nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒06‒18
thirty papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Productivity effects of eco-innovations using data on eco-patents By Giovanni Marin; Francesca Lotti
  2. The impact of green innovation on energy intensity: an empirical analysis for 14 industrial sectors in OECD countries By Jules-Daniel Wurlod; Joëlle Noailly
  3. Knowledge creates markets: The influence of entrepreneurial support and patent rights on academic entrepreneurship By Dirk Czarnitzki; Thorsten Doherr; Katrin Hussinger; Paula Schliessler; Andrew A. Toole
  4. Cross-ownership, R&D Spillovers, and Antitrust Policy By López, Ángel Luis; Vives, Xavier
  5. Contenido tecnológico de las exportaciones: una propuesta de un indicador de oportunidades By Cynthia Ketenjian; Marcos Alvez
  6. The New Economics of Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Institutions: Considerations for Australian Agriculture By Potts, Jason
  7. Dynamic R&D Choice and the Impact of the Firm's Financial Strength By Peters, Bettina; Roberts, Mark J.; Vuong, Van Anh
  8. Smart Stories - Implementing Smart Specialisation across Europe By John Huw Edwards; Fatime Barbara Hegyi
  9. RIO Country Report 2015: Romania By Radu Gheorghiu; Liviu Andreescu; Jana Zifciakova
  10. Gender and Innovativeness of the Enterprise: the Case of Transition Countries By Maryia Akulava
  11. RIO Country Report 2015: France By Bitard Pierre; Zacharewicz Thomas
  12. RIO Country Report 2015: Lithuania By Agnė Paliokaitė; Pijus Krūminas; Stamenov Blagoy
  13. RIO Country Report 2015: Ireland By Tom Martin; Giovanni La Placa
  14. Some Twins Are Not Alike: FDI Premia in the Former Soviet States By Valeria, Gattai; Rajssa, Mechelli; Piergiovanna, Natale;
  15. Trade and Innovation: Matched Worker-Firm-Level Evidence By Tuhkuri, Joonas
  16. Exploration, exploitation and innovation performance: Disentangling environmental dynamism By Pilar Bernal; Juan P. Maicas; Pilar Vargas
  17. The role of community leadership in the development of grassroots innovations By Mari Martiskainen
  18. Competition Policy and Incentives for Innovation By Shastitko. Andrey; Komkova, Anastasia Andreevna; Kurdin, Alexander
  19. Evaluation of Health Care Innovation Awards (HCIA): Primary Care Redesign Programs First Annual Report, Volume II: Individual Program Summarires By Boyd Gilman; Sheila Hoag; Lorenzo Moreno; Greg Peterson; Linda Barterian; Laura Blue; Kristin Geonnotti; Tricia Higgins; Mynti Hossain; Lauren Hula; Rosalind Keith; Jennifer Lyons; Brenda Natzke; Brenna Rabel; Rumin Sarwar; Rachel Shapiro; Cara Stephanczuk; Victoria Peebles; KeriAnn Wells; Joseph Zickafoose
  20. Understanding indicator choice for the assessment of research, development, and demonstration financing of low-carbon energy technologies : Lessons from the Nordic countries By Jonas Sonnenschein
  21. Overcoming the Discrete Nature of Innovation Financing in the Early Stages of Russia By Barinova, Vera; Eremkin, Vladimir; Lanshina, Tatiana
  22. EntreComp: The Entrepreneurship Competence Framework for Citizens By BACIGALUPO MARGHERITA; KAMPYLIS PANAGIOTIS; PUNIE YVES; VAN DEN BRANDE GODELIEVE
  23. Corporate R&D intensity decomposition: Theoretical, empirical and policy issues By Pietro Moncada-Paternò-Castello
  24. Prosperity in a changing world: Structural change and economic growth By Demary, Vera; Grömling, Michael; Kolev, Galina; Matthes, Jürgen
  25. Competitive and Innovative Growth of Russia By Faltsman V.K.; Davydova L.A.
  26. Interaction between Business and Research Organizations in the Sphere of Innovations: The Russian Experience in Promoting Cooperation By Simachev, Yuri; Kuzyk, Mikhail; Feygina, Vera
  27. The political economy of energy innovation By Shouro Dasgupta,; Enrica De Cian; Elena Verdolini
  28. Productivity spillovers through labor flows: The effect of productivity gap, foreign-owned firms, and skill-relatedness By Zsolt Csafordi; Laszlo Lorincz; Balazs Lengyel; Karoly Miklos Kiss
  29. Energy, trade and innovation: the tragedy of the locals By Chiara Ravetti; Tania Theoduloz; Giulia Valacchi
  30. Green Skills By Davide Consoli; Giovanni Marin; David Poop; Francesco Vona

  1. By: Giovanni Marin (IRCrES-CNR); Francesca Lotti (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: We investigate the productivity effects of eco-innovations at the firm level using a modified version of the CDM model (Crepon et al., 1998). The distinctive nature of environmental innovations, especially as regards the need for government intervention to create market opportunities, is likely to affect the way they are pursued and their effect on productivity. The analysis is based on an unbalanced panel sample of Italian manufacturing firms merged with data on patent applications and balance sheet information. When looking at innovation’s return on productivity , we observe that eco-innovations exhibit a generally lower return relative to other innovations, at least in the short run. This differential effect is more pronounced for polluting firms, which are likely to face higher compliance costs for environmental regulations than other firms. This result holds for both the extensive (probability of patenting) and intensive (patent count) margin.
    Keywords: R&D, innovation, productivity, patents, eco-patents.
    JEL: L60 Q55
    Date: 2016–06
  2. By: Jules-Daniel Wurlod; Joëlle Noailly
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of green innovation on energy intensity in a set of 14 industrial sectors in 17 OECD countries over the 1975-2005 period. We create a stock of green patents for each industrial sector and estimates a translog cost function to measure the impact of green innovation on energy intensity, next to other factors such as input substitution and autonomous technical change. We find that green innovation has contributed to the decline in energy intensity in the majority of sectors: the median elasticity of energy intensity with respect to green patenting is estimated at -0.03 in our sample. Hence, a 1% increase in green patenting activities in a given sector is associated with a 0.03% decline in energy intensity. The magnitude of the effect is larger in energy-intensive sectors and in more recent years. We also find that the impact of an additional green patent on energy intensity is larger than an average non-green patent. Our results are robust to alternative definitions of patents.
    Keywords: Energy intensity, Green innovation; Patents; Technology; Cost function.
    JEL: Q41 O33
    Date: 2016–06–03
  3. By: Dirk Czarnitzki; Thorsten Doherr; Katrin Hussinger; Paula Schliessler; Andrew A. Toole
    Abstract: We use an exogenous change in German Federal law to examine how entrepreneurial support and the ownership of patent rights influence academic entrepreneurship. In 2002, the German Federal Government enacted a major reform called Knowledge Creates Markets that set up new infrastructure to facilitate university-industry technology transfer and shifted the ownership of patent rights from university researchers to their universities. Based on a novel researcher-level panel database that includes a control group not affected by the policy change, we find no evidence that the new infrastructure resulted in an increase in start-up companies by university researchers. The shift in patent rights may have strengthened the relationship between patents on university-discovered inventions and university start-ups; however, it substantially decreased the volume of patents with the largest decrease taking place in faculty-firm patenting relationships.
    Keywords: Intellectual property, patents, technology transfer, policy evaluation
    Date: 2016–05
  4. By: López, Ángel Luis; Vives, Xavier
    Abstract: This paper considers cost-reducing R&D investment with spillovers in a Cournot oligopoly with minority shareholdings. We find that, with high market concentration and sufficiently convex demand, there is no scope for cross-ownership to improve welfare regardless of spillover levels. Otherwise, there is scope for cross-ownership provided that spillovers are sufficiently large. The socially optimal degree of cross-ownership increases with the number of firms, with the elasticity of demand and of the innovation function, and with the extent of spillover effects. In terms of consumer surplus standard, the scope for cross-ownership is greatly reduced even under low market concentration.
    Keywords: Collusion; competition policy; innovation; minority shareholdings; modified HHI; partial merger
    JEL: D43 L13 O32
    Date: 2016–06
  5. By: Cynthia Ketenjian (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración.); Marcos Alvez (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración.)
    Abstract: This paper measures the technological content of the exports basket of Uruguay in 2007-2009 based on three indicators: R&D Intensity, Sophistication, Technological Opportunities. The former includes the direct effects of public expenditures on innovation, and the complementarity between public and private expenses. We have found that in Uruguay the products of high technologicalcontent are agricultural, according to the Opportunities indicator. Moreover, there is no significative evidence that supports thecomplementarity between public and private expenditures. Finally, we identified a direct negative effect on innovations, which calls for further research.
    Keywords: Innovation, Technological content indicators, Uruguay
    JEL: O30 F14 H5
    Date: 2016–05
  6. By: Potts, Jason
    Abstract: Agriculture is often represented as a case study in perfect competition, with a large number of small price-taking producers choosing an optimal input mix from a simple production function to maximize profits. Entrepreneurship and innovation do not seem to enter into this story, and nor do institutions. But this characterization misrepresents the complexity and niche competition in agricultural markets and the opportunities for cooperation. Old models of innovation policy emphasized market failure and recommended more or less direct government support to fund R&D investment. Examples were public funding of agricultural science. But new approaches to economics of innovation emphasise the role of entrepreneurial or market (rather than technical) discovery, and the increasing use of private institutions to solve the innovation problem through pooling innovation resources in the ‘commons’. This shift from market failure to collective action models of the innovation problem, and from government solutions to governance solutions, represents a fundamental shift in modern economic thinking about how industries grow through entrepreneurship and innovation, and the role of government in this process.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2016–02
  7. By: Peters, Bettina (Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW)); Roberts, Mark J. (Pennsylvania State University and NBER); Vuong, Van Anh (University of Cologne and Institute of Energy Economics)
    Abstract: This article investigates how a firm's financial strength affects its dynamic decision to invest in R&D. We estimate a dynamic model of R&D choice using data for German firms in high-tech manufacturing industries. The model incorporates a measure of the firm's financial strength, derived from its credit rating, which is shown to lead to substantial differences in estimates of the costs and expected long-run benefits from R&D investment. Financially strong firms have a higher probability of generating innovations from their R&D investment, and the innovations have a larger impact on productivity and profits. Averaging across all firms, the long run benefit of investing in R&D equals 6.6 percent of firm value. It ranges from 11.6 percent for firms in a strong financial position to 2.3 percent for firms in a weaker financial position.
    Keywords: R&D choice; financial strength; innovation; productivity; dynamic structural model
    JEL: G30 O31 O32
    Date: 2016–06–02
  8. By: John Huw Edwards (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Fatime Barbara Hegyi (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The insight that this booklet provides - thanks to the precious contribution of national and regional authorities - shows that smart specialisation has gone far beyond the mere fulfilment of the ex-ante conditionality criteria linked to Cohesion policy allocations. It has triggered a change in the way innovation-driven regional development policies are dealt with across Europe, confirming the outcome of a number of surveys recently run on this topic. These 'Smart Stories' will drive the reader through the features of smart specialisation as it has been applied in a number of EU countries and regions, with a view to stimulating to further explore the concept and its policy implications, to identify complementarities and potential for mutual learning and collaboration. The period of strategy development has in one sense finished; however, the process of implementing and monitoring S3 will hopefully lead to many more 'Smart Stories' to be shared across all territories of the European Union.
    Keywords: innovation, policy, R&D, monitoring, collaboration, competitiveness, education, governance, growth, research, sustainability
    Date: 2016–05
  9. By: Radu Gheorghiu (The Institute for World Economy (Bucharest, Romania)); Liviu Andreescu (The University of Bucharest (Bucharest, Romania)); Jana Zifciakova (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward the main challenges of the research and innovation systems.
    Keywords: R&I system, R&I policy, ERA, innovation union, Semester analysis, Romania
    JEL: I20 O30 Z18
    Date: 2016–05
  10. By: Maryia Akulava
    Abstract: Little knowledge exists on difference in innovation behavior of men and women leading the SMEs in transition countries. This paper estimates whether there is a gender gap in SMEs innovation actions. Results show that propensity to innovate is higher among female owners and this finding preserves for 5 measures of innovativeness. Thus, female involvement in business might be beneficial for the innovative sustainable development of economy. Estimation of the gap in performance of implemented innovations did not reveal any strong prevailing gender in terms of efficiency.
    Keywords: Small and medium enterprises, innovation activities, gender differences
    JEL: O31 O32 J16 L25
    Date: 2015–10
  11. By: Bitard Pierre (Association Nationale de la Recherche et de la Technologie, ANRT); Zacharewicz Thomas (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward the main challenges of the research and innovation systems.
    Keywords: R&I system, R&I policy, ERA, innovation union, Semester analysis, France
    JEL: I20 O30 Z18
    Date: 2016–06
  12. By: Agnė Paliokaitė (Visionary Analytics UAB (Vilnius, Lithuania)); Pijus Krūminas (Visionary Analytics UAB (Vilnius, Lithuania)); Stamenov Blagoy (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward the main challenges of the research and innovation systems.
    Keywords: R&I system, R&I policy, ERA, innovation union, Semester analysis, Lithuania
    JEL: I20 O30 Z18
    Date: 2016–05
  13. By: Tom Martin (Tom Martin & Associates); Giovanni La Placa (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward the main challenges of the research and innovation systems.
    Keywords: R&I system, R&I policy, ERA, innovation union, Semester analysis, Ireland
    JEL: I20 O30 Z18
    Date: 2016–06
  14. By: Valeria, Gattai; Rajssa, Mechelli; Piergiovanna, Natale;
    Abstract: groups of former Soviet states, designated CIS, Developed and Developing. Using Orbis data, we provide within-group and between-group results on the effects of outward FDI (OFDI) and inward FDI (IFDI) on firm-level innovation. As the most notable finding, OFDI firms innovate more than IFDI firms, which in turn innovate more than non-FDI firms. The innovation effect of OFDI is the largest for firms from the Developing economies, followed by the Developed and CIS countries. The innovation effect of IFDI is the largest for firms from the Developing economies, followed by the CIS and Developed countries. FDI to and from Europe have the largest impact on innovation; this holds across country groups.
    Keywords: FDI, Premia, Patents, Former Soviet States, Russia, CIS
    JEL: F23 L25 O57
    Date: 2016–06–10
  15. By: Tuhkuri, Joonas
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between globalization and innovation. To do so, it draws from data that match the full population of workers and private-sector firms in Finland tracking them from 1995 to 2009. To correct for endogeneity the paper considers variation in trade exposure from China during its entry to the world market using a fixed effects model. While the literature on trade and innovation has emphasized the role of firms in driving onshore innovation, the main conclusion of this research is that globalization increases the share of innovators within firms.
    Keywords: Trade, Innovation, China, Employment
    JEL: F14 F16 J24 L60 L24
    Date: 2016–06–03
  16. By: Pilar Bernal (University of Zaragoza); Juan P. Maicas (University of Zaragoza); Pilar Vargas (University of La Rioja)
    Abstract: Environmental dynamism has recently attracted the attention of scholars studying the relationships between exploration and exploitation strategies and innovation performance. Surprisingly, although extant research has already acknowledged its multidimensional character, it has only been analyzed in an aggregate fashion. In this paper, we distinguish two components of environmental dynamism, the pace of market evolution and the pace of technology evolution, and we elaborate on their different impacts in the context of exploration and exploitation strategies. More precisely, we argue that while a rapid pace of technology evolution has opposite impacts on the relationships between exploration (positive), exploitation (negative) and innovation performance, a rapid pace of market evolution positively affects both exploration and exploitation. Our findings provide substantial support for our prediction using a large panel of Spanish innovating firms for the period 2008-2012.
    Keywords: Exploration; Exploitation; Environment; Technology, Market
    JEL: O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2016–03
  17. By: Mari Martiskainen (Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand, Sussex Energy Group, SPRU)
    Abstract: This article focuses on the role of community leadership in the development of grassroots innovations. It asks: When community leaders initiate energy projects, what types of skills and knowledge practices do they utilise to nurture grassroots innovations? Grassroots innovations are usually driven by social and sustainability motives, and developed by civil society groups. Based on a mixed methods approach including research interviews and site visits, the article draws on previous literature on community leadership, grassroots innovations and niche literature. Community leadership is analysed via two in-depth community energy cases in the UK. Research findings show that community leadership can aid the development of grassroots innovations, which operate in niches and require nurturing. Community leadership benefits from being embedded into social networks, shared vision and decision making, but pre-existing skills and tacit knowledge also play a role. Community leaders can also assist niche building by working closely with intermediary actors.
    Keywords: community leadership, grassroots innovations, nurturing, intermediaries, community energy
    Date: 2016–10
  18. By: Shastitko. Andrey (Lomonossov Moscow State University, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Komkova, Anastasia Andreevna (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Kurdin, Alexander (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow State University, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The work is dedicated to the identification and study of the relationship between the intensity of competition, market structures, competition policy and innovation activity. Critical analysis of foreign research shows that a universal solution, this problem has not, and the effects of competition policy on innovation in practice depends on a number of specific national and sectoral factors. Impact of innovation activity in respect of competition policy instruments is comprehensive, taking into account their impact on several aspects of the activities of businesses and entrepreneurs' expectations, as well as the availability of related markets. The paper evaluates the effects of the complex. Built in the theoretical model shows that the "inhospitable" attitude antitrust authorities to potentially anti-competitive actions of enterprises can be deterrent to innovative activity, but the rejection of antitrust measures may be harmful to consumers. The best option of competition policy seems favorable attitude towards business initiatives in the case of a likely increase their innovation potential with the simultaneous implementation of compensatory measures or protective active competition policy.
    Keywords: intensity of competition, market structures, competition policy, innovation activity
    Date: 2016–04–14
  19. By: Boyd Gilman; Sheila Hoag; Lorenzo Moreno; Greg Peterson; Linda Barterian; Laura Blue; Kristin Geonnotti; Tricia Higgins; Mynti Hossain; Lauren Hula; Rosalind Keith; Jennifer Lyons; Brenda Natzke; Brenna Rabel; Rumin Sarwar; Rachel Shapiro; Cara Stephanczuk; Victoria Peebles; KeriAnn Wells; Joseph Zickafoose
    Keywords: Primary Care Redesign, Implementation Evaluation, Impact Evaluation, Delivery Systems Innovation, Clinician Behavior, Workforce Development, Medicare, Medicaid
    JEL: I
  20. By: Jonas Sonnenschein
    Abstract: Rapid decarbonization of whole countries requires additional research, development, and demonstration of low-carbon energy technologies. Governments support research, development, and demonstration in this area with various financing instruments. These instruments are frequently assessed by carrying out indicator-based evaluations. So far there is no standard set of indicators for this purpose.This study looks at research, development, and demonstration financing in the Nordic countries, which are frequently mentioned as leading countries with respect to eco-innovation. Different indicators are identified, selected, and analysed. The analysis of the indicator-based evaluation method includes the acceptance of an indicator, its ease of monitoring, and its robustness as assessment criteria. No indicator or set of indicators emerges as clearly superior from the analysis. Indicator choice is subject to trade-offs. This means in turn that there is room for directing evaluation results by choosing certain indicators over others.The study concludes by discussing potential policy implications of biases in indicator-based evaluation of low-carbon energy technologies research, development, and demonstration funding.
    Keywords: Nonrenewable natural resources
    Date: 2016
  21. By: Barinova, Vera (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Eremkin, Vladimir (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Lanshina, Tatiana (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper deals with the discontinuous process of establishment of an innovative company and aims to study the funding of innovative activities at the early stages in Russia to create opportunities for attracting funds at every stage of the evolution of ideas and companies. The authors study the process of a company establishment and picture its main theoretical and practical characteristics. The authors analyze international experience and Russian realities in the sphere of funds available for innovative projects at the early stages of development. The major result of this research are suggestions for introducing new elements and new mechanisms to decrease the possibility of development of the early stages funding gaps in innovative activities.
    Keywords: innovative company, funding, startup, Russia, venture
    Date: 2015–04–02
  22. By: BACIGALUPO MARGHERITA (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); KAMPYLIS PANAGIOTIS (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); PUNIE YVES (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); VAN DEN BRANDE GODELIEVE (European Commission, DG Employment)
    Abstract: The development of the entrepreneurial capacity of European citizens and organisations is one of the key policy objectives for the EU and Member States. Ten years ago, the European Commission identified sense of initiative and entrepreneurship as one of the 8 key competences necessary for a knowledge-based society. The EntreComp framework presented in this report proposes a shared definition of entrepreneurship as a competence, with the aim to raise consensus among all stakeholders and to establish a bridge between the worlds of education and work. Developed through a mixed-methods approach, the EntreComp framework is set to become a reference de facto for any initiative aiming to foster entrepreneurial capacity of European citizens. It consists of 3 interrelated and interconnected competence areas: ‘Ideas and opportunities’, ‘Resources’ and ‘Into action’. Each of the areas is made up of 5 competences, which, together, constitute the building blocks of entrepreneurship as a compe-tence. The framework develops the 15 competences along an 8-level progression model and proposes a compre-hensive list of 442 learning outcomes. The framework can be used as a basis for the development of curricula and learning activities fostering entrepreneurship as a competence. Also, it can be used for the definition of parame-ters to assess learners’ and citizens’ entrepreneurial competences.
    Keywords: citizen, education, employment, growth, competitiveness
    Date: 2016–06
  23. By: Pietro Moncada-Paternò-Castello (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: Research and development (R&D) indicators are increasingly used not only to facilitate international comparisons, but also as targets for policies stimulating research. An example of such an indicator is R&D intensity. The decomposition method of R&D intensity was conceived with the aim of evaluating aggregate R&D intensity and explaining the differences in R&D intensity between countries. For policy purposes, it is particularly important to determine whether the differences are intrinsic (e.g. due to firms’ underinvestment in R&D) or structural (e.g. due to differences in the sectors that make up an economy). Despite its importance for analytical purposes, the theoretical and methodological framework enabling decomposition of corporate R&D intensity has been elaborated only recently, and it is still not commonly used in the literature. Moreover, examination of the R&D intensity of firms in different industries and at different layers of aggregation leads to mixed results, the reasons for which are not fully understood. This paper aims to review the theoretical and methodological frameworks of corporate R&D intensity decomposition and how it is applied in the literature in order to determine the policy implications of empirical results that at first sight may seem to be contradictory. More specifically, this paper surveys the literature to determine (i) the theoretical framework of determinants of corporate R&D intensity, (ii) the methodologies that have been put in place to decompose corporate R&D intensity and the empirical results reached and (iii) the likely reasons for the contrasting results. Finally, the paper points out the possible policy implications and suggests some potential avenues for future research in this area.
    Keywords: corporate R&D intensity gap; decomposition; literature survey; R&D policy.
    JEL: O30 O32 O38 O57 F23 R39
    Date: 2016–04
  24. By: Demary, Vera; Grömling, Michael; Kolev, Galina; Matthes, Jürgen
    Abstract: Structural change is both a challenge and an opportunity for countries and companies. However, there is no silver bullet in terms of superior economic models. Instead, different economic models can deal with structural change in a successful way. Both economies with a focus on services and those with a high share of manufacturing are able to achieve a high degree of economic growth and prosperity. Success factors are related to a solid performance with regard to the key drivers of structural change: globalisation, interconnectedness, innovation and knowledge as well as the economic framework. Economic policy - also at the EU level - should support companies and economies in reaping these potential benefits: fostering open and flexible markets as well as supporting European value chains and an intensification of knowledge in the production of goods and services are key success factors in this respect.
    JEL: F43 L16 O14 O43
    Date: 2016
  25. By: Faltsman V.K. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Davydova L.A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: This work present an analysis of the the socio-economic opportunities, advantages and disadvantages of different ways of innovative development of car industry, shipbuilding industry, aviation industry, defense industry, nuclear power and oil industry, based on the statistical analysis of the competitiveness of different types of Russian products on the domestic and international markets, including the markets of the CIS and EurAsEC. As a possible complementary factor for future economic growth is considered the development of the agricultural sector.
    Keywords: industrial development, competitiveness, growth, agriculture
    Date: 2015–04–07
  26. By: Simachev, Yuri (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Russian Science Foundation); Kuzyk, Mikhail (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Interdepartmental Analytical Center); Feygina, Vera (Interdepartmental Analytical Center)
    Abstract: Objective: microeconomic analysis of the current state and problems of scientific and industrial cooperation, key factors and obstacles to the development of cooperation between Russian research organizations with business, as well as the mechanisms of state support for scientific and industrial cooperation and the results of their application.
    Keywords: microeconomic analysis, science, technology, high-tech sector, Russia
    Date: 2015–03–04
  27. By: Shouro Dasgupta,; Enrica De Cian; Elena Verdolini
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the effects of environmental policy, institutions, political orientation, and lobbying on energy innovation and finds that they significantly affect the incentives to innovate and create cleaner energy efficient technologies. We conclude that political economy factors may act as barriers even in the presence of stringent environmental policy, implying that, to move towards a greener economy, countries should combine environmental policy with a general strengthening of institutional quality, consider the influence of government's political orientation on environmental policies, and the implications of the size of energy intensive sectors in the economy.
    Keywords: energy innovation, environmental policy, patents, political economy
    Date: 2016
  28. By: Zsolt Csafordi (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences); Laszlo Lorincz (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences); Balazs Lengyel (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and International Business School, Budapest); Karoly Miklos Kiss (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Pannonia, Faculty of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: What puts productivity spillovers into effect through worker mobility across firms? Productivity difference between the sending and receiving firms have been found to drive these spillovers; while an alternative explanation suggests that labor flows from foreign-owned companies provide productivity gains for the firm. We argue here that skill-relatedness across firms also matters because industry-specific skills are important for organizational learning and production. Hungarian employee-employer linked panel data from 2003-2011 imply that productivity gap rules out the effect of foreign spillovers. Furthermore, we find that flows from skill-related industries outperform the effect of flows from unrelated industries.
    Keywords: skill-relatedness network, firm productivity, knowledge spillover, labor mobility, productivity gap, foreign ownership
    JEL: D22 J24 J60 M51
    Date: 2016–05
  29. By: Chiara Ravetti; Tania Theoduloz; Giulia Valacchi
    Abstract: This paper analyses the use of different energy sources in a dynamic trade model with endogenous innovation. We consider two countries, North and South, the first with high environmental concerns and the second endowed with abundant fossil fuel resources. In this asymmetric setting, the South specializes in energy production using fossil fuels, causing local and global environmental damages. The North, instead, specializes in other manufacturing and imports energy inputs from the South. Endogenous innovation reinforces this pattern of specialization over time. We show that the North can unilaterally stop the use of fossil fuels and avoid a global climate disaster with two different strategies: either redirecting the comparative advantage of the South towards manufacturing, relocating the production of energy to the North, or buying fossil fuel deposits in the South. These two policies have different implications in terms of monetary costs and environmental outcomes for the North. The choice between the two depends on the valuation of the environment, the energy requirements of final goods’ production, the starting time of the policy and the time preferences of the North. Overall, however, there is no costless way for the North to stop unilaterally the use of fossil fuels.
    Keywords: Energy, technical change, international trade, comparative advantage, fossil fuels.
    JEL: F18 O32 O38
    Date: 2016–01–20
  30. By: Davide Consoli (INGENIO (CSIC-UPV) (Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management) (CSIV-UPV)); Giovanni Marin (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna [Pisa]); David Poop (Syracuse University); Francesco Vona (OFCE)
    Abstract: The catchword ‘green skills’ has been common parlance in policy circles for a while, yet there is little systematic empirical research to guide public intervention for meeting the demand for skills that will be needed to operate and develop green technology. The present paper proposes a data-driven methodology to identify green skills and to gauge the ways in which the demand for these competences responds to environmental regulation. Accordingly, we find that green skills are high-level analytical and technical now-how related to the design, production, management and monitoring of technology. The empirical analysis reveals that environmental regulation triggers technological and organizational changes that increase the demand for hard technical, engineering and scientific skills. Our analysis suggests also that this is not just a compositional change in skill demand due to job losses in sectors highly exposed to trade and regulation.
    Keywords: Green technology; Green skill; Environmental Regulation and Green Skills
    JEL: J24 Q52
    Date: 2015–04

This nep-ino issue is ©2016 by Uwe Cantner. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.