nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒06‒04
25 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Assessing Innovator and Grower Profit Potential under Different New Plant Variety Commercialization Strategies By Gallardo, R. Karina; McCluskey, Jill J.; Rickard, Bradley J.; Akhundjanov, Sherzod B.
  2. Lock-in of mature innovation systems, The transformation toward clean concrete in the Netherlands By Wesseling, Joeri H.; van der Vooren , Alexander
  3. Public and Private Agricultural R&D Investment and Research Productivity of in China By Jin, Yanhong; Hu, Yahong; Pray, Carl; Hu, Ruifa
  4. Transition to clean technology By Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Kerr, William R.
  5. La innovación como determinante pare el emprendimiento By Molina, Jose Alberto; Velilla, Jorge
  6. The Productivity Impact of R&D Investment: A Comparison between the EU and the US By Castellani, Davide; Piva, Mariacristina; Schubert, Torben; Vivarelli, Marco
  7. Case Studies on Open Innovation in ICT By Alberto Di Minin; Chiara Eleonora De Marco; Cristina Marullo; Andrea Piccaluga; Elena Casprini; Maral Mahdad; Andrea Paraboschi
  8. ‘Better late than never’: a longitudinal quantile regression approach to the interplay between green technology and age for firm growth By Riccardo Leoncini; Alberto Marzucchi; Sandro Montresor; Francesco Rentocchini; Ugo Rizzo
  9. Beyond adoption: welfare effects of farmer innovation behavior in Ghana By Tambo, Justice A.; Wünscher, Tobias
  10. Entrepreneurial activity in the OECD: Pooled and cross-country evidence By Molina, Jose Alberto; Velilla, Jorge; Ortega, Raquel
  11. Corruption and innovation: the mediating role of trade By DeMaria, Federica; Franco, Chiara; Solferino, Nazaria
  12. Innovation and Firm Productivity: Evidence from the US Patent Data By Cui, Jingbo; Li, Xiaogang
  13. Patent rights, product market reforms, and innovation By Philippe Aghion; Peter Howitt; Susanne Prantl
  14. Pushing and Pulling Environmental Innovation: R&D Subsidies and Carbon Taxes By Clancy, Matthew; Moschini, GianCarlo
  15. Technology assessment in Non-PTA countries: an overview of recent developments in Europe By Nuno Boavida; António Brandão Moniz
  16. The Value of Entrepreneurial Failures: Task Allocation and Career Concerns By Canidio, Andrea; Legros, Patrick
  17. Technological Innovation Systems and the wider context: A framework for developing countries By Edsand, Hans
  18. Creative natives in the digital age : how digital technology has revolutionized creative work By Kabanda,Patrick
  19. New-Issues Markets as behavioral barriers to entry: an agent-based model of choices and market structure By Ulisses L. Morais; Adelino M. G. Fortunato; Ernesto J. F. Costa
  20. Work Experience from Paid Employment and the Path to Entrepreneurship: Business Takeover versus New Venture Start-Up By Xi, Guoqian; Block, Jörn; Lasch, Frank; Robert, Frank; Thurik, Roy
  21. Entrepreneurship in the East German Transition Process: Lessons for the Korean Peninsula By Michael Fritsch; Michael Wyrwich
  22. Evaluation of Health Care Innovation Awards (HCIA): Primary Care Redesign Programs, Second Annual Report, Volume II: Individual Program Summaries By Linda Barterian; Keith Kranker; Rumin Sarwar; Boyd Gilman; Greg Peterson; Catherine DesRoches; Sandi Nelson; Laura Blue; Kate Stewart; Frank Yoon; Lorenzo Moreno
  23. Regulation, red tape and location choices of top R&D investors By Daria Ciriaci; Nicola Grassano; Antonio Vezzani
  24. The Political Economy of Energy Innovation By Shouro Dasgupta; Enrica De Cian; Elena Verdolini
  25. Entrepreneurial Choices of Initial Human Capital Endowments and New Venture Success By Rocha, Vera; van Praag, Mirjam C.; Folta, Timothy B.; Carneiro, Anabela

  1. By: Gallardo, R. Karina; McCluskey, Jill J.; Rickard, Bradley J.; Akhundjanov, Sherzod B.
    Abstract: This research is motivated by the sharp increase in the number of patented fruit varieties developed by breeding programs at public universities in the United States. Such varieties are licensed to growers as a way to generate revenue for universities through the use of fees and royalties. Although the use of fees and royalties for patents has been well discussed in the economic literature, there is very little empirical work that examines these questions for varietal innovations in agriculture. Horticultural variety innovations are particularly interesting as they typically involve a demand-enhancing innovation rather than a cost-inducing innovation, and because, in most cases, the new varieties are only intended to replace a small share of production dedicated to existing varieties. We found evidence that fixed-fees under an exclusive contract was the most profitable for growers. For the innovator, the most profitable scheme was the exclusive per-box royalty contract. Our findings on potential profits for both adopters and innovators signal that exclusive contracting would outperform the non-exclusive licensing schemes. Given that the innovations are occurring at land-grant universities and that the technology is largely being distributed to U.S. growers, further work might consider the net societal impacts of the various licensing strategies; this would extend our analysis to consider the economic effects from licensing for the innovator as well as the effects for producers.
    Keywords: intellectual property, apple varieties, university innovators, Demand and Price Analysis, Marketing, Q13,
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Wesseling, Joeri H. (CIRCLE, Lund University); van der Vooren , Alexander (Sustainable Development Department, PBL)
    Abstract: Energy-intensive processing industries like the concrete industry form the base of the economy and account for a large part of greenhouse gas emissions. Sectoral transformation to cleaner basic materials is therefore crucial, and institutional pressure to do so is increasing. These sectors have nevertheless been largely omitted by socio-technical studies. This paper therefore sets out to analyze the systemic problems that inhibit the transformation of the mature innovation system of the concrete sector toward the development, diffusion and adoption of clean concrete innovations, for the case of the Netherlands. A coupled structural-functional approach has been frequently applied to identify such systemic problems, but has been limited to emerging technological innovation systems. Consequently, the approach tends to overlook the systemic lock-in that arises from interdependent systemic problems and vested interests that characterize mature innovation systems. This paper analyzes these characteristics to extend the application of the structural-functional approach to the transformation of mature innovation systems. Interviews with 28 stakeholders were conducted and triangulated with reports, websites and other documents. A list of systemic problems was identified that originate within actors, institutions, networks, technology and infrastructure and that impaired the performance of all system functions except knowledge development. Systemic problems are indeed found to be strongly interdependent, leading to systemic lock-in. Through strategic, often collective action, established firms with vested interests were able to reinforce these systemic problems to inhibit clean concrete innovation. The study concludes that systemic lock-in inhibits the sustainability transformation of the mature innovation system of concrete in the Netherlands and confirms that the application of the structural-functional approach can be extended from emerging to mature innovation systems.
    Keywords: system failures; system functions; vested interest; sectoral innovation system; sectoral system of innovation and production; technological innovation system
    JEL: O25 O31 O33 O38 Q01
    Date: 2016–05–13
  3. By: Jin, Yanhong; Hu, Yahong; Pray, Carl; Hu, Ruifa
    Abstract: Employing the count data analysis based on survey data of 1355 firms in China’s 29 provinces collected in 2007, this study analyzes the impact of public and private agricultural R&D investments on research productivity measured by the number of patents granted to agricultural firms. We find that private R&D investments and having an own R&D research center increase the number of patents granted. However, the public R&D investments do not have a statistically significant effects on the number of patents granted. We also find that the number of research staff, especially of doctoral research staff, has a positive and statistically significant effect on the number of patents granted. Multi-national firms and firms located in central China have fewer patents than their counterparts. The main findings suggest that it is more efficient for Chinese government to improve research productivity if it encourages private agricultural R&D investments and helps agricultural firms to build their own R&D centers. Chinese government may also need to strengthen the legal framework and institutional resources for the protection and enforcement of intellectual properties to encourage domestic and international firms patent their new technologies.
    Keywords: Research and Development Investment, Agricultural Research Productivity, Public R&D, Private R&D, International Development, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Kerr, William R.
    Abstract: We develop a microeconomic model of endogenous growth where clean and dirty technologies compete in production and innovation–in the sense that research can be directed to either clean or dirty technologies. If dirty technologies are more advanced to start with, the potential transition to clean technology can be difficult both because clean research must climb several rungs to catch up with dirty technology and because this gap discourages research effort directed towards clean technologies. Carbon taxes and research subsidies may nonetheless encourage production and innovation in clean technologies, though the transition will typically be slow. We characterize certain general properties of the transition path from dirty to clean technology. We then estimate the model using a combination of regression analysis on the relationship between R&D and patents, and simulated method of moments using microdata on employment, production, R&D, firm growth, entry and exit from the US energy sector. The model’s quantitative implications match a range of moments not targeted in the estimation quite well. We then characterize the optimal policy path implied by the model and our estimates. Optimal policy makes heavy use of research subsidies as well as carbon taxes. We use the model to evaluate the welfare consequences of a range of alternative policies.
    Keywords: carbon cycle, directed technological change, environment, innovation, optimal policy
    JEL: O30 O31 O33 C65
    Date: 2015–12–10
  5. By: Molina, Jose Alberto; Velilla, Jorge
    Abstract: This project analyzes specifically how innovation and technological aspects influence the entrepreneurial activity around the world and in Spain. Recent international microdata GEM Global Individual (2014) are applied using a novel econometric methodology based on the Machine Learning techniques for selecting variables based on their predictive ability. Our results, both for Spain and internationally, support the importance of innovation as a critical component of the enterprise, characterizing in this way an "entrepreneurship by innovative vocation" in the sense that the fundamental reason that motivates entrepreneurship is the desire to deliver new services, products or technologies.
    Keywords: Enprepreneurship, Innovation, Machine Learning, GEM Data
    JEL: D22 J21
    Date: 2016–05–19
  6. By: Castellani, Davide (University of Reading); Piva, Mariacristina (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Schubert, Torben (Lund University); Vivarelli, Marco (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: Using data on the US and EU top R&D spenders from 2004 until 2012, this paper investigates the sources of the US/EU productivity gap. We find robust evidence that US firms have a higher capacity to translate R&D into productivity gains (especially in the high-tech industries), and this contributes to explaining the higher productivity of US firms. Conversely, EU firms are more likely to achieve productivity gains through capital-embodied technological change at least in medium and low-tech sectors. Our results also show that the US/EU productivity gap has worsened during the crisis period, as the EU companies have been more affected by the economic crisis in their capacity to translate R&D investments into productivity. Based on these findings, we make a case for a learning-based and selective R&D funding, which – instead of purely aiming at stimulating higher R&D expenditures – works on improving the firms' capabilities to transform R&D into productivity gains.
    Keywords: R&D, productivity, economic crisis, US, EU
    JEL: O33 O51 O52
    Date: 2016–05
  7. By: Alberto Di Minin (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna); Chiara Eleonora De Marco (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna); Cristina Marullo (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna); Andrea Piccaluga (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna); Elena Casprini (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna); Maral Mahdad (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna); Andrea Paraboschi (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna)
    Abstract: This report synthesizes the results of 13 case studies on innovative ICT and ICT-enabled companies across Europe. It aims to assess the impact of Open Innovation strategies (OISs) on their innovation processes and to highlight the role played by ICT.
    Keywords: Open Innovation, ICT, Innovation Ecosystem, SMEs, LE
    Date: 2016–05
  8. By: Riccardo Leoncini (University of Bologna (Italy); Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS), University of Freiburg (Germany); IRCrES-CNR (Italy)); Alberto Marzucchi (Catholic University of Milan (Italy)); Sandro Montresor (Kore University of Enna (Italy)); Francesco Rentocchini (Southampton Business School, University of Southampton (UK)); Ugo Rizzo (University of Ferrara (Italy))
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationships between green/non-green technologies and firm growth. By combining the literature on eco-innovations with industrial organisation and entrepreneurial studies, this relationship is investigated by considering its dependence on the pace at which firms grow and the moderating role of age. Based on a sample of 5498 manufacturing firms in Italy for the period of 2000-2008, we estimate longitudinal fixed effects quantile models in which age is set to moderate the effects of green and non-green patents on employment growth. The results indicate a positive role of green technologies in growth greater than the effect of non-green technologies. This result is valid with the exception of struggling and rapidly growing firms: the relevance of moderately growing firms thus emerges in contrast to the more celebrated “elite of superstar” growing companies. Age plays a moderating role in the growth effects of green technologies. Not completely inconsistent with the extant literature, this moderation effect is positive, indicating the importance of firm experience in benefiting from green technologies in terms of growth, possibly relative to the complexity of their management.
    Keywords: green technology; firm growth; age; quantile fixed effects
    JEL: L26 O33 Q55
    Date: 2016–05
  9. By: Tambo, Justice A.; Wünscher, Tobias
    Abstract: With numerous challenges hindering smallholders’ adoption of externally developed technologies, it is often argued that farmer innovation can play an essential role in rural livelihoods. Yet a rigorous assessment of the impact of farmer innovation is lacking. We address this issue by analyzing the effect of farmer innovation on household welfare, measured by income, consumption expenditure, and food security. Using household survey data from northern Ghana and applying endogenous switching regression, we find that farmer innovation significantly increases household income and consumption expenditure for innovators. It also contributes significantly to the reduction of food insecurity among innovative households by increasing household food consumption expenditure, decreasing the duration of food shortage, and reducing the severity of hunger. However, we find that the positive productivity and income effects of farmer innovation do not significantly translate into nutritious diet, measured by household dietary diversity. Overall, our results show positive welfare effects of farmer innovation, hence, support increasing arguments on the need to promote farmer innovation (which has been largely undervalued) as a complement to externally promoted technologies in food security and poverty reduction efforts.
    Keywords: Farmer innovation, Household welfare, Impact assessment, Endogenous switching regression, Ghana, Consumer/Household Economics, Farm Management, Food Security and Poverty, Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, D13, O31, Q12, Q16,
    Date: 2016–05
  10. By: Molina, Jose Alberto; Velilla, Jorge; Ortega, Raquel
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of innovation, and other socio-demographic variables, in the entrepreneurial activity in the OECD. We use the index from the GEM 2014 Global Individual Level database, which contains international micro-data for individuals. Our pooled and cross-country results show that young male individuals tend to entrepreneur more than their counterparts. Innovation is also positive strongly related to entrepreneurship. Furthermore, making use of unbiased estimates based on relatively novel and underused techniques we give strong robustness to this result. We find that family and well-being variables follow a mixed relationship with entrepreneurship. Skills, transmission by meeting and opportunities also play an important role.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, TEA, OECD.
    JEL: C21 L26 O31
    Date: 2016–05–25
  11. By: DeMaria, Federica (Associazione Italiana per la Cultura della Cooperazione e del Non Profit); Franco, Chiara (Associazione Italiana per la Cultura della Cooperazione e del Non Profit); Solferino, Nazaria (Associazione Italiana per la Cultura della Cooperazione e del Non Profit)
    Abstract: The paper aims to investigate the relationship among corruption, innovation and trade. We develop a model where a firm producing an innovation may pay some bribes to sell its own products in the domestic or international market. The government official may accept or not the bribes and choose whether or not to be honest, eventually, gaining some illegal beneficial. Firm’s profit may be affected by the costs of innovation and on the cost of corruption. Firm’s ability to sell new products in the foreign market also assumes a strategic role by playing a part in determining the efficient enterprises.
    Keywords: Corruption; Innovation; Export; Institutions
    JEL: D73 F13 O31
    Date: 2015–04–13
  12. By: Cui, Jingbo; Li, Xiaogang
    Keywords: Productivity, Backward Citations, Innovation, Knowledge Stock, Industrial Organization, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, d22, O31,
  13. By: Philippe Aghion; Peter Howitt; Susanne Prantl
    Keywords: intellectual property rights; competition; innovation
    JEL: L1 L5 O3 O4
    Date: 2015–09
  14. By: Clancy, Matthew; Moschini, GianCarlo
    Abstract: We use a novel modeling framework that incorporates free entry into the R&D sector and uncertainty about technological opportunity to evaluate three policy regimes (relative to laissez faire) designed to address a market with negative environmental externalities: a carbon tax, an R&D subsidy, and a mix of the two instruments. We show carbon taxes on their own are sufficient to obtain most of the welfare gains achieved by an optimal policy mix, and that the optimal carbon tax level is relatively robust to changing modeling assumptions, in contrast to optimal R&D subsidies. We also show R&D subsidies tend to produce more disperse outcomes than a carbon tax: either more R&D entrants (when technological opportunity is favorable) or none at all (when technological opportunity is unfavorable).
    Keywords: Carbon tax, Incentive, Innovation, Renewable energy, R&D subsidy, Welfare, Environmental Economics and Policy, Industrial Organization, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, H23, O31, Q42, Q55, Q58,
    Date: 2016
  15. By: Nuno Boavida (IET/CICS.NOVA, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Portugal and ITAS, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany); António Brandão Moniz (IET/CICS.NOVA, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Portugal and ITAS, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany)
    Abstract: This work aims to describe the latest developments in European countries or regions that lack a structure to develop Parliamentary Technology Assessment activities (named non-PTA). They are countries or regions where parliamentary-oriented technology assessment activities have not yet resulted in a formal structure, but where these activities can be detected to some extent. We will concentrate on activities in Portugal, Wallonia, and other Central and Eastern countries such as the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Lithuania and Bulgaria. Catalonia is mentioned as a specific case where a formal PTA structure exists but the way it is organized and financed is similar to the national and regional experiences at the non-PTA countries. We can conclude that TA institutionalization in non-PTA countries appears to be dependent on the level of public production of knowledge. In fact, the presence or absence of Science & Technology (S&T) issues on the public agenda of these countries and regions affects the need for parliamentary policy advice: in their presence, S&T agenda pushes the need for TA advice by parliamentarians; in their absence, the promotion of innovation tries to keep up with globalization pressures and to generate economic growth, without significant demands for TA advice.
    Keywords: Parliamentary Technology Assessment, Europe, Science & Technology, innovation
    JEL: E61 O33 O38
    Date: 2015–12
  16. By: Canidio, Andrea; Legros, Patrick
    Abstract: The task assignment that maximizes present expected output is not necessarily the most informative about an agent's comparative advantage at different tasks. Entrepreneurs are free to choose their task assignment-workers in firms are not. When labor market frictions are low, any surplus generated by a more informative task as- signment is captured by the worker, and firms maximize present expected output in their task assignment. Hence, agents may choose entrepreneurship to learn their comparative advantage. The opposite holds when labor market frictions are large. The model establishes a causal relation between the degree of labor market frictions, the value of entrepreneurial failures, the level of entrepreneurial activity, the degree of firms' short-termism, and the rate of within-firm talent discovery. The theoretical correlations between these variables are consistent with the evidence available for the US and continental Europe.
    Keywords: career concerns.; entrepreneurial failures; entrepreneurship; learning; organizational choice; task allocation
    JEL: D83 J24 J62 L26 M13
    Date: 2016–05
  17. By: Edsand, Hans (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: The Technological Innovation System (TIS) framework is a systems approach for understanding the adoption and impact of technologies. This paper addresses limitations of the TIS functions approach by complementing its list of functions. As a result the breadth of application of the framework in developed countries is augmented, and made more applicable to the developing country context. In order to analyse the context in which the TIS operates, framework conditions are added to the TIS function approach, drawn from Multi-Level Perspective (MLP) literature.
    Keywords: Technological transitions, Technological Innovation System, Multi-Level Perspective, Renewable energy technologies, developing countries
    JEL: O33 O38
    Date: 2016–04–06
  18. By: Kabanda,Patrick
    Abstract: Digital technologies have permeated modern life, and their impact on creative work has been revolutionary. This revolution, as widely noted, has disrupted the making, distribution, and consumption of creative output. On the downside, key concerns include Internet-induced piracy and inequality. Yet digital technologies also accelerate opportunities. So, how can these opportunities be reaped to promote creative work for development? Suggestions here include closing the digital gender gap, promoting appropriate intellectual property rights, and providing digital literacy. More needs to be done to understand the benefits and limitations of digital technologies on creative work for human development.
    Keywords: E-Business,Cultural Policy,Technology Industry,Arts&Music,Cultural Heritage&Preservation
    Date: 2016–05–24
  19. By: Ulisses L. Morais (Faculty of Economics of the University of Coimbra, Portugal); Adelino M. G. Fortunato (Center for Business and Economics Research of the University of Coimbra, Portugal); Ernesto J. F. Costa (Department of Informatics Engineering of the University of Coimbra, Portugal)
    Abstract: The possibility that the existence of New-Issues Markets (NIM) could promote, through a behavioral response of potential entrants, a greater market concentration on economic sectors is the object of the present work. We analyze in what conditions do entrepreneurs choose to abandon their plans of entering some industry in order to invest in securities of companies in that same industry. To engage this matter an agent-based model, named Utility Load, was developed and simulated in NetLogo platform, where the entrepreneurs rely on a hybrid heuristic among Prospect Theory and Random Walk Model of perceptual decision-making to choose between starting a firm, assembling a portfolio or doing neither by postponing their decision. We arrive at the conclusion that a lengthy investment horizon or high bonds’ coupon, by offering greater prospective gains, attracts the vast majority of potential entrants to the NIM, which has a nefarious effect on the sector’s structure by increasing its concentration – measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. Moreover, the model indicates that a more bounded rationale is welfare increasing whilst allowing firms to continuously issue new debt to the public diminishes welfare. The results narrow the scope of reality to be emulated in experimental works and open the door for future empirical researches on this matter by making them more attainable.
    Keywords: Agent-Based Model, Barriers to Entry, Entrepreneurship, New-Issues Markets, Market Concentration. JEL Classification: C63, D81, L26
    Date: 2016–05
  20. By: Xi, Guoqian (University of Trier); Block, Jörn (University of Trier); Lasch, Frank (Montpellier Business School); Robert, Frank (Montpellier Business School); Thurik, Roy (Erasmus University Rotterdam)
    Abstract: Our paper investigates how the type of work experience gained from prior paid employment influences the path to entrepreneurship. We distinguish between two distinct entrepreneurship entry modes: business takeover and new venture start-up. Using a large and rich French data set, we find that small firm experience increases the likelihood for business takeover, whereas management and same sector experience both increase the likelihood for new ventures. Our findings are relevant for policymakers aiming to improve the business transfer process.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship entry mode, business takeover, new venture start-up, work experience
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2016–05
  21. By: Michael Fritsch (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Michael Wyrwich (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: This paper summarizes the role of entrepreneurship in the East German transformation process that followed the breakdown of the socialist regime and subsequent unification with West Germany. The main aim of this exercise is to derive conclusions and recommendations for a potential unification of the Korean Peninsula. We demonstrate that the formation of new businesses played a significant role, while efforts to adapt formerly state-owned firms were much less successful. In East Germany, newly emerging firms created the major share of employment opportunities, while incumbent socialist firms shed vast amounts of labor or disappeared completely. The main implication for a potential unification of the Korean Peninsula is that policy should have a special focus on entrepreneurship. In particular, it should try to utilize and strengthen the entrepreneurial abilities of the North Korean population and to create favorable conditions for the emergence of prospering new businesses.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, transformation, East Germany, Korea
    JEL: P27 L26 P31 N14 O10 O43 O57
    Date: 2016–05–10
  22. By: Linda Barterian; Keith Kranker; Rumin Sarwar; Boyd Gilman; Greg Peterson; Catherine DesRoches; Sandi Nelson; Laura Blue; Kate Stewart; Frank Yoon; Lorenzo Moreno
    Keywords: Primary Care Redesign, Implementation Evaluation, Impact Evaluation, Delivery Systems Innovation, Clinician Behavior, Workforce Development, Medicare, Medicaid
    JEL: I
  23. By: Daria Ciriaci (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Nicola Grassano (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how product and labour market regulations and red tape affect the way in which top corporate research and development (R&D) investors worldwide organise their cross-border operations. The decision about where a company locates its international subsidiaries is modelled using location-specific framework conditions, socio-economic factors and other controls commonly used in the economic geography literature. The location decision drivers are estimated using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression, controlling for both fixed and random effects. Our results confirm that both product market regulation (PMR) and employment protection legislation (EPL) significantly affect the location decisions of top R&D investors, as well as red tape and profit tax. The marginal effect of PMR is by far the largest, followed by EPL; the cost of starting a business and profit tax show lower marginal effects. Moreover, we found that (i) PMR and EPL are complementary (i.e. reducing one would also reduce the negative impact of the other) and (ii) of the three components of the PMR indicator —barriers to trade and investment, state control and barriers to entrepreneurship—the latter is the one with the lowest marginal effect. Policy implications are drawn accordingly.
    Keywords: Multinational Corporations (MNCs), Internationalization, Product market regulation, Employment protection.
    JEL: F23 D22 L20
    Date: 2016–04
  24. By: Shouro Dasgupta (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and CMCC); Enrica De Cian (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and CMCC); Elena Verdolini (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and CMCC)
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the effects of environmental policy, institutions, political orientation, and lobbying on energy innovation and finds that they significantly affect the incentives to innovate and create cleaner energy efficient technologies. We conclude that political economy factors may act as barriers even in the presence of stringent environmental policy, implying that, to move towards a greener economy, countries should combine environmental policy with a general strengthening of institutional quality, consider the influence of government’s political orientation on environmental policies, and the implications of the size of energy intensive sectors in the economy.
    Keywords: Energy Innovation, Environmental Policy, Patents, Political Economy
    JEL: C23 D02 O30 Q58
    Date: 2016–05
  25. By: Rocha, Vera (Copenhagen Business School); van Praag, Mirjam C. (Copenhagen Business School); Folta, Timothy B. (University of Connecticut); Carneiro, Anabela (University of Porto)
    Abstract: The founder (team)'s human capital is a vital determinant of future firm performance. This is a stylized fact. Less is known about the effect of the human capital of the initial workforce hired by the founder(s). We study the performance consequences of a founder's choice of the initial workforce's human capital (quantity and quality), besides the human capital of the founder(s). The analysis is based on matched employer-employee data and covers about 5,300 startups in manufacturing industries founded by individuals coming from employment between 1992 and 2007. We acknowledge that initial hiring decisions are endogenous and correlated with the human capital of the founders and the ownership structure of startups (single founder versus team of founders). Given the stickiness of initial choices, human capital decisions at entry turn out to be a close to irreversible matter with significant implications for post-entry survival and growth of the firm.
    Keywords: human capital, entrepreneurship, startups, firm performance
    JEL: J24 L26 M13
    Date: 2016–04

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