nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒07‒16
twenty-one papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Internal R&D and External Knowledge Acquisition of Start-up Firms: Exploring the Role of Entrepreneurial Human Capital By Masatoshi Kato
  2. Measuring the Link between Public Procurement and Innovation By Silvia Appelt; Fernando Galindo-Rueda
  3. Institutions, Innovation and Economic Growth in European Countries By d'Agostino, Giorgio; Scarlato, Margherita
  4. Measuring policy-driven innovation in energy efficiency By Nabitz, Lisa; Plötz, Patrick; Braungardt, Sibylle; Reuter, Matthias
  5. Liquidity, innovation, and endogenous growth By Malamud, Semyon; Zucchi, Francesca
  6. Mining-related national systems of innovation in southern Africa National trajectories and regional integration By Judith Fessehaie; Zavareh Rustomjee; Lauralyn Kaziboni
  7. Relationship between past experience, social network participation and creative capacity: Vietnamese entrepreneurship survey By Quang-Hoi Vu; Thu Trang Vuong; Quan-Hoang Vuong
  8. Innovation in Clean Coal Technologies: Empirical Evidence from Firm-Level Patent Data By Jürgen Kruse; Heike Wetzel
  9. Patent citation indicators: One size fits all? By Jurriën Bakker; Dennis Verhoeven; Lin Zhang; Bart Van Looy
  10. Social Rate of Return to R&D on Various Energy Technologies: Where should We Invest More? A Study of G7 Countries By Roula Inglesi-Lotz
  11. A counting multidimensional innovation index for SMEs By Nuno Campos Pereira; Nuno Araújo; Leonardo Costa
  12. Firm Employment Growth, R&D Expenditures and Exports By Marco Di Cintio, Marco Di Cintio; Sucharita Ghosh, Sucharita Ghosh; Emanuele Grassi, Emanuele Grassi
  13. The Entrepreneurial Rent: The Value of and Compensation for Entrepreneurship By Henrekson, Magnus; Stenkula, Mikael
  14. Do diversity, creativity and localized competition promote endogenous firm formation? Evidence from a high-tech US industry By Tsvetkova, Alexandra
  15. Measuring patent quality and national technological capacity in cross-country comparison By Boeing, Philipp; Mueller, Elisabeth
  16. Governmental platform intermediation to promote alternative fuel vehicles By Dietrich, Antje-Mareike
  17. The role of innovation and management practices in determining firm productivity in developing economies By Bartz, Wiebke; Mohnen, Pierre; Schweiger, Helena
  18. Entrepreneurship in Romania - Realities and Perspectives By Madalina Cristina TOCAN
  19. Tort Reform and Innovation By Galasso, Alberto; Luo, Hong
  20. Nanotechnology Innovations and Commercialization – Opportunities, Challenges & Reasons for Delay By Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubhrajyotsna
  21. Immigrant Entrepreneurship By Sari Pekkala Kerr; William R. Kerr

  1. By: Masatoshi Kato (School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University)
    Abstract: This study explores internal research and development (R&D) and external knowledge acquisition of firms during the start-up period, using panel data from original questionnaire surveys conducted in Japan. In particular, the study highlights the role of entrepreneurial human capital in the adoption of internal R&D and external knowledge acquisition strategies (licensing-in and joint R&D). Based on estimates of a bivariate probit model, the analysis provides evidence that firms managed by entrepreneurs with a high level of human capital are more likely to engage both in internal R&D and external knowledge acquisition. More specifically, while generic human capital, such as educational attainment, plays a significant role in explaining internal R&D, specific human capital, such as prior work experience in a related field or innovation experience, tends to have a prominent in uence on external knowledge acquisition. As a supplementary analysis, the effectiveness of internal R&D and external knowledge acquisition strategies is assessed by examining the link with innovation outcomes (product innovations and patent applications). The results suggest that the two innovation strategies have positive effects on innovation outcomes.
    Keywords: Start-up, entrepreneur, internal R&D, external knowledge acquisition, generic human capital, specific human capital
    JEL: M13 L26 O32
    Date: 2016–07
  2. By: Silvia Appelt; Fernando Galindo-Rueda
    Abstract: This paper presents the findings of a recent OECD project on the measurement of the link between public procurement and innovation that is intended to contribute to the review and implementation of the OECD measurement frameworks for R&D and innovation. The report highlights what concepts, definitions and measurement approaches can be used, with currently available data or suitably adapted sources, to produce policy-relevant indicators on the use of innovation procurement and carry out empirical analyses on the impact of public procurement on R&D, innovation and broader economic outcomes. Exploiting recent R&D and innovation survey data and administrative procurement records, it provides novel multi-country evidence on the incidence of public procurement of innovation. An exploratory analysis based on procurement, company account, R&D, patent and trademark data helps showcase the use of combined micro-data sources for analytical applications and points out important links between firm-level procurement activity, R&D and economic performance.
    Keywords: R&D, statistics, measurement, innovation, public procurement
    Date: 2016–07–07
  3. By: d'Agostino, Giorgio; Scarlato, Margherita
    Abstract: This paper provides an empirical analysis of the linkages between the quality of government institutions and economic growth in the European context, highlighting innovation as the intermediate variable that drives this interplay. We use a standard non-scale R&D-based growth model as a theoretical framework and estimate the balanced growth path of per capita GDP for a sample of European countries and the transitional dynamic after a technological shock. Empirical analysis confirms the importance of technology as an instrument for increasing economic growth and suggests that inclusive institutions strongly affect this impact across the European countries. The magnitude of the effect is high: inclusive institutions redouble the effect of a technological shock on the growth rate of per capita GDP. This result suggests that innovation policies should carefully take into account the institutional setting of the contexts in which they are implemented in order to be effective.
    Keywords: Innovation, Economic growth, Institutions
    JEL: O30 O41 O43
    Date: 2016–07–09
  4. By: Nabitz, Lisa; Plötz, Patrick; Braungardt, Sibylle; Reuter, Matthias
    Abstract: Innovation plays a crucial role in the transition towards a sustainable energy system. In order to simultaneously achieve the objectives of sustainability, energy security and competitiveness of the European economy, various energy policies are active. In recent years, the effect of energy policies on both technological and non-organisational innovations has gained interest. However, the complexity of the systems renders it difficult to disentangle the innovation effects of energy and innovation policies. Here, we outline a unifying framework based on the notion of technological innovation systems. It distinguishes between different phases of the innovation process, actors and functions in the innovation systems and allows studying the effects of policies on these in a systematic fashion. We apply our framework to case studies from the field of energy efficiency in industry for a technological and organisational innovation. Our results help to organise previous research findings and to identify gaps for further studies.
    Keywords: energy efficiency,innovation,policy measures,technology diffusion
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Malamud, Semyon; Zucchi, Francesca
    Abstract: We study optimal liquidity management, innovation, and production decisions for a continuum of firms facing financing frictions and the threat of creative destruction. We show that financing constraints lead firms to decrease production but may spur investment in innovation (R&D). We characterize which firms should substitute production for innovation in the face of constraints and thus display a "gambling" type of behavior. We embed our firm dynamics into a model of endogenous growth and show that financing frictions have offsetting effects on economic growth. JEL Classification: D21, G31, G32, G35, L11
    Keywords: cash management, endogenous growth, financial constraints, innovation
    Date: 2016–06
  6. By: Judith Fessehaie; Zavareh Rustomjee; Lauralyn Kaziboni
    Abstract: This paper explores the linkages between the national systems of innovation of Botswana, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe and their respective mineral extraction and mineral processing value chains, including input industries. Our analysis reveals four individual national systems of innovation, with different outcomes in terms of engineering skills development, technical vocational education and training, research and development, innovation capabilities, and competitiveness of the domestic engineering consultancy services. These national systems of innovation are tentatively interconnected as an embryonic regional system of innovation, including institutional relationships, cross-border investment flows, flows of mining-related goods and services, and intra-Southern African Development Community flows of students, lecturers, technicians, and engineers. Notwithstanding important dynamics related to skills development and competence building happening across borders, more collaborative and synergistic initiatives between government, industry, and teaching and research institutions are required to shape a more balanced and coherent regional systems of innovation.
    Keywords: national system of innovation, linkage development, human capital and industrialization, southern Africa, resource-based industrialization, Southern African Development Community
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Quang-Hoi Vu; Thu Trang Vuong; Quan-Hoang Vuong
    Abstract: The notions of entrepreneurship and creativity in developed economies, despite having gained attention among researchers, remain embryonic in numerous emerging economies. Being focused on entrepreneurs in a typical transitional and emerging market economy, Vietnam, this paper aims to empirically explore the influence that past entrepreneurial efforts may exert on the perceptions of entrepreneurs about their own creativity performance. The study also seeks to understand how entrepreneurs social networks contribute to perceived creativity capacity by entrepreneurs who participate in those societies. The empirical research results suggest that entrepreneurs with business experience and active networking engagement are more likely to believe in their own creativity. This knowledge and insights in turn offer some implications for addressing the lack of radical creativity among Vietnamese entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Creativity/innovation; entrepreneurship; emerging economy; Vietnam
    JEL: M13 O33 P21 P27
    Date: 2016–07–08
  8. By: Jürgen Kruse (University of Cologne); Heike Wetzel (University of Kassel)
    Abstract: This article empirically analyzes supply-side and demand-side factors expected to affect innovation in clean coal technologies. Patent data from 93 national and international patent offices is used to construct new firm-level panel data on 3,648 clean coal innovators over the time period 1978 to 2009. The results indicate that on the supply-side a firm’s history in clean coal patenting and overall propensity to patent positively affects clean coal innovation. On the demand-side we find strong evidence that environmental regulation of emissions, that is, CO2, NOX and SO2, induces innovation in both efficiency improving combustion and after pollution control technologies.
    Keywords: clean coal technologies, innovation, patents, technological change
    JEL: C33 O31 Q40 Q55
    Date: 2016
  9. By: Jurriën Bakker; Dennis Verhoeven; Lin Zhang; Bart Van Looy
    Abstract: The number of citations that a patent receives is considered an important indicator of the quality and impact of the patent. However, a variety of methods and data sources can be used to calculate this measure. This paper evaluates similarities between citation indicators that differ in terms of (a) the patent office where the focal patent application is filed; (b) whether citations from offices other than that of the application office are considered; and (c) whether the presence of patent families is taken into account. We analyze the correlations between these different indicators and the overlap between patents identified as highly cited by the various measures. Our findings reveal that the citation indicators obtained differ substantially. Favoring one way of calculating a citation indicator over another has non-trivial consequences and, hence, should be given explicit consideration. Correcting for patent families, especially when using a broader definition (INPADOC), provides the most uniform results.
    Keywords: patent citations, EPO, USPTO, PCT, patent family, multivariate analysis
    Date: 2016–06
  10. By: Roula Inglesi-Lotz
    Abstract: The severity of investment in Research and Development (R&D) in the energy sector is undisputable especially considering the benefits of new technologies to sustainability, security and environmental protection. However, the nature and potential of various energy technologies that are capable to improve the energy and environmental conditions globally is a challenging task for governments and policy makers that have to make decisions on the allocation of funds in R&D. To do so, the optimal resource allocation to R&D should be determined by estimating the social rate of return for R&D investments. This paper aims to estimate the social rate of return of R&D on various energy applications and technologies such as energy efficiency, fossil fuels, renewable energy sources, and nuclear for the G7 countries. The results show that primarily R&D investment on Energy Efficiency technologies and Nuclear are the ones that yield high social benefits for all G7 countries while exactly the opposite holds for Fossil fuels.
    Keywords: R&D; Energy; Energy fuels; return
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Nuno Campos Pereira (Católica Porto Business School, Universidade Católica Portuguesa); Nuno Araújo (CATIM - Centro de Apoio Tecnológico à Indústria Metalomecânica); Leonardo Costa (Católica Porto Business School and CEGE, Universidade Católica Portuguesa)
    Abstract: We developed a Counting Multidimensional Innovation Index (MII) framework for measuring and benchmarking innovation of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), groups of SMEs, industries, regions, and countries. The methodology behind the MII is similar to the methodology behind the United Nations Multidimensional Poverty Index and follows the innovation definitions stipulated by the OECD Oslo Manual, covering dimensions and partial indicators suggested by this Manual and/or adapted from the Innovation Union Scoreboard (IUS) and from the Global Innovation Index (GII). To illustrate the MII framework, a survey was conducted among SMEs of the metalworking industry in Portugal.
    Keywords: Innovation, SME, Multidimensional Innovation Index, Portuguese Metal working Industry
    Date: 2016–07
  12. By: Marco Di Cintio, Marco Di Cintio; Sucharita Ghosh, Sucharita Ghosh; Emanuele Grassi, Emanuele Grassi
    Abstract: This paper studies firms’ decisions to export and invest in R&D and their effects on employment growth and labor flows for a sample of Italian SMEs operating in the manufacturing industry. After accounting for the under-reporting of R&D in SMEs, our quantile regressions reveal that (i) R&D is associated with higher employment growth rates, higher hiring rates and lower separation rates; (ii) R&D-induced exports are negatively related to employment growth and accessions and positively related to separations; and (iii) pure exports are not a driver of employment growth and labor flows.
    Keywords: Exports, R&D, Firm Growth, Quantile Regression, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, J63, M51, O31, F14,
    Date: 2016–07–04
  13. By: Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Stenkula, Mikael (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: The surplus that is created in a successful entrepreneurial venture is much higher than the profit corresponding to the risk-adjusted market rate of return. The part of the surplus that exceeds this level may be enoted “entrepreneurial rent.” Such rents normally disappear in the long run but so-called isolating mechanisms ensure that these rents persist in the short or medium run. Entrepreneurial rents arise when successful entrepreneurship is exercised and entrepreneurial firms create and successfully commercialize something new and unique. The presence of and search for entrepreneurial rents is a prerequisite for the innovations and structural change required to generate economic growth. High ex post compensation for successful entrepreneurship cannot be taxed harshly without affecting entrepreneurs’ willingness to supply effort.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Economic rent; Entrepreneurial rent; Innovation; Imitation
    JEL: D51 J30 L26 O31
    Date: 2016–06–16
  14. By: Tsvetkova, Alexandra
    Abstract: This paper tests the effect of diversity, creativity and localized competition on firm formation in US computer and electronic product manufacturing within the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship (KSTE) framework. Fixed effects instrumental variable estimation results support the KSTE contention of a positive relationship between knowledge and entrepreneurship. Industrial diversity and diversity of knowledge tend to promote endogenous firm entry, whereas evidence on other factors is mixed. This points to sensitivity of conclusions in the KSTE literature to regional and industrial environments and calls for caution in interpreting and generalizing findings obtained in various settings.
    Keywords: innovation, entrepreneurship, firm formation, knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship, computer and electronic product manufacturing
    JEL: O1 O3 R1 R11
    Date: 2016–04–19
  15. By: Boeing, Philipp; Mueller, Elisabeth
    Abstract: China recently surpassed the USA as the greatest global source of patent applications. However, without internationally comparable measures of patent quality it remains questionable whether China's patent expansion constitutes the rise of a new technological superpower. Our novel quality index is based on citations from international search reports and provides internationally comparable, quality-adjusted figures for applications made under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We show that China's patent expansion has taken place to the detriment of patent quality. Weighting national PCT counts with our index reveals a widening gap between the technological capacities of China and the leading USA.
    Keywords: patent quality,national technological capacity,cross-country comparison
    JEL: O32 O34
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Dietrich, Antje-Mareike
    Abstract: Many governments promote green technological innovation within the automobile sector as a means of combating climate change. Most of these innovations are driven by alternative fuels. Buyer's premiums and governmental investment in service infrastructure are widely used. This paper investigates the question regarding whether market intervention is adequate by considering the two-sided market character of the automobile market. This study shows that network effects, competition effects triggered by more automobile users and decreasing marginal utilities of further service stations determine the welfare-efficient extent of governmental intervention. The results of the analysis indicate that governmental promotion of service infrastructure is reasonable, although governments should be cautious about buyer's premiums.
    Keywords: network effects,two-sided markets,platform intermediation,alternative fuel vehicles,climate change,regulation
    JEL: L15 L92 L98 O33 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Bartz, Wiebke (Centre for Development Finance, Frankfurt School of Finance and Management); Mohnen, Pierre (UNU‐MERIT, Maastricht University); Schweiger, Helena (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development)
    Abstract: In this paper, we compare the impacts of management practices and innovation on productivity, using data from a unique firm-level survey covering 30 mostly developing countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia in the period 2011-2014. We adapt the well-established three-stage model by linking productivity to innovation activities and management practices. Results suggest that both returns to innovation and returns to management practices are important drivers of productivity in developing economies. However, productivity in lower-income economies is affected to a larger extent by management practices than by innovation while the opposite holds in higher-income economies. These results imply that firms operating in less favourable business environments can reap large productivity gains by improving the quality of management practices, before engaging in innovation through imitating and adapting foreign technologies.
    Keywords: innovation, management practices, productivity, developing countries
    JEL: M21 O12 O32
    Date: 2016–06–16
  18. By: Madalina Cristina TOCAN (Faculty of Economics, Ecological University of Bucharest)
    Abstract: The terms "Entrepreneurship" and "Entrepreneur" became increasingly used worldwide because the entrepreneurship tends to be associated with the economic development and well-being of a nation. Entrepreneurship is a powerful driver of economic growth and job creation: it creates new companies and jobs, opens up new markets, and nurtures new skills and capabilities. According to EU Entrepreneurship Action Plan 2020 “Entrepreneurship makes economies more competitive and innovative and is crucial in achieving the objectives of several European sectorial policies” 'The objective of this paper is to present an analysis of the Romanian entrepreneurial ecosystem and the factors which influence it. Development of the present paper has been carried out through the analysis of the Romanian entrepreneurial business environment, using data supplied by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2014, European Commission and Ernst & Young study “Entrepreneurs Talk”.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, skills and capabilities, entrepreneurial system
    JEL: L26 L31
    Date: 2015–11
  19. By: Galasso, Alberto; Luo, Hong
    Abstract: Current academic and policy debates focus on the impact of tort reforms on physicians' behavior and medical costs. This paper examines whether these reforms also affect incentives to develop new technologies. We find that, on average, laws that limit the liability exposure of healthcare providers are associated with a significant reduction in medical device patenting. Tort reforms have the strongest impact in medical fields in which the probability of facing a malpractice claim is the largest, and they do not seem to affect the propensity to develop technologies of the highest and lowest quality. Our results underscore the importance of considering dynamic effects in the economic analysis of tort laws.
    Date: 2016–06
  20. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubhrajyotsna
    Abstract: Innovations in nanotechnology are making a revolution in manufacturing and production, creating new materials and products through novel processes for commercial applications. New products based on nanotechnology with novel characteristics are continued to grow and benefit the society. Being general purpose technology, nanotechnology is expected to support all fields of the society, but some fields like medicine, energy, environmental remediation, robotics, manufacturing, commerce, and space exploration are expected to undergo explosive developments. In this paper, we made a detailed analysis of advantages, benefits, constraints, and disadvantages of progress in nanotechnology for the society and discussed the reason for the failure of estimated timeline for realizing various generations of progress and proposed a modified timeframe for anticipated nanotechnology innovations. Based on the business perspective, we have developed a nanotechnology products/services commercialization model and discussed the opportunities for nanotechnology commercialization. The paper also contains a detailed analysis of common commercialization challenges faced by nanotechnology firms including time lag, valley of death, lack of infrastructure, lack of standard for evaluation, bureaucratic delays, dearth of funding, and lack of trained professionals, brand image, and public support. Finally, we have mentioned how the various corporate business strategies can be used in the successful business of nanotechnology products and services.
    Keywords: Commercialisations of nanotech products, Challenges in commercialization of new products, Nanotechnology commercialization model.
    JEL: M1 M10
    Date: 2016–06–05
  21. By: Sari Pekkala Kerr; William R. Kerr
    Abstract: We examine immigrant entrepreneurship and the survival and growth of immigrant-founded businesses over time relative to native-founded companies. Our work quantifies immigrant contributions to new firm creation in a wide variety of fields and using multiple definitions. While significant research effort has gone into understanding the economic impact of immigration into the United States, comprehensive data for quantifying immigrant entrepreneurship are difficult to assemble. We combine several restricted-access U.S. Census Bureau data sets to create a unique longitudinal data platform that covers 1992-2008 and many states. We describe differences in the types of businesses initially formed by immigrants and their medium-term growth patterns. We also consider the relationship of these outcomes to the immigrants' age at arrival to the United States.
    JEL: F22 J15 J44 J61 L26 M13 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2016–07

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