a socio-economic system: the financial, the public and the real sector. The paper intends to show how each of these pillars are already affected by the eruptive development of digitalization and how this process may go on in the future with all its social, economic and institutional consequences. If the 1990’s are taken as a historical landmark for fundamental changes in the world, one miraculous development has to be stressed as most important: The economic "catching up" process of the developing world, especially in those emerging countries called the BRICS group consisting of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. In the last 20 years these nations’ growth has far outpaced that of the US and the EU, with China already having become the second largest economy in the world. The paper will show how this growth phenomenon already changed fundamentally the structure of the world economy and which consequences can be expected in the future, if a country like China will be successful in combining elements of the political and the technological revolution in its development strategy. This scenario and the economic system standing behind may be called "state capitalism" and it is thoroughly in conflict with what is named as "entrepreneurial capitalism", concretized at its best in the US and its Silicon Valley. If we go back to Schumpeter, the Silicon Valley example can be pictured as a realistic portrait of what he had in mind in his 1912 book (The Theory of Economic Development). Whereas the Chinese kind of forming the country’s development process and its innovation culture seems to be more in accordance with the Schumpeter book of 1942 (Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy). The paper will at the end shortly focus on this interesting issue, which might be called a "Schumpeterian Battle of Systems", namely "Entrepreneurial Capitalism" against "State Capitalism". Perhaps, this antagonism might shape the development of the world economy in the coming decades of the 21 st century more than any other event.
    Keywords: Development Economics, Institutional Theory, Technological Change, Schumpeterianism
    JEL: B52 O3 P10
    Date: 2016–11
  17. By: Petros Gkotsis (European Commission - JRC); Hector Hernandez (European Commission - JRC); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This note describes a methodology to estimate territorial business R&D expenditure funded by the business sector, using R&D and patent data from top R&D investing companies. Since company data are available with a short delay, the aim is to provide timeliness estimations for business R&D in anticipation of its publication by official statistics. The estimation is made for worldwide industrial R&D expenditures, breaking down figures for main world regions and focusing on the EU and its top member states. The industrial coverage comprises main innovative industries, focusing on manufacturing and knowledge intensive services.
    Keywords: industrial R&D, innovation, BERD, estimation
    Date: 2016–11
  18. By: Horst Hanusch (Institute of Economics, University of Augsburg, Augsburg); Lekha Chakraborty (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi; Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, New York); Swati Khurana (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi)
    Abstract: The paper examines public expenditures and their effects on economic growth. For that purpose we choose four categories of expenditures, defence, infrastructure, human capital and R & D expenditures. Behind these expenditures stands, in socio-political consideration, a certain notion of the state as an active provider of public services for different purposes. From an analytical perspective the state is integrated in an institutional or sectoral framework which consists of the public, the financial and the real sector. All of these parts are oriented towards the development of an economy like it is formulated in the concept of "Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics" (CNSE). In such a framework the state offers in the first case via defence expenditures national security as a pure public good which may have severe effects on the economic situation of an economy. In the second case the state provides capital investment as a prerequisite for economic development. In the third instance the state is defined as an institution preparing individuals and society for the uncertainties to come (resilience). The fourth category is closely related to innovation, hence traditionally R & D expenditures are taken as a proxy for the propensity of a firm or a society to invest into the future by creating novelties and using them as innovations. So, which kind of state is the most relevant one when we focus on economic growth and development? Is it the "security state" or the "development state", in the sense of catching up, which matters most? What role plays a state which focusses on resilience by stressing education and health (human capital) of its citizens in order to master the future? Or is it, last but not least, the "innovation oriented state", focussing on R & D, which has the biggest influence on economic growth? To answer these questions we investigate the links between the four categories of public expenditures and economic growth in an empirical panel data regression model using data for the G20 countries during the period between 2000 and 2012 within the constraints of data availability. The results reveal that the impact of innovation oriented spending on economic growth is much higher than that of the variables. The data used stems from the electronic data base of Government Finance Statistics (IMF), the Infrastructure Reports for the G20 countries and the World Development Indicators (World Bank).
    Keywords: Schumpeterian economics, development, country studies, data estimation
    JEL: O30 O38 H5
    Date: 2016–11
  19. By: Goedhuys, Micheline (UNU‐MERIT); Mohnen, Pierre (UNU-MERIT, and Maastricht University); Taha, Tamer (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: Using recently collected firm-level data from Egypt and Tunisia, this paper explores the effect of institutional obstacles and corruption on the innovative behaviour of firms and their effect on firms' employment growth. We estimate the micro-level interactions between corruption and institutional obstacles and test the hypothesis that corruption 'greases the wheels' of firm performance when bureaucratic procedures are more severe and hampering innovation. Accounting for endogeneity and simultaneity, the paper uses a conditional recursive mixed-process model (CMP). The results show that corruption has a direct negative effect on the likelihood that a firm is an innovator, but a positive effect when interacted with institutional obstacles. This provides support for the hypothesis that corruption serves as a mechanism to bypass the bureaucratic obstacles related to obtaining the necessary business permits and licences for product innovation. These effects also resonate into firm growth, through their effect on product innovation.
    Keywords: Innovation, corruption, employment growth, Egypt, Tunisia
    JEL: L25 D73
    Date: 2016–10–11
  20. By: Horst Hanusch (Institute of Economics, University of Augsburg, Augsburg); Yasushi Hara (Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo)
    Abstract: Future-orientation or innovativeness is a leading credo in the EU’s economic policy agenda of the 21 st century. It started in the year 2000 with the Lisbon Agenda, the first 10 years plan in which Europe should have become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economic region in the world. And, it continued in 2010 with the second 10 years framework program "EU 2020" which again is concentrating on research and innovations in the technological, but also in the social (political) and ecological field. The evolving quantitative and qualitative effects summarize under the strategy of "smart, inclusive and sustainable growth" (European Union, 2010). The aim of our study is to deal with these grand European visions and to focus on the "emerging future" of the EU countries. How do the EU member states handle their economic future? Does there exist a certain pattern of future-orientation? Can specific similarities or dissimilarities between the single countries be observed and satisfactorily explained? To give an answer to these questions we use an empirical indicator approach combined with cluster analysis. This approach, however, has to be based on a specific model of future-orientation or economic development. Such a model determines the theoretical scaffold of the study and provides the necessary ingredients for an empirical application. In our study we will use "Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics" (CNSE) as an analytical framework (Hanusch and Pyka, 2007a). This approach is based (a) on the principle of innovation as the main driving force and the engine of development coupled (b) with the notion of future-orientation penetrating all spheres of socio-economic life in developed as well as in developing countries.
    Keywords: Schumpeterian economics, development, country studies, data estimation
    JEL: B52 C8 O57
    Date: 2016–11
  21. By: Ayinde, O.E.
    Abstract: Every innovation is targeted towards adoption; a process which involves several levels of risks. Bio-fortified Vitamin A cassava variety is an innovation targeted not only to solve the yield of farmers but to increase the nutritional intake of Nigerian household. The research specifically seeks to investigate; the risks involved in the adoption of vitamin A cassava variety; the risk attitude of cassava farmers; and the factors that affect farmers risk attitude to the production of vitamin A cassava. 4-stage random sampling procedure was used to primarily select 240 farmers; descriptive statistics, Likert scale, Safety first utility approach and ordinary least square regression model were the tool of analysis. The study revealed that risks involved in adoption of the cassava variety include animal invasion, price fluctuation, and poor storage facilities. Majority of the farmers 88.3% are risk neutral, only 16% are risk takers; it also revealed that age, income from other activities and estimated annual income are the determinants of risk attitude. It is therefore recommended that; effort should be geared toward making adequate vitamin A bio-fortified cassava varieties available to young farmers; grazing reserved should be provided to reduce the risk and effort should be intensified to reduce price volatility for improved products
    Keywords: Innovation, Nigeria Risk, Vitamin ‘A’ Cassava, Crop Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2016–09
  22. By: Francesco Squintani (University of Warwick); Hugo A. Hopenhayn (University of California Los Angeles)
    Abstract: Research on the efficiency of innovation markets is usually concerned on whether the level of R&D firm investment is socially optimal. Instead, this paper studies whether R&D resources are employed optimally across research areas. Under weak assumptions, we find that competitive equilibrium innovative efforts are biased excessively into high returns areas. This form of market inefficiency is a novel result, and would take place even if innovators' profits coincided with the social value of innovations. We first demonstrate it in a simple, fundamental model. Then we embed our analysis in a canonical dynamic framework directly comparable with extant R&D models, and precisely identify the features of R&D competition that lead to the market failure we identify.
    Date: 2016
  23. By: Gema Lax Martínez (Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.); Julio Raffo (Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.); Kaori Saito (World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the gender of inventors in international patent applications. We compile a worldwide gender-name dictionary, which includes 6.2 million names for 182 different countries to disambiguate the gender of PCT inventors. Our results suggest that there is a gender imbalance in PCT applications, but the proportion of women inventors is improving over time. We also find that the rates of women participation differ substantially across countries, technological fields and sectors.
    Keywords: patent gender gap; gender innovation metrics; patents; gender-name dictionary.
    JEL: J16 O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2016–11
  24. By: Raymond Mataloni (U.S. Department of Commerce); Kim Ruhl (New York University Stern School of Busi); Dylan Rassier (Bureau of Economic Analysis); Fatih Guvenen (University of Minnesota)
    Abstract: U.S. labor productivity growth has slowed considerably, falling from 2.2 percent per year in 2000–04 to 0.63 percent per year in 2004–07. This slowdown took place primarily in sectors that either produce or use information technology (IT) services. At about the same time, U.S. multinational enterprises (MNEs) were accumulating considerable overseas earnings that were not being repatriated to the United States, distorting the return to intangible investments made in the United States. In this paper we ask: To what extent is the mismeasurement of MNE production responsible for the measured slowdown in productivity growth? Our preliminary results show that adjusting for the overseas production shifting of U.S. MNEs has a significant impact on measured productivity, particularly in IT-related industries that are research-and-development intensive — the industries that Fernald (2014) finds most responsible for the aggregate productivity slowdown. In the R&D intensive industries, our adjustment adds 5.1 percentage points to cumulative labor productivity growth in 1973–2014, and in IT-related R&D intensive industries, the cumulative gain in labor productivity is 4.5 percentage points. Notably, most of our adjustment happens after 2004, the period in which unadjusted productivity slows down.
    Date: 2016
  25. By: Vladimir Korzinov; Ivan Savin
    Abstract: We propose a novel model of knowledge discovery shedding light on the emergence of General Purpose Technologies (GPTs), the process which has been largely neglected in the literature on technological change. We demonstrate that GPTs emerge only when certain conditions with regard to the following techno-economic factors are met: knowledge diffusion, coordination on technological trajectories and volatility in the rank of expected returns on products. Furthermore, our model provides intuitive explanation for technological lock-ins, S-shaped curves of technology adoption, temporal clustering of innovations in time and replicates distinct features of empirical networks of relatedness among technologies and products.
    Keywords: general purpose technology, technology networks, pervasiveness of technologies, knowledge diffusion, innovation.
    JEL: C63 D83 D85 L16 O3
    Date: 2016
  26. By: Asongu, Simplice; Boateng, Agyenim; Akamavi, Raphael
    Abstract: A recent World Bank report reveals that poverty has been decreasing in all regions of the world with the exception of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as more than 45% of countries in the sub-region are off-track from achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) extreme poverty target. This paper investigates the effects of mobile phone technology, knowledge creation and diffusion on inclusive human development in 49 SSA countries for the period 2000-2012 using Tobit model. The study finds that mobile phone penetration in SSA is pivotal to sustainable and inclusive human development irrespective of the country’s level of income, legal origins, religious orientation and the state of the nation. However, the pupil-teacher ratio exerts a negative influence on inclusive human development. The net effects of interactions between the mobile phone and knowledge diffusion variables are positive.
    Keywords: Mobile phones; inclusive human development; Africa
    JEL: G20 I10 I32 O40 O55
    Date: 2016–03
  27. By: Robert Allen
    Abstract: Abstract: Schumpeter’s ‘perennial gale of creative destruction’ blew strongly through Britain during the Industrial Revolution, as the factory mode of production displaced the cottage mode in many industries. A famous example is the shift from hand loom weaving to the use of power looms in mills. As the use of power looms expanded, the price of cloth fell, and the ‘golden age of the hand loom weaver’ gave way to poverty and unemployment. This paper argues that the fates of the hand and machine processes were even more closely interwoven. With the expansion of factory spinning in the 1780s, the demand for hand loom weavers soared in order to process the newly available cheap yarn. The rise in demand raised the earnings of hand loom weavers, thereby, creating the ‘golden age’. The high earnings also increased the profitability of developing the power loom by raising the value of the labour that it saved. This meant that less efficient–hence, cheaper to develop--power looms could be brought into commercial use than would have been the case had the golden age not occurred. The counterfactual possibilities are explored with a model of the costs of weaving by hand and by power. The cottage mode of production was an efficient system of producing cloth, but it self-destructed as its expansion after 1780 raised the demand for sector-specific skills, thus providing the incentive for inventors to develop a power technology to replace it. The power loom, in turn, devalued the old skills, so poverty accompanied progress.
    Keywords: Technological Change, Invention, Technological Unemployment, Creative Destruction
    JEL: N63 N34 O31
    Date: 2016–03–02
  28. By: Jakob Edler (Manchester Institute of Innovation Research, MBS, University of Manchester, UK); Jan Fagerberg (Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture (TIK), University of Oslo, Norway)
    Abstract: During the last two-three decades policy-makers have increasingly became concerned about the role of innovation for economic performance and, more recently, for the solution of challenges that arise (such as the climate challenge). The view that policy may have a role in supporting for innovation has become widespread, and the term innovation policy has become commonly used. This paper takes stock of this rapidly growing area of public policy, with particular focus on the definition of innovation policy (what it is); theoretical rationales (why innovation policy is needed); and how innovation policy is designed, implemented and governed.
    Date: 2016–11
  29. By: Nemet, Gregory F.; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Verdolini, Elena
    Abstract: Expert elicitations are frequently used to characterize future technology outcomes. However their usefulness is limited, in part because: estimates across studies are not easily comparable; choices in survey design and expert selection may bias results; and over-confidence is a persistent problem. We provide quantitative evidence of how these choices affect experts’ estimates of the costs of future energy technologies. We harmonize data from 19 elicitations, involving 215 experts, on the 2030 costs of 5 energy technologies: nuclear, biofuels, bioelectricity, solar, and carbon capture. We control for expert characteristics, survey design, and public R&D investment levels on which the elicited values are conditional. We find that, on average, when experts respond to elicitations in person, they ascribe lower confidence (larger uncertainty) to their estimates than when responding via mail or online. In-person interviews also produce more optimistic assessments of best-case (10th percentile) outcomes. The impacts of expert affiliation—government, private sector, or academic—and geography—US or EU—are also significant; academics and US experts have lower confidence than other types of experts. Higher R&D investment levels have no effect on the confidence of experts’ judgments. R&D reduces both the median and breakthrough (10th percentile) cost estimates, although the size of the effect varies across technologies. These results indicate the source, direction, and size of bias in energy technology elicitations. They also point to the technology specificity of some of the effects. These biases should be seriously considered, both in interpreting the results of existing elicitations and in designing new ones.
    Keywords: Expert Elicitations, Uncertainty, Energy Technologies, Heuristic Biases, Survey Design, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, O13, O14, Q4,
    Date: 2016–11–04
  30. By: Eckhardt Bode (Kiel Institute for the World Economy); Stephan Brunow (Institute for Employment Research, Nürnberg); Ingrid Ott (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and Kiel Institute for the World Economy); Alina Sorgner (Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: We present empirical evidence suggesting that technological progress in the digital age will be biased not only with respect to skills acquired through education but also with respect to noncognitive skills (personality). We measure the direction of technological change by estimated future digitalization probabilities of occupations, and noncognitive skills by the Big Five personality traits from several German worker surveys. Even though we control extensively for education and experience, we find that workers characterized by strong openness and emotional stability tend to be less susceptible to digitalization. Traditional indicators of human capital thus measure workers' skill endowments only imperfectly.
    Keywords: Worker personality, Noncognitive skills, Digital transformation, Direction of technical change, Germany
    JEL: C25 J24 O33
    Date: 2016–11–15
  31. By: Sergio Petralia; Pierre-Alexandre Balland; Andrea Morrison
    Abstract: Despite being the main thriving force behind economic growth and industrial development, technological innovation remains highly concentrated on a handful of countries. It is therefore of a great interest to know how countries accumulate and develop their innovative capabilities, what kind of obstacles they need to overcome, and whether it is possible to identify opportunities to develop new areas of technological specialization. In this paper we analyze countries’ patterns of technological diversification and specialization along the development process. We provide evidence regarding the importance of existing technological capabilities and the relationship among technologies in shaping possible paths of technological development. We show that the likelihood of diversification is higher for those technologies that are related to countries’ existing profile of competences. Moreover, we show this effect to be stronger at earlier stages of development. Additionally, we show that countries tend to follow clear patterns of specialization along the development path, by moving towards more complex and valuable technologies.
    Date: 2016–11
  32. By: Ken-ichi Hashimoto (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University); Ryonghun Im (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Research Fellowship for Young Scientists, Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Abstract: Employing an overlapping generations model of research and development (R&D)-based growth with labor market frictions, this paper examines how employment changes induced by labor market frictions influence asset bubbles and long-run economic growth. Asset bubbles can (cannot) exist when the employment rate is high (low), which leads to higher (lower) economic growth through labor market efficiency. We also explore the steady state and transitional dynamics of bubbles, economic growth, and employment. Furthermore, we show that policy or parameter changes that have a negative influence on the labor market can lead to a bubble burst.
    Keywords: overlapping generations, asset bubbles, labor market friction, employment rate, R&D
    JEL: J64 O41 O42
    Date: 2016–11
  33. By: Ndzana, Martin
    Abstract: Face aux faibles rendements des systèmes agroforestiers cacaoyers traditionnels au Cameroun, les pouvoirs publics avec l’appui de l’IRAD et le CIRAD proposent depuis quelques années des politiques d’innovations en faveur des cacaoculteurs. Celles-ci qui visent l’amélioration significative des rendements et des conditions de vie des populations, portent aussi sur la diversification des productions , l’introduction d’une plante de couverture pour restaurer la fertilité des sols. Toutefois, si l’innovation agricole constitue l’un des leviers susceptible de réduire la fragilité des populations, seule l’efficacité dans son emploi permet de bénéficier pleinement de son potentiel agronomique. Dans un tel contexte, il nous a semblé pertinent d’évaluer la performance de ces cacaoyers innovants. Les résultats obtenus à partir des données 2006-2010 montrent que le taux de rentabilité des exploitations est faible. De plus, il ressort que les exploitations sont relativement inefficaces et les facteurs endogènes aux producteurs sont les déterminants majeurs de leur efficacité. En conséquence, il est souhaitable que la mise en place de ces politiques d’innovation se poursuive et se vulgarise. Mais, l’accent doit être mis sur le désenclavement des localités, la gestion rationnelle de la taille des exploitations et l’amélioration du niveau d’instruction des producteurs à travers les formations organisées en milieu paysan.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2016–09
  34. By: Yvon Pesqueux (LIRSA - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Sciences de l'Action - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM])
    Abstract: La conception interactionniste de l’innovation de S. J. Kline & N. Rosenberg et l’innovation incrémentale C. Christensen et la notion de « technologie – innovation » de rupture E. von Hippel et l’innovation démocratique L’innovation ouverte de H. Chesbrough L’ambidextrie organisationnelle Innovation frugale (ou l’économie de la frugalité) Les Fab Labs
    Keywords: innovation, innovation ouverte, innovation frugale
    Date: 2016–11–05
  35. By: Ebbers, Illona; Mikkelsen, Kirsten; Raschke, Claudia
    Abstract: [Vorbemerkung] Im Zuge des Projekts „SPICE – Student Programme for Innovation Culture and Entrepreneurship“ führte die Europa-Universität Flensburg eine Benchmarkanalyse durch, um die Wirkung des Projektes hinsichtlich der Etablierung des Themas Entrepreneurship Education (EE) im SPICE-Netzwerk zu prüfen bzw. zu evaluieren. Durch diese Analyse sollte des Weiteren geklärt werden, inwiefern dieses Netzwerk gegenüber anderen Einrichtungen an Hochschulen qualitativ einzuordnen ist. In diesem Sinne bestand die Aufgabe nun in der Erörterung jener Aspekte, die zu einer hochwertigen Verankerung einer Entrepreneurship Education in den hochschulischen Einrichtungen führen und wie ein hierfür notwendiges Netzwerk mögliche Defizite auffangen kann. In diesem Zusammenhang wurde folgendes Vorgehen gewählt. Zum einen wurde ein grenzübergreifender Vergleich zwischen Dänemark und Deutschland vorgenommen und zum anderen wurden große Hochschulen mit kleinen auf beiden Seiten der Grenze verglichen. In diesem Rahmen fand eine minimale Auswahl an Good-Practice Beispielen statt, die sich auf zwei große und zwei kleinere Hochschulen jeweils in Dänemark und Deutschland beschränkten. Zu den großen Universitäten zählen die Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität München (LMU) und die Aarhus Universität (AU), zu den kleinen Hochschulen die Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst Hildesheim (HAWK) und die Syddansk Universitet (SDU) mit ihrem Campus in Kolding. Gewährleistet wurde durch dieses Vorgehen, dass alle relevanten zu vergleichenden Aspekte gebündelt werden konnten, ohne sich im Detail zu verlieren. Der Vergleich der Flensburger Hochschulen mit großen Universitäten sollte deutlich machen, welche Ressourcen für eine erfolgreiche Etablierung der Entrepreneurship Education an Hochschulen erfolgversprechend zu sein scheinen. Der Vergleich mit kleinen Hochschulen sollte den Stand der Flensburger Hochschulen auf gleicher Ebene verdeutlichen. Dass die Institution Hochschule als Vergleichsmaßstab diente, ist allein den spezifischen Rahmenbedingungen, welche staatliche Hochschulen aufweisen, geschuldet. Das am Ende der hier vorzustellenden Benchmarkanalyse nochmals beschriebene Projekt SPICE wird deutlich machen, dass eine Vernetzung mit hochschulnahen Institutionen, welche studentische Entrepreneurship Education unterstützen, mögliche ressourcenabhängige Defizite kleiner Hochschulen auffangen bzw. beseitigen können. Denn durch die abschließend dargestellte Vernetzung, wird deutlich, dass auch kleine Hochschulen mit strategischen Kooperationen dem Vergleich mit großen Hochschulen Stand halten können. Alle im Rahmen des Benchmarks erwähnten Informationen wurden über die Homepages der jeweiligen Hochschulen und Institutionen sowie durch Interviews mit entsprechenden Schlüsselpersonen generiert. Inhaltlich sind alle Cases von den Hochschulen und Institutionen zur Veröffentlichung freigegeben worden.
    Date: 2016
  36. By: Frank M. Fossen; Thorsten Martin
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is a local and dynamic phenomenon. We jointly investigate spatial spillovers and time persistence of regional new business formation. Using panel data from all 402 German counties for 1996-2011, we estimate dynamic spatial panel models of business creation in the high-tech and manufacturing industries. We consider regions of different sizes and systematically search for the most suitable spatial weighting matrices. We find substantial spatial spillovers as well as time persistence of start-up activity, especially in the high-tech industry. This indicates that entrepreneurship is deeply rooted in regions and underlines the importance of local entrepreneurship culture for new business formation.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, new business formation, spatial spillovers, path dependency, persistence, spatial panel
    JEL: L26 C23 R12 O30
    Date: 2016
  37. By: Hurley, Terrance M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Rao, Xudong; Andrade, Robert S.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2016–08
  38. By: Yana Borissenko; Ron Boschma
    Abstract: The Entrepreneurial Ecosystem (EE) literature has attracted much attention, especially in policy circles. However, the concept suffers from a number of shortcomings: (1) it lacks a clear analytical framework that makes explicit what is cause and what is effect in an entrepreneurial system; (2) while being a systemic concept, the EE has not yet fully exploited insights from network theory, and it is not always clear in what way the proposed elements are connected in an entrepreneurial system; (3) it remains a challenge what institutions (and at what spatial scale) impact on the structure and performance of EE; (4) studies have often focused on the EE in single regions or clusters, but lack a comparative and multi-scalar perspective; (5) the EE literature tends to provide a static framework taking a snapshot of EE without considering systematically their evolution over time. For each of these shortcomings, we make a number of suggestions to take up in future research on EE.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial ecosystem, Entrepreneurial system, Networks, Entrepreneurship, Clusters
    JEL: L26 M21 O33
    Date: 2016–11

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