nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒10‒02
twenty-one papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Patent Pools in Input Markets By Reisinger, Markus; Tarantino, Emanuele
  2. R&D and Productivity in the US and the EU: Sectoral Specificities and Differences in the Crisis By Davide Castellani; Mariacristina Piva; Torben Schubert; Marco Vivarelli
  3. Adoption of Cloud Computingin Emerging Countries: The Role of the Absorptive Capacity By Adel Ben Youssef; Walid Hadhri; Téja Meharzi
  4. Essay on the State of Research and Innovation in France and the European Union By Antoine Kornprobst
  5. The Effects of FDI on Innovation Systems in Hungarian Regions: Where is the Synergy Generated? By LENGYEL, BALÁZS; LEYDESDORFF, LOET
  6. Exploring Antecedents of Service Innovation Excellence in Manufacturing SMEs By Mennens, Kars; van Gils, Anita; Odekerken - Schröder, Gaby; Letterie, Wilko
  7. Urban Networks: Connecting Markets, People, and Ideas By Glaeser, Edward L.; Ponzetto, Giacomo A. M.; Zou, Yimei
  8. Les Communautés de Pratique de startups innovantes By Tatiane Guimarães; Luciana Castro-Gonçalves; Glaucia Vasconcellos Vale
  9. Quality Predictability and the Welfare Benefits from New Products: Evidence from the Digitization of Recorded Music By Luis Aguiar; Joel Waldfogel
  10. Raising Korea's productivity through innovation and structural reform By Randall S. Jones; Jae Wan Lee
  11. The Workforce of Pioneer Plants By Hausmann, Ricardo; Neffke, Frank
  12. The co-creation of multi-agent social innovations By Paul Windrum; Doris Schartinger; Luis Rubalcaba; Faiz Gallouj; Marja Toivonen
  13. Multinationality, R&D and productivity: Evidence from the top R&D investors worldwide By Davide Castellani; Sandro Montresor; Torben Schubert; Antonio Vezzani
  14. Foreign Profitability and the Rising Foreign R&D of U.S. Multinational Corporations By De Simone, Lisa; Huang, Jing; Krull, Linda
  15. Making Technological Innovation Work for Sustainable Development By Diaz Anadon, Laura; Chan, Gabriel; Harley, Alicia; Matus, Kira; Moon, Suerie; Murthy, Sharmila L.; Clark, William C.
  16. Managing scientific patenting in French research organizations (1916-1951) By Gabriel Galvez-Behar
  17. The Effect of Innovation Box Regimes on Income Shifting and Real Activity By Chen, Shannon; De Simone, Lisa; Hanlon, Michelle; Lester, Rebecca
  18. Environmental Innovation Impact analysis with the GMR-Europe Model By VARGA, ATTILA; HAU-HORVÁTH, ORSOLYA; SZABÓ, NORBERT; JÁROSI, PÉTER
  19. Inventions and their commercial exploitation in academic institutions: Analysing determinants among academics By Bijedić, Teita; Chlosta, Simone; Werner, Arndt
  20. The impact of urban concentration on countries’ competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance By KOMLÓSI, ÉVA; PÁGER, BALÁZS
  21. Technological Progress and Sectoral Shares By Gamal Atallah; Aggey Semenov

  1. By: Reisinger, Markus; Tarantino, Emanuele
    Abstract: We show that patent pools formed by owners of perfectly complementary patents are anticompetitive if one of the licensors is integrated with a manufacturer. With vertical integration, the pool serves as coordination device, allowing patent holders to restrict supplies to the product market and share the larger profits of the affiliated manufacturer. These results are robust to entry, the contractual and competitive environments. The imposition of an unbundling and pass-through requirement makes patent pools socially desirable. We also show that this requirement is more effective than a mandated non-discriminatory policy enforcing FRAND commitments in screening anticompetitive pools.
    Keywords: Antitrust Policy; Complementary Patents; FRAND; Patent Pools and Joint Marketing Agreements; Vertical Integration and Restraints
    JEL: K11 L41 M2
    Date: 2016–09
  2. By: Davide Castellani (Henley Business School, University of Reading); Mariacristina Piva; Torben Schubert; Marco Vivarelli
    Abstract: Using data on the US and EU top R&D spenders from 2004 until 2012, this paper investigates the sources of the US/EU productivity gap. We find robust evidence that US firms have a higher capacity to translate R&D into productivity gains (especially in the high-tech industries), and this contributes to explaining the higher productivity of US firms. Conversely, EU firms are more likely to achieve productivity gains through capital-embodied technological change at least in medium and low-tech sectors. Our results also show that the US/EU productivity gap has worsened during the crisis period, as the EU companies have been more affected by the economic crisis in their capacity to translate R&D investments into productivity. Based on these findings, we make a case for a learning-based and selective R&D funding, which – instead of purely aiming at stimulating higher R&D expenditures – works on improving the firms’ capabilities to transform R&D into productivity gains.
    Keywords: R&D, productivity, economic crisis, US, EU
    JEL: O33 O51 O52
    Date: 2016–06
  3. By: Adel Ben Youssef (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Walid Hadhri (UAQUAP - Unité de Recherche en Analyses Quantitatives Appliquées à la l'Economie et à la Gestion - ISG - Institut Supérieur de Gestion de Tunis [Tunis] - Université de Tunis [Tunis]); Téja Meharzi (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper aims at developing a theoretical framework that explains the decision of cloud computing (CC) adoption in Emergent Countries. It emphasizes the specific role of the technological absorptive capacity especially when the firm is seeking innovation by adopting CC. The absorptive capacity considered in this work is close to the work of Todorova and Durisin (2007) who proposed a framework linking both the contributions of Cohen and Levinthal (1989) and Zahra and Georges (2002).To test our theoretical claims, we estimated two models predicting the probability of adopting CC and adopting CC for innovative aims with (1) competitive pressure and external environment, (2) Technology perceived impacts, and (3) technological absorptive capacity of the firm. We use control variables such as size, sector of activity and seniority in order to control the general purposes of our claims. We use a bivariate probit model in order to understand the determinants of the decision of adoption and an ordered probit with sample selection in order to understand the determinant of adoption of CC for innovative aims. Based on a face-to-face questionnaire administered to a random sample of 350 Tunisian firms, and using a Heckman selection method. Our empirical findings confirm our theoretical claims and show that technology perception is key factor for CC adoption (for general purposes) and that the absorptive capacity is fundamental when the adoption of CC is for innovation goals.We found also that competition pressureis an important explanatory factor:the more competitors that adopt this technology, the more likely the firm adopt it.
    Keywords: Technology Adoption,IPRs,ProbitModel,Absorptive Capacity,Tunisia,Innovation,Heckman selection method,Cloud Computing,Information and Communication Technologies
    Date: 2015–12–15
  4. By: Antoine Kornprobst (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Innovation in the economy is an important engine of growth and no economy, whatever its complexity and degree of advancement, whether it is based on industry, agriculture, high tech or the providing of services, can be truly healthy without innovating actors within it. The aim of this work, done by an applied mathematician working in finance, not by an economist or a lawyer, isn't to provide an exhaustive view of the all the mechanisms in France and in Europe that aim at fostering innovation in the economy and to offer solutions for removing all the roadblocks that still hinder innovation; indeed such a study would go far beyond the scope of this study. What I modestly attempted to achieve in this study was firstly to draw a panorama of what is working and what needs to perfected as far as innovation is concerned in France and Europe, then secondly to offer some solutions and personal thoughts to boost innovation.
    Keywords: Law and Economics,Financial Markets,Financial institutions,Innovation,Start-up Creation
    Date: 2016–01
    Abstract: In this study, we show how internationalization and foreign-owned firms influence synergies in the regional innovation systems of Hungary. We first distinguish three innovation system functions (knowledge exploitation, knowledge exploration, and organizational control) operating in regions and study their interactions using entropy statistics. The functions and their interactions are measured by analysing the distribution of firms in terms of geographical location, organizational size (number of employees), technologies (NACE codes of the OECD), and ownership (foreign versus domestic share in registered stock) in the 2005. Synergy is defined as mutual information among the three dimensions; a fourth dimension is added in order to bring internationalization (FDI) into the model. The factor is relevant since the four-dimensional model explains the GDP contributions to regional development in Hungary, whereas the three-dimensional model does not. We find that regional innovation systems in Hungary are self-organized differently, in relation to a relatively small number of foreign firms. These firms have a large positive effect on synergy in regions between the Hungarian capital and the Austrian border. However, FDI has negative effects on domestic synergy in the lagging eastern and southern provinces of the country.
    Keywords: regional innovation systems, innovation system function, synergy, entropy, foreign firms
    JEL: B52 O18 P25 R12
    Date: 2015–07
  6. By: Mennens, Kars (Marketing and Supply Chain Management); van Gils, Anita (Organisation and Strategy); Odekerken - Schröder, Gaby (Marketing and Supply Chain Management); Letterie, Wilko (Organisation and Strategy)
    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss factors that enable SMEs to achieve service innovation excellence. Using a knowledge based-perspective, we posit that absorptive capacity, which is the ability to identify, assimilate and exploit external knowledge, is one of these critical factors. Additionally, we investigate the effect of two potential drivers that can influence absorptive capacity, namely employee collaboration and an SME’s search breadth.
    Keywords: strategy , business administration and economics
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Glaeser, Edward L. (Harvard University); Ponzetto, Giacomo A. M. (Universitat Pompeu Fabra and Barcelona GSE); Zou, Yimei (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)
    Abstract: Should China build mega-cities or a network of linked middle-sized metropolises? Can Europe's mid-sized cities compete with global agglomeration by forging stronger inter-urban links? This paper examines these questions within a model of recombinant growth and endogenous local amenities. Three primary factors determine the trade-off between networks and big cities: local returns to scale in innovation, the elasticity of housing supply, and the importance of local amenities. Even if there are global increasing returns, the returns to local scale in innovation may be decreasing, and that makes networks more appealing than mega-cities. Inelastic housing supply makes it harder to supply more space in dense confines, which perhaps explains why networks are more popular in regulated Europe than in the American Sunbelt. Larger cities can dominate networks because of amenities, as long as the benefits of scale overwhelm the downsides of density. In our framework, the skilled are more likely to prefer mega-cities than the less skilled, and the long-run benefits of either mega-cities or networks may be quite different from the short-run benefits.
    Date: 2015–12
  8. By: Tatiane Guimarães (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, ESIEE PARIS - Université Paris-Est, PUC Minas - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais); Luciana Castro-Gonçalves (ESIEE PARIS - Université Paris-Est, IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12); Glaucia Vasconcellos Vale (PUC Minas - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais)
    Abstract: Dans cet article, nous étudions comment les startups innovantes gèrent des logiques paradoxales liées à la coopétition au sein d'une communauté de pratique inter organisationnelle. La littérature sur les communautés de pratique permet de les considérer comme un potentiel espace de coopération pour le développement d'innovations, surtout pour des structures comme startups qui souffrent du manque de ressources. Les impératifs liés à la concurrence, pourtant très importants au niveau de cette population, ne sont cependant pas abordés. L'analyse de la communauté d'entrepreneurs San Pedro Valley au Brésil, souligne l'importance de considérer cette dimension pour évaluer les réels effets des dynamiques de coopétition dans un espace communautaire et sur le processus d'innovation à l'échelle d'une ville.
    Keywords: community of practice,communauté de pratique,coopétition,startup
    Date: 2015–10–01
  9. By: Luis Aguiar; Joel Waldfogel
    Abstract: We explore the consequence of quality unpredictability for the welfare benefit of new products, using recent developments in recorded music as our context. Digitization has expanded consumption opportunities by giving consumers access to the “long tail” of existing products, rather than simply the popular products that a retailer might stock with limited shelf space. While this is clearly beneficial to consumers, the benefits are somewhat limited: given the substitutability among differentiated products, the incremental benefit of obscure products - even lots of them - can be small. But digitization has also reduced the cost of bringing new products to market, giving rise to a different sort of long tail, in production. If the appeal of new products is unpredictable at the time of investment, as is the case for cultural products as well as many others, then creating new products can have substantial welfare benefits. Technological change in the recorded music industry tripled the number of new products between 2000 and 2008. We quantify the effects of new music on welfare using a simple illustrative, but explicitly structural, model of demand and entry with potentially unpredictable product quality. Based on a range of plausible forecasting models of expected appeal, a tripling of the choice set according to expected quality adds substantially more to consumer surplus and overall welfare than the usual long-tail benefits from a tripling of the choice set according to realized quality, perhaps by more than an order of magnitude.
    JEL: L15 L81
    Date: 2016–09
  10. By: Randall S. Jones; Jae Wan Lee
    Abstract: Raising productivity requires addressing a wide range of policies that affect resource allocation, the creation and diffusion of technology, human capital and the creation and financing of start-ups. The greatest gains can be achieved in the service sector and in SMEs, where productivity has fallen to less than a third of large firms. Regulatory reform, increased international openness and labour flexibility would support such reallocation and technology diffusion. Korea’s large investment in R&D and education should be leveraged to raise productivity by enhancing university and public research and strengthening its links with the business sector and global innovation networks. To take advantage of innovation, the relatively low skill levels of workers above age 35 calls for increased lifelong learning. Perhaps most important, it is essential to shift SME policies away from promoting the survival of firms and towards productivity gains. Given market failures in indirect financing, developing capital markets, including venture capital investment, is a priority to boost firm creation. This Working Paper relates to the 2016 OECD Economic Survey of Korea ( Augmenter la productivité de la Corée à travers l'innovation et la réforme structurelle Un large éventail de politiques touchant l'allocation des ressources, la création et la diffusion de la technologie, le capital humain et la création et le financement des nouvelles entreprises s'imposent pour faire stimuler la productivité. Les gains les plus importants peuvent être atteints dans le secteur des services et dans les PME, où la productivité est tombée à moins d'un tiers de celle des grandes entreprises. La réforme réglementaire, une plus grande ouverture internationale et la flexibilité du travail soutiendraient cette réaffectation et la diffusion des technologies. L’investissement considérable de la Corée en R-D et dans l'éducation devrait être mis à profit pour augmenter la productivité en améliorant la recherche à l'université et dans le secteur public et en renforçant ses liens avec le secteur des entreprises et des réseaux mondiaux d'innovation. Pour tirer parti de l'innovation, il faut renforcer la formation continue pour pallier aux niveaux relativement faibles de compétences des travailleurs ayant dépassé l'âge de 35 ans. Peut-être plus crucialement, il est essentiel de changer les politiques visant les PME en abandonnant progressivement la promotion de leur survie et mettant l’accent sur les gains de productivité. Étant donné les défaillances du marché en matière de financement indirect, le développement des marchés de capitaux, y compris les investissements de capital-risque, est une priorité pour stimuler la création d'entreprises. Ce Document de travail a trait à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE de la Corée, 2016 ( -economique-coree.htm).
    Keywords: productivity, innovation, SMEs, creative economy, regulatory reform, économie créative, réforme réglementaire, innovation, PME, productivité
    JEL: L26 L5 M13 O3 O53
    Date: 2016–09–21
  11. By: Hausmann, Ricardo (Harvard University and Santa Fe Institute); Neffke, Frank (Harvard University)
    Abstract: Is labor mobility important in technological diffusion? We address this question by asking how plants assemble their workforce if they are industry pioneers in a location. By definition, these plants cannot hire local workers with industry experience. Using German social-security data, we find that such plants recruit workers from related industries from more distant regions and local workers from less-related industries. We also show that pioneers leverage a low-cost advantage in unskilled labor to compete with plants that are located in areas where the industry is more prevalent. Finally, whereas research on German reunification has often focused on the effects of east-west migration, we show that the opposite migration facilitated the industrial diversification of eastern Germany by giving access to experienced workers from western Germany.
    JEL: J23 J24 M13 M50 O15 O33 R11 R12
    Date: 2016–01
  12. By: Paul Windrum (UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM - UON - University of Nottingham, UK); Doris Schartinger (AIT - Austrian Institute of Technology [Vienna]); Luis Rubalcaba (University of Alcala - University of Alcala); Faiz Gallouj (Faculté des sciences économiques et sociales-Clerse - Université de Lille, Sciences et Technologies); Marja Toivonen (VTT Information technology - Technical Research Centre of Finland)
    Abstract: The research fields of service innovation and social innovation have, until now, been largely disconnected. At the most basic level, a great many social innovations are services, often public sector services with social entrepreneurs organizing and delivering service innovations. As well as this overlap in the focus of research, scholars in both research fields address socioeconomic concerns using multidisciplinary perspectives. This paper provides a framework that can bridge the two research fields.
    Keywords: co-creation, social innovation, service innovation, third sector
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Davide Castellani (Henley Business School, University of Reading); Sandro Montresor; Torben Schubert; Antonio Vezzani
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of multinationality on firm productivity, and contributes to the literature in two respects. First, we argue that multinationality affects productivity both directly and indirectly, through higher incentives to invest in R&D. Second, we maintain that the multinational depth and breadth have different direct effects on productivity and R&D. Using data from the top R&D investors in the world, we propose an econometric model with an R&D and a productivity equation that both depend on multinationality. We find: i) multinational depth has a positive effect on productivity, while the effect of multinational breadth is negative; ii) multinationality (along both dimensions) has a positive effect on R&D intensity, translating into an indirect positive effect on productivity; iii) the positive indirect effect is however not large enough to compensate the negative direct effect of multinational breadth.
    Keywords: Multinationality, R&D, productivity
    JEL: F23 F61 O32
    Date: 2016–06
  14. By: De Simone, Lisa (Stanford University); Huang, Jing (VPI); Krull, Linda (University of OR)
    Abstract: We investigate how R&D contributes to foreign profit margins in U.S. multinational corporations (MNCs) through wage savings and income shifting. Our research question is timely and important given rising foreign R&D investments and recent scrutiny by tax authorities and policy makers of the use of intangibles to avoid corporate income taxes. Using public data, our results suggest that although wage savings increase foreign margins attributable to foreign R&D activities, the shifting of income attributable to domestic R&D activities to lower-tax jurisdictions has a larger magnitude impact on foreign profit margins. Additional tests confirm that income shifting from domestic R&D is concentrated in firms with high-value patents, patents with low risk of expropriation, financially unconstrained firms, and in years following the implementation of the check-the-box regulations. Our evidence sheds light on the importance of R&D locations in corporate intangible income shifting that separates the location of economic activity from the location of reported taxable income.
    Date: 2016–07
  15. By: Diaz Anadon, Laura (Harvard University and University College London); Chan, Gabriel (University of MN); Harley, Alicia (Harvard University); Matus, Kira (University College London); Moon, Suerie (Harvard University); Murthy, Sharmila L. (Suffolk University); Clark, William C. (Harvard University)
    Abstract: Sustainable development requires harnessing technological innovation to improve human well-being in current and future generations. However, poor, marginalized, and unborn populations too often lack the economic or political power to shape innovation processes to meet their needs. Issues arise at all stages of innovation, from invention of a technology through its selection, production, adaptation, adoption, and retirement. Three insights should inform efforts to intervene in innovation systems for sustainable development. First, innovation is not a linear process but rather a complex adaptive system involving many actors and institutions operating simultaneously from local to global levels; interventions must take this complexity into account. Second, there has been significant experimentation in mobilizing technology for sustainable development in the health, energy, and agriculture sectors, among others, but learning from past experience requires structured cross-sectoral comparisons and recognition of the socio-technical nature of innovation. Third, the current constellation of rules, norms, and incentives shaping innovation is not always aligned towards sustainable development. Past experience demonstrates that it is possible to reform these institutions, and the imperative of harnessing innovation for sustainable development makes it necessary to do so. Many actors have the power to re-orient innovation systems towards sustainable development through research, advocacy, training, convening, policymaking, and financing. We offer three proposals to begin: mobilizing global financing to invest in inventing suitable and affordable technologies to meet sustainable development objectives; developing measures to engage marginalized populations systematically through all stages of the innovation process; and establishing channels for regularized learning across domains of practice.
    Date: 2015–12
  16. By: Gabriel Galvez-Behar (IRHiS - Institut de Recherches Historiques du Septentrion - Université de Lille, Sciences Humaines et Sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The relationship between French public research and industrial property is ambivalent and the state is currently trying to influence this relationship by encouraging public scientific institutions, including universities, to apply for more patents This article proposes a genealogy of this complex relationship, focused on the analysis of the role of key institutions. These include the Department of Inventions, the Agency for Scientific and Industrial Research and Inventions (ONRSII), the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). The influence of major figures such as Paul Langevin or Frédéric Joliot-Curie is also detailed. The analysis highlights the interdependence of French scientific strategies and industrial property practices from the turning point of World War I.
    Abstract: La recherche publique française entretient des rapports ambivalents à la question de la propriété industrielle, que l’État tente aujourd’hui d’infléchir en incitant les institutions scientifiques publiques (dont les universités) à recourir plus volontiers au dépôt de brevets. Cet article propose une généalogie de ces rapports complexes, centrée sur l’analyse du rôle joué par des institutions majeures comme la Direction des Inventions, l’Office national des Recherches scientifiques et industrielles et des Inventions (ONRSII), le CNRS ou le Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, ainsi que par de grandes figures telles que Paul Langevin ou Frédéric Joliot-Curie. S’éclaire ainsi la façon dont, en France, les stratégies d’organisation de l’activité scientifique et les pratiques en matière de propriété industrielle se sont mutuellement déterminées à partir du tournant de la Première Guerre mondiale.
    Keywords: 20th century,industrial property,history,management,research agencies,France, recherche publique , histoire ,propriété industrielle , France , XX siècle
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Chen, Shannon (University of TX); De Simone, Lisa (Stanford University); Hanlon, Michelle (MIT); Lester, Rebecca (Stanford University)
    Abstract: We study whether innovation box tax incentives, which reduce tax rates on innovation-related income, are associated with tax-motivated income shifting, investment, and employment in the countries that implement these regimes. Using a sample of European and U.S. multinationals' subsidiaries operating in Europe and three income shifting models, we find some evidence that firms shift less income out of relatively high statutory tax rate countries following the implementation of an innovation box. We also find that innovation box regimes successfully increase employment but do not result in significant increases in fixed asset investment. Our study contributes to the literature by evaluating multiple income shifting models and informing the ongoing policy debate regarding the economic effects of innovation box regimes.
    Date: 2016–07
    Abstract: This study introduces and applies a modelling system that is suitable for the impact assessment of environmental innovations referred to as “Blue Economy” innovations. The paper’s contribution to the literature is threefold. First, the building of a multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, which provides the theoretical framework for studying the economic impacts of using waste as a production input. Second, the creation of an empirical methodology through which new Blue Economy technologies can be concretely accounted for in regional input-output tables. Since Blue Economy innovations are mostly built on local inputs, their effects are primarily local. Third, given that interregional spillovers of local impacts might also be significant, through interregional trade or migration, a modelling approach that can follow complex spatial processes is applied. The broader model framework chosen is the GMR-Europe model.
    Keywords: GMR model, Blue Economy, computable general equilibrium models, TFP, innovation.
    JEL: C5 O3 O30 Q5 R1
    Date: 2015–02
  19. By: Bijedić, Teita; Chlosta, Simone; Werner, Arndt
    Abstract: Institutions of higher education are considered as an important source of innovation. Consequently, big efforts are made to facilitate technology transfer from academia into the market. However, technology transfer at German universities does not seem to live up to its full potential. We find for example that while 18,5% of our sample did in fact generate at least one invention, only 4,5% of the sample are engaged in commercialization activities. Therefore the vast majority of generated inventions remains unexploited. Based on this finding, we analyze how individual, career-related, and institutional factors affect the innovation and knowledge transfer activities of male and female academics. We show that Gender differences as well as career and human capital related factors (e.g. scope of employment, professional experience, and leadership position) affect such innovation transfer activities. While women generate fewer inventions than men, the fulltime employed researchers with a professional experience outside of academia and a leadership position lead to more inventions as well as partly higher exploitation activities.
    Abstract: Der Wissenstransfer und die Verwertung marktfähiger Erfindungen aus der Hochschulforschung stellt eine bedeutende Innovationsquelle dar, die wirtschftspolitisch breite Unterstützung erfährt. Doch trotz vielfältiger Bemühungen, diesen Prozess zu unterstützen, bleibt ein großer Teil der Innovationen an Hochschulen ungenutzt. Die vorgestellte Untersuchung hat zum Ziel, Determinanten (individuelle, berufsbezogene und Umfeldfaktoren) der Innovationstätigkeit aus der Sicht der an deutschen Hochschulen tätigen Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler zu untersuchen. Ergebnisse zeigen, dass an deutschen Hochschulen vor allem vollzeitbeschäftigte Wissenschaftler, die multidisziplinäre oder angewandte Forschung betreiben und daneben noch einer Selbstständigkeit nachgehen, besonders häufig Erfindungen generieren. Frauen bleiben dabei nicht nur insgesamt, sondern auch innerhalb der einzelnen Fächerverbünde hinter ihren männlichen Kollegen zurück. Liegen die Erfindungen erst einmal vor, lassen sich für ihre Kommerzialisierung keine Geschlechterunterschiede finden. In dieser Phase der Innovationstätigkeit sind marktbezogen Praxiserfahrungen ausschlaggebend.
    Keywords: academics,gender,innovation,inventions,commercial exploitation,institutional context
    JEL: O31 O34 J16
    Date: 2016
    Abstract: This paper aims to elaborate the role of Jacobs-type of agglomeration effects on countries’ competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance. Our research allows for a better understanding of the relationship that exists between a country’s urban system, characterized by spatial agglomeration (concentration) or deglomeration (deconcentration) processes, and its competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance. Urbanization economies refer to considerable cost savings generated through the locating together of people, firms and organizations across different industries. It has recently become an axiom that the better performance of global cities (as they are important nodes of innovation and creativity) is derived from agglomeration effects. This general assumption follows that the more concentrated an urban system of a country, the more competitive and better its entrepreneurial performance. Even though this notion has gained quick and ardent acceptance from practitioners, the related literature shows contradictory results;this has induced a heated debate in academic circles, because it has raised serious doubts about the “bigger is better” theory. We hope to contribute to this debate with our detailed analysis. To understand the impact of urban concentration, we selected 70 countries and calculated the so-called ROXY Index measuring the degree of agglomeration or deglomeration in their urban systems. To exemplify country-level competitiveness, we applied the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) while the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) was used to demonstrate country level entrepreneurial performance. Using these indexes correlation and cluster analysis were designed to obtain understanding of the relationship between them. Our analysis indicates that as urban concentration initially increases competitiveness, entrepreneurial performance also increases, but at a decreasing rate. Both of them eventually reaches a maximum, and then after a certain point decrease with further concentration. Therefore, the curve for this relationship is non-linear and folds back. This indicates that over- or under-concentration of the population within an urban system does not necessarily result in a better outcome. However, we should consider that a high concentration of population is only one important factor for competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance while other effects may exist.
    Keywords: urbanization economies, entrepreneurship, competitiveness, spatial cycles, ROXY Index
    JEL: R00 R10 R11 R12
    Date: 2016–07
  21. By: Gamal Atallah (Department of Economics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON); Aggey Semenov (Department of Economics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of differences in the rate of technological progress between sectors on the relative sizes of those sectors in terms of revenues. There are two sectors: a stagnant sector, where productivity does not change over time, and a progressive sector, where costs decrease over time due to exogenous technological progress. We consider a conjectural variation approach to competition in the progressive sector which encompasses perfect competition, Cournot oligopoly and monopoly. The main result of the paper is that the share of the stagnant sector increases over time when demand in the progressive sector is inelastic. Under perfect competition, when initial production costs in the progressive sector are sufficiently low (so that demand is inelastic), the share of the stagnant sector rises over time. Whereas, when initial production costs are sufficiently high (so that demand is elastic), the relative size of the stagnant sector is U-shaped with respect to time. Under monopoly, the share of the stagnant sector always decreases over time. However, the decline in that share is much more rapid the higher are initial costs in the progressive sector. The interaction of market structure and price elasticity (or initial costs) determines how the relative sizes of sectors differing in productivity growth evolve over time. The relationship with the cost disease literature is discussed.
    Keywords: Cost decrease, productivity growth, sectoral shares, cost disease
    JEL: D24 D41 D42 L11 O33
    Date: 2016

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