nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒09‒25
twenty-two papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. The spillover effects of innovative ideas on human capital By Baris Alpaslan; Abdilahi Ali
  2. Der Stellenwert nicht-technologischer Neuerungen im Innovationsgeschehen der mittelständischen Wirtschaft By Maaß, Frank; May-Strobl, Eva
  3. Patterns of local R&D cooperation of foreign subsidiaries in an intermediate country: innovative and structural factors By Antonio García Sánchez; José Molero Zayas; Ruth Rama
  4. Technological diffusion as a recombinant process By Petros Gkotsis; Antonio Vezzani
  5. Prizes versus Contracts as Incentives for Innovation By Che, Yeon-Koo; Iossa, Elisabetta; Rey, Patrick
  6. The quest for status and R&D-based growth By Hof, Franz X.; Prettner, Klaus
  7. A Spatial Knowledge Production Function Approach for the Regions of the Russian Federation By Jens K. Perret
  8. Better, Faster, Stronger: Global Innovation and Trade Liberalization By Coelli, Federica; Moxnes, Andreas; Ulltveit-Moe, Karen-Helene
  9. Barriers to Innovation in Indian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises By Pachouri, Anshul; Sharma, Sankalp
  10. COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE OF INNOVATIVE STARTUPS. COOPERATION OR COMPETITION: Is this the question? By Tatiane Guimarães; Luciana Castro-Gonçalves; Glaucia Vasconcellos Vale
  11. Government Debt and the Returns to Innovation By Massimiliano Croce, Mariano; Nguyen, Thien Tung; McGregor Raymond, Steve; Schmid, Lukas
  12. Financial constraints and public funding for eco-innovation: Empirical evidence on European SMEs By Grazia Cecere; Nicoletta Corrocher; Maria Luisa Mancusi
  13. Long run effect of public grants on the R&D investment: A non-stationary panel data approach By Álvarez, Inmaculada C.; Kao, Chihwa; Romero-Jordán, Desiderio
  14. Panel Data and Productivity Measurement By Sickles, Robin C.; Hao, Jiaqi; Shang, Chenjun
  15. Invalid but infringed? An analysis of the bifurcated patent litigation system By Cremers, K.J.; Gaessler, Fabian; Harhoff, Dietmar; Helmers, Christian; Lefouili, Yassine
  16. Technology strategies of the main actors and the strategies towards standards: the case of the diffusion of smart houses in Japan By Miyazaki, Kumiko; Nishida, Kentarou
  17. IdeaValuation: Encourage exchanges during a creative session by the ideas qualitative evaluation using a digital tool By Julien Ambrosino; Dimitri Masson; Jérémy Legardeur; Guillaume Tastet
  18. Serendipity: Towards a taxonomy and a theory By Ohid Yaqub
  19. World Productivity Growth: A Model Averaging Approach By Duygun, Meryem; Hao, Jiaqi; Isaksson, Anders; Sickles, Robin C.
  20. Interclustering: innovate through diversification. The case of the Aerospace Valley competitiveness cluster in Aquitaine region By Julien Ambrosino; Jérémy Legardeur; Amélie Demanet; Philippe Lattes
  21. Sector dynamics and demographics of top R&D firms in the global economy By Pietro Moncada-Paternò-Castello
  22. Value Chain Innovations for Technology Transfer in Developing and Emerging Economies: Concept, Typology and Policy Implications By Johan Swinnen; Rob Kuijpers

  1. By: Baris Alpaslan; Abdilahi Ali
    Abstract: This paper extends a two-period Overlapping Generations model of endogenous growth where the interactions between public infrastructure, human capital with R&D activities, and growth are studied. The paper makes two important contributions. First, it accounts for the spillover effect of the stock of ideas on learning which in turn promotes the production of innovative technologies. In doing so, it brings to the fore a two-way interaction between human capital and innovation. The paper then applies various econometric methods which confirm the above theoretical thesis. Second, the solutions of the model emphasise the important role public spending on infrastructure, human capital and R&D can play in promoting economic growth. In order to study the transitional dynamics of the model and to illustrate the impact of public policy, the model is calibrated using the average data for low-income countries and a sensitivity analysis is reported under different parameter configurations. The findings of the numerical analysis show that trade-offs in the allocation of public spending may inevitably emerge. In particular, investment in public infrastructure at the expense of spending on R&D is less likely to succeed in promoting economic growth, whereas it may be more effective to foster growth through an offsetting cut in another productive component, namely, education. In light of these potential trade-offs, governments in low-income countries need to use their limited budgets as part of holistic measures in order to achieve efficient outcomes.
    Keywords: Infrastructure, Human Capital, Innovation, Government Policy
    JEL: H54 J24 O31 O38
    Date: 2016–09
  2. By: Maaß, Frank; May-Strobl, Eva
    Abstract: Der Mittelstand gilt als innovativ und anpassungsfähig, jedoch wird eine zunehmende Innovationslücke konstatiert. Für diese Studie wurde die Innovationsbeteiligung des Mittelstands/ der KMU unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der nicht-technologischen Neuerungen auf Ba-sis der Community Innovation Surveys analysiert. Dabei wurde deutlich, dass nicht-technologische Innovationen weiter verbreitet sind als technologische Innovationen. Folglich gibt die Einschränkung auf technologische Innovationen ein unvollständiges Bild vom Innovations-geschehen im Mittelstand. Nicht-technologische Innovationen dienen der Vorbereitung tech-nologischer Innovationen, vor allem aber begleiten sie diese. Sie zielen insbesondere auf eine Steigerung der Unternehmenseffizienz. Allerdings belegt diese Studie auch, dass nicht-technologische Innovationen abhängig von der Unternehmensgröße, der Branche und auch der Gruppenzugehörigkeit sind: So sind eigenständige KMU seltener innovativ als solche die zu einer Unternehmensgruppe gehören. Dagegen unterscheiden sich große mittelständische Unternehmen in dieser Hinsicht nicht von anderen Großunternehmen.
    Abstract: Although the German Mittelstand is usually considered as inventive and flexible, a growing innovation gap seems to open up. Based on the CIS-datapool, this study analyses the innovation participation of Mittelstand companies/SMEs with a special focus on non-technological innovations. It becomes clear that non-technological innovation is more widespread than technological innovation. A restriction to technological innovations underestimates the innovation dynamics of Mittelstand companies/SMEs. Non-technological innovations pave the way for technological innovations, above all they often accompany them. They particularly aim at increasing business efficiency. Non-technological innovations depend on enterprise size, industry and also on the affiliation to an enterprise group. Independent SMEs are less innovative than those which are part of a group, whereas large Mittelstand companies do not differ from other large enterprises.
    Keywords: KMU,Mittelstand,nicht-technologische Innovationen,Deutschland,SME,German Mittelstand,non-technological Innovation,Germany
    JEL: L25 O31
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Antonio García Sánchez (Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales (ICEI). Universidad Complutense de Madrid.); José Molero Zayas (Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales (ICEI). Universidad Complutense de Madrid.); Ruth Rama (Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales (ICEI). Universidad Complutense de Madrid.)
    Abstract: We attempt to contribute to a better understanding of cooperative innovation patterns of foreign subsidiaries (FS) in Spain as a representative intermediate country, going deeply into three main aspects: firstly, a sectoral taxonomy which combines international technological dynamism and revealed technological advantage as a way to understand such patterns. Secondly we focus our attention on innovative intensive subsidiaries, assuming they are the most important ones for hosting countries. Thirdly, we combine innovation and structural-competitive variables to explain local cooperation. We found more intense cooperation of FS with local agents in dynamic specialization sectors, as well as the fact that this is mostly carried out in a complementary mode with inner knowledge capabilities of the companies. Cooperative activities are influenced by economicstructural factors of the Spanish economy, particularly in highly innovative companies. Cooperative strategies of domestic firms might also have an influence on those of foreign subsidiaries.
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Petros Gkotsis (European Commission – JRC); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission – JRC Author-Workplace-Homepage:
    Abstract: In this work we analyse patterns of technological development using patent applications at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) over the 1973-2012 period. Our study focuses on the combinations of technological fields within patent documents and their evolution in time, which can be modelled as a diffusion process. By focusing on the combinatorial dimension of the process we obtain insights that complement those from counting patents. Our results show that the density of the technological knowledge network increased and that the majority of technological fields became more interconnected over time. We find that most technologies follow a similar diffusion path that can be modelled as a Logistic or Gompertz function, which can then be used to estimate the time to maturity defined as the year at which the diffusion process for a specific technology slows down. This allows us to identify a set of promising technologies which are expected to reach maturity in the next decade. Our contribution represents a first step in assessing the importance of diffusion and cross-fertilization in the development of new technologies, which could support the design of targeted and effective Research & Innovation and Industrial policies.
    Keywords: technological diffusion, patents, knowledge
    JEL: O33 O31 C10
    Date: 2016–09
  5. By: Che, Yeon-Koo; Iossa, Elisabetta; Rey, Patrick
    Abstract: Procuring an innovation involves motivating a research effort to generate a new idea and then implementing that idea efficiently. If research efforts are unverifiable and implementation costs are private information, a trade-off arises between the two objectives. The optimal mechanism resolves the tradeoff via two instruments: a monetary prize and a contract to implement the project. The optimal mechanism favors the innovator in contract allocation when the value of innovation is above a certain threshold, and handicaps the innovator otherwise. A monetary prize is employed as an additional incentive but only when the value of innovation is suficiently high.
    Keywords: Contract rights, Inducement Prizes, Innovation, Procurement and R&D.
    JEL: D44 D82 H57 O31 O38 O39
    Date: 2016–09
  6. By: Hof, Franz X.; Prettner, Klaus
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of status preferences on technological progress and long-run economic growth within an R&D-based framework. For this purpose, we extend the standard relative wealth approach by allowing the various assets held by households to differ with respect to their status relevance. Relative wealth preferences imply that the effective rate of return on saving in the form of a particular asset is the sum of its market rate of return and its status-related extra return. We show that the status relevance of shares issued by entrants to finance the purchase of new technologies is of crucial importance for long-run growth: First, an increase in the intensity of the quest for status raises the steady-state economic growth rate only if the status-related extra return of these shares is strictly positive. Second, for any given degree of status consciousness, the long-run economic growth rate depends positively on the relative status relevance of shares issued by entrants. Third, while the decentralized long-run economic growth rate is less than its socially optimal counterpart in the standard model, wealth externalities reduce this distortion.
    Keywords: status concerns,relative wealth,technological progress,long-run economic growth,social optimality
    JEL: D31 D62 O10 O30
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Jens K. Perret (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW))
    Abstract: At the core of every national innovation system two concepts are of central importance: The generation and the diffusion of innovations and ergo knowledge; on the one hand inside the system itself and on the other across the system's borders. The present study picks up on the aspect of knowledge generation in the context of the Russian Federation. An extended knowledge production function is estimated on the basis of Russian regional data and it is shown that the Russian NIS, nationally as well as internationally, is functional, however, not all channels of knowledge transfer work as efficiently as those in comparable Western European countries.
    Keywords: Knowledge Production Function, Russian Federation, National Innovation System, Panel Econometrics, Regional Economics, Patent Data
    JEL: O31 R11 R15 P25
    Date: 2016–08
  8. By: Coelli, Federica; Moxnes, Andreas; Ulltveit-Moe, Karen-Helene
    Abstract: This paper estimates the effect of trade policy during the Great Liberalization of the 1990s on innovation in over 60 countries using international firm-level patent data. The empirical strategy exploits ex-ante differences in firms' exposure to countries and industries, allowing us to construct firm-specific measures of tariffs. This provides asource of variation that enables us to establish the causal impact of trade policy on innovation. Our results suggest that trade liberalization has economically significant effects on innovation and, ultimately, on technical change and growth. According to our estimates, about 7 percent of the increase in knowledge creation during the 1990s can be explained by trade policy reforms. Furthermore, we find that the increase in patenting reflects innovation, rather than simply more protection of existing knowledge. Both improved market access and more import competition contribute to the positive innovation response to trade liberalization.
    Keywords: innovation; patents; trade liberalization
    JEL: F0 F1 F13 F6
    Date: 2016–09
  9. By: Pachouri, Anshul (Asian Development Bank Institute); Sharma, Sankalp (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Innovation plays a critical role in shaping the industrial and firm competitiveness of any nation. Innovation is often discussed in the setting of developed countries, but the rise of emerging economies such as India has generated a new interest in understanding innovation in developing economies. This paper aims to study and present the current state of innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in India. The focus of the paper is to bring out the key barriers SMEs face in the innovation process in the context of the existing government policy. India, being a developing nation, has its own set of unique situations and challenges that impede the innovation potential of SMEs operating in it. Many of these barriers are related to public policy, funding constraints, shortage of skilled research and development (R&D) workforce, and weak linkages between institutions and the firms, among others.
    Keywords: SME innovation; innovation policy framework; public policy barriers; innovation potential
    JEL: G20 G28 O38
    Date: 2016–09–22
  10. By: Tatiane Guimarães (PUC Minas - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, ESIEE PARIS - Université Paris-Est); Luciana Castro-Gonçalves (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, ESIEE PARIS - Université Paris-Est); Glaucia Vasconcellos Vale (PUC Minas - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais)
    Abstract: The communities of practice literature offer the potential cooperation space for the development of the open innovation, principally to the organization likes the startups that suffer from lack of resources to deal with the risks and uncertainties related to their project. This cooperation logic can, however, meet the competition logic confronting this population. In this paper, we investigate how communities of practice of innovative startups manage the challenge of this paradoxical logic related to the coopetition. The multilevel analysis of the communities of practice of San Pedro Valley in Brazil allows us to understand the effects of coopetition on the community functioning, but also at the innovation ecosystem and across the city in which this evolves.
    Keywords: innovation process, communities of practices,communauté,Coopétition
    Date: 2016–06–01
  11. By: Massimiliano Croce, Mariano (University of North Carolina); Nguyen, Thien Tung (Ohio State University); McGregor Raymond, Steve (University of North Carolina); Schmid, Lukas (Duke University)
    Abstract: Elevated levels of government debt raise concerns about their effects on long-term growth prospects. This study shows that (i) high-R&D firms are more exposed to government debt and pay higher expected returns than low-R&D firms; and (ii) higher levels of the debt-to-GDP ratio predict higher risk premia for high-R&D firms. Furthermore, rises in the cost of capital for innovation-intensive firms are associated with declines in subsequent R&D activity and economic growth. We study these findings in a production-based asset pricing model with endogenous innovation. By accounting for fiscal and political risk, our model reproduces several aspects of the empirical evidence.
    JEL: C62 F31 G12
    Date: 2016–05
  12. By: Grazia Cecere; Nicoletta Corrocher; Maria Luisa Mancusi (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: Financial constraints have an important impact on the development of eco-innovations, but their effect varies according to the type of funds taken into account. This article studies the impact of the lack of funds on the development of eco-innovations, distinguishing between internal, external and public funds. In particular, we investigate the interaction between public funding, on the one hand, and internal and other external sources of funding. The empirical analysis is based upon a sample of European SMEs belonging to different sectors that are involved in products, processes and organizational eco-innovations. Our results show that a lack of internal funding always decreases the probability to introduce eco-innovations, while the lack of private external funds does not appear to hinder the development of eco-innovations. Interestingly, we find that access to public funds or incentives is effective in improving a firm’s ability to introduce eco-innovations, but only when the firm is not short of funds (either from internal or external sources), thus suggesting that public funds are somewhat complementary to other funds. Further analysis shows that these effects are mostly relevant in small firms.
    Keywords: eco-innovations, public funding, financial constraints, SMEs.
    JEL: O31 Q55 G38
    Date: 2016–07
  13. By: Álvarez, Inmaculada C.; Kao, Chihwa; Romero-Jordán, Desiderio
    Abstract: From a macroeconomic point of view, the relationship between R&D investment and growth is well-known. At a firm level, extensive literature exists that analyzes the determinants behind R&D investment decision-making –basically comprising economic and financial factors-. Using cointegration techniques, the aim of this paper is analyze the long run effect of public grants on R&D investment for the Spanish case. Classifying the sample according to cointegration, we eliminate the possible existence of spurious correlation using the most suitable econometric techniques. Results in the long-run show that sales possesses a high pro-cyclical component with an elasticity of approximately 0.6. Subsidies generate additionality with an elasticity ranging from 0.17 to 0.2. Nevertheless, the capacity to promote investment for each euro of public funds is greater than the tax credit, with elasticities which can reach 0.7. In addition it worth highlight that we observe a higher impact of subsidies in cointegrated firms that are those with more investment in I+D.
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Sickles, Robin C. (Rice University); Hao, Jiaqi (?); Shang, Chenjun (?)
    Abstract: The chapter first discusses how productivity growth typically has been measured in classical productivity studies. We then briefly discuss how innovation and catch-up can be distinguished empirically. We next outline methods that have been proposed to measure productivity growth and its two main factors, innovation and catch-up. These approaches can be represented by a canonical form of the linear panel data model. A number of competing specifications are presented and model averaging is used to combine estimates from these competing specifications in order to ascertain the contributions of technical change and catch-up in world productivity growth. The chapter ends with concluding remarks and suggestions for the direction of future analysis. The literature on productivity and its sources is vast in terms of empirical and theoretical contributions at the aggregate, industry, and firm level. The pioneering work of Dale Jorgenson and his associates and Zvi Griliches and his associates, the National Bureau of Economic Research, the many research contributions made in U.S universities and research institutions, the World Bank and research institutes in Europe and other countries are not discussed here as our goal is by necessity rather narrow. We focus on work directly related to panel data methods that have been developed to address specific issues in specifying the production process and in measuring the sources of productivity growth in terms of its two main components of innovation (technical progress) and catch-up (efficiency growth), with emphasis given to one of the more important measures of the latter component and that is technical efficiency.
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Cremers, K.J.; Gaessler, Fabian; Harhoff, Dietmar; Helmers, Christian; Lefouili, Yassine
    Abstract: In bifurcated patent litigation systems, claims of infringement and validity of a patent are decided independently of each other in separate court proceedings at different courts. In non-bifurcated systems, infringement and validity are decided jointly in the same proceedings at a single court. We build a model that shows the key trade-off between bifurcated and non-bifurcated systems and how it affects the incentives of plaintiffs and defendants in patent infringement cases. Using detailed data on patent litigation cases in Germany (bifurcated) and the U.K. (non-bifurcated), we show that bifurcation creates situations in which a patent is held infringed that is subsequently invalidated. We also show that having to challenge a patent’s validity in separate court proceedings under bifurcation implies that alleged infringers are less likely to do so. We find this to apply in particular to more resource-constrained alleged infringers. Finally, we find parties to be more likely to settle in a bifurcated system.
    Keywords: Litigation, patents, bifurcation
    Date: 2016–09
  16. By: Miyazaki, Kumiko; Nishida, Kentarou
    Abstract: Various definitions of smart houses may exist but they have a common characteristic; through linking various modules components, electric appliances, technologies and sensors, smart houses aim to offer an innovative integrated solution to provide a level of smartness that has not existed in traditional houses. In smart houses, since various components, technologies and products have to be linked, standards become a critically important issue. At present, in Japan, Europe and the USA, 3 de jure standards related to smart houses exist, ECHONET-Lite, KNX and SEP. In this paper, an analysis is made of the technology and standardization strategies regarding ECHONETin Japan and a comparison is made with KNX. Eleven interviews with the main actors related to the ECHONET-Lite consortium and KNX were conducted. Three research questions were set; What are the technology strategy related concerns of the main actors related to ECHONET? What are the issues related to the diffusion of smart houses? What are the underlying strengths, weaknesses of ECHONET compared with KNX? The analyses showed that the strategies of the various actors towards the diffusion of smart houses were different, based on their different perspectives, visions and competences. A comparison between Japan with the European case highlighted the different standardization strategies and areas of focus. The main bottlenecks towards the diffusion of smart houses were identified. One of the major challenges to be overcome for the diffusion of smart houses is that a clear demand for smart houses has not been identified.
    Keywords: Smart house,Technology strategy,Standards,ECHONET,KNX
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Julien Ambrosino (Aerospace Valley, ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA), Agence de Développement et d'Innovation, IMS - Laboratoire de l'intégration, du matériau au système - Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1 - Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Dimitri Masson (ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA)); Jérémy Legardeur (IMS - Laboratoire de l'intégration, du matériau au système - Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1 - Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA)); Guillaume Tastet (Open Decide)
    Abstract: In the context of the emergence of collaborative innovation projects, the animation of creative sessions permits to identify new opportunities. The number of ideas generated is a lot more important than the number of collaborative projects implemented. To improve this ratio, we assume that group discussions could be facilitated by the cleavage of opinions about the quality of the ideas discussed during the meeting. We support our approach with a digital tool to promote information feedback throughout the session.
    Abstract: Dans le cadre de l'émergence de projets collaboratifs d'innovation, l'animation de séance de créativité permet d'identifier de nouvelles opportunités. Généralement, le nombre d'idées générées est bien plus important que le nombre de suites données (e.g. étude, lancement et montage de projets associés). Afin d'améliorer ce ratio, nous faisons les hypothèses que d'une part les évaluations et discussions en groupe sur les idées proposées pourraient être facilitées, et d'autre part que la singularité d'opinions concernant la qualité des idées évoquées en séance peut être facilitateur d'échanges. Pour cela, nous appuyons notre démarche par un outil numérique pour réaliser le partage d'informations des évaluations tout au long de la séance de créativité.
    Keywords: creativity,innovation,ideation,evaluation,rating,creative support tool,outil support à la créativité,créativité
    Date: 2016–07–06
  18. By: Ohid Yaqub (cience Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, UK)
    Abstract: Serendipity, the notion of researchers making unexpected and beneficial discoveries, has played an important role in debates about the feasibility and desirability of targeting public R&D investments. The purpose of this paper is to show that serendipity can come in different forms and come about in a variety of ways. The archives of Robert K Merton, who introduced the term to the social sciences, were used as a starting point for gathering literature and examples. We identify four types of serendipity (Walpolian, Mertonian, Browsing, Curiosity) together with four mechanisms of serendipity (Theory-led, Observer-led, Error-borne, and Network-emergent). We also discuss implications of the different types and mechanisms for theory and policy.
    Keywords: serendipity, uncertainty, research policy, science policy, technology policy, innovation management
    Date: 2016–09
  19. By: Duygun, Meryem (University of Hull); Hao, Jiaqi (ATB Financial, Edmonton); Isaksson, Anders (UN Industrial Development Organization); Sickles, Robin C. (Rice University)
    Abstract: The paper provides a discussion of panel data and productivity analysis in applied economic modeling. We discuss a variety of modeling scenarios and justifications for them based on classical economic theory and on more recent advances in production modeling, which formulate methods to decompose productivity growth based on a Solow-type residual (Solow, 1957) into innovation and catch-up. Methods to combine the various estimates based on different empirical specifications that model and estimate productivity growth are then discussed and these provide the econometric approaches we use to estimate world productivity growth. We also provide a counterfactual analysis of a scenario in which the rise in income inequality since the 1970's in the US is tempered by distributing productivity growth to wage compensation growth as had been the case during the post-WWII years to the early 1970's.
    JEL: C23 D24 O47
    Date: 2015–05
  20. By: Julien Ambrosino (Aerospace Valley, ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA), IMS - Laboratoire de l'intégration, du matériau au système - Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1 - Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Agence de Développement et d'Innovation); Jérémy Legardeur (ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA), IMS - Laboratoire de l'intégration, du matériau au système - Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1 - Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Amélie Demanet (Agence de Développement et d'Innovation); Philippe Lattes (Aerospace Valley)
    Abstract: At the regional level, as in Aquitaine region, or at national and European levels, interclustering offers new opportunities to collaborate between clusters/clusters and their respective members. The interclustering steps identified in the literature start usually by exchanging best practices between members and cluster leaders to move towards the setting up collaborative innovation projects with a cross-sectoral dimension. In the case of major clusters, the abundance of technologies identified in the perimeter can limit the impact in its institutional scope. Technological diversification then appears as a new opportunity to foster cross-fertilization between market applications and complementary themes. The number of projects since 2010 in connection with Aerospace Valley competitiveness cluster seems to confirm our assumptions.
    Abstract: A l'échelle régionale, comme en Aquitaine, ou au niveau national et européen, l'interclustering offre de nouvelles opportunités de collaborations aux pôles de compétitivité et aux clusters et à leurs adhérents respectifs. Les étapes identifiées dans la littérature à propos de l'interclustering débutent le plus souvent par l'échange de bonnes pratiques entre membres et animateurs de clusters pour tendre vers le montage de projets collaboratifs d'innovation avec une dimension trans-sectorielle. Dans le cas des pôles de compétitivité majeurs, l'abondance des technologies identifiées au sein du périmètre peut limiter l'impact à l'intérieur de son champ d'action institutionnel. La diversification technologique parait alors comme une nouvelle opportunité pour susciter la fertilisation croisée entre des applications marché et des thématiques complémentaires. Le nombre de projets réalisés depuis 2010 en lien avec pôle Aerospace Valley semble confirmer nos hypothèses en ce sens.
    Keywords: cluster,innovation,collaborative projects,competitiveness cluster,diversification,interclustering,projets collaboratifs,clusters,pôle de compétitivité
    Date: 2016–07–07
  21. By: Pietro Moncada-Paternò-Castello (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the sectoral dynamics of the major economies during the last decade through the lens of the top 1000 R&D investors worldwide and looks at how firms’ demographics are related to sector distribution. In doing so, it contributes to the literature on the EU corporate R&D intensity gap as well as on that on industrial dynamics. Contrary to the common understanding, the results show that in the EU the distribution of R&D among sectors has changed more than in the USA, which has experienced a shift mainly towards ICT-related sectors. In both the EU and the USA the pace of R&D change is slower than in the emerging economies. Furthermore, the EU has been better able than the USA and Japan to maintain its world share of R&D investment. Even more interestingly, the results show that age is strongly related to the sector (and dominant technology) in which firms operate. This suggests that focusing on sector (technological) dynamics could be even more relevant from a policy perspective than focusing only on young leading innovators. In fact, EU firms are less able to create or enter new high-tech sectors in a timely way and fully exploit the growth opportunities offered by first mover advantages.
    Keywords: Corporate R&D, sector dynamics, firms’ age, EU R&D intensity deficit
    JEL: O30 O32 O38 O57
    Date: 2016–09
  22. By: Johan Swinnen; Rob Kuijpers
    Abstract: The adoption of modern technologies in agriculture is crucial for improving productivity of poor farmers and poverty reduction. However, the adoption of modern technology has been disappointing. The role of value chains in technology adoption has been largely ignored so far, despite the dramatic transformation and spread of modern agri-food value chains. We argue that value chain organization and innovations can have an important impact on modern technology adoption, not just by downstream companies, but also by farmers. We provide a conceptual framework and an empirical typology of institutional innovations through which value chains can contribute to technology transfer to agriculture in developing and emerging countries.
    Date: 2016

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