nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒04‒30
thirty papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Reconciling the Firm Size and Innovation Puzzle By Anne Marie Knott; Carl Vieregger
  2. “Exploration during turbulent times: an analysis of the effects of R&D cooperation on radical innovation performance during the economic crisis” By Lorena M. D’Agostino; Rosina Moreno
  3. China’s Pursuit of Environmentally Sustainable Development: Harnessing the New Engine of Technological Innovation By Jin, Wei; Zhang, ZhongXiang
  4. “Innovation, heterogeneous firms, and the region” By Enrique López-Bazo; Elisabet Motellón
  5. An ‘Algorithmic Links with Probabilities’ Crosswalk for USPC and CPC Patent Classifications with an Application Towards Industrial Technology Composition By Nathan Goldschlag; Travis J. Lybbert; Nikolas J. Zolas
  6. Environmental Regulation and Choice of Innovation in Oligopoly By Iwata, Hiroki
  7. Unemployment and Innovation By Joseph Stiglitz
  8. University-Industry Knowledge Transfer: The Role of UAS in Fostering Regional Innovation By Curdin Pfister; Miriam Rinawi; Dietmar Harhoff; Uschi Backes-Gellner
  9. Reviewing the evidence on the innovation impact of the EU Emission Trading System By Karoline Rogge
  10. The role of technological trajectories in catching-up-based development: An application to energy efficiency technologies By Zhong, Sheng; Verspagen, Bart
  11. What’s the price of consulting? Effects of public and private sector consulting on academic research. By Fudickar, Roman; Hottenrott, Hanna; Lawson, Cornelia
  12. Une stratégie publique en travaux ? Coordinations et performances dans les écosystèmes territoriaux d'innovation By Daniel Fixari; Frédérique Pallez
  13. Life-Cycle Saving, Bequests, and the Role of Population in R&D-based Growth By Bharat Diwakar; Gilad Sorek
  14. On regional innovator networks as hubs for innovative ventures By Uwe Cantner; Tina Wolf
  15. Trends and Determinants of Research Driven Total Factor Productivity in Indian Wheat By R, Sendhil; P, Ramasundaram; P, Anbukkani; Singh, Randhir; Sharma, Indu
  16. Problem Solving and Intermediation by Local Public Technology Centers in Regional Innovation Systems: The first report on a branch-level survey on technical consultation By FUKUGAWA Nobuya; GOTO Akira
  17. Analysing FP7 from a systemic perspective: What role for the delineation and the set up of the sub-programmes? By Kroll, Henning; Meyer, Niclas
  18. “Regulation of Food Quality: Deep Capture and Economies of Scope between Innovation and Influence” By Sheldon, Ian; Roe, Brian; Olimov, Jafar
  19. Heterogeneity in agricultural innovation systems' impact on food security: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Pamuk, Haki; van Rijn, Fedes
  20. The dynamics of latin american agricultural production growth, 1950-2008 By Miguel Martín-Retortillo; Vicente Pinilla; Jackeline Velazco; Henry Willebald
  21. The Management of Innovation: Experimental Evidence By Kusterer, David J.; Schmitz, Patrick W.
  22. Community-Based Management and Interrelations between Multiple Technology Adoption Decisions: Innovations in Village Poultry Farming in Western Africa By Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne
  23. Social network effects on mobile money adoption in Uganda By Murendo, Conrad; Wollni, Meike; de Brauw, Alan; Mugabi, Nicholas
  24. Success Factors for Small Entrepreneurs in North Carolina By McDowell, Donald
  25. The patenting performance of second-generation immigrants in Sweden: differentiated by parents’ region of origin By Zheng, Yannu
  26. Institutional Innovation and Policy Support to Facilitate Small-Scale Farming Transformation in China By Huang, Jikun; Ding, Jiping
  27. How to Catch a Unicorn. Case Studies By Jean Paul Simon
  28. Adopting content marketing in IT startups given business knowledge and financial constraints: Evidence from Portugal and Egypt By Dina Mohamed Khaled Mansour; Hortênsia Maria da Silva Gouveia Barandas
  29. Innovations in Barge Transport for Supplying French Urban Dense Areas: A Transaction Costs Approach By Emeric Lendjel; Marianne Fischman
  30. Foreign Firm Ownership and Productivity Spillovers in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Region By Paul J Dunne and Nicholas Masiyandima

  1. By: Anne Marie Knott; Carl Vieregger
    Abstract: Since Schumpeter, there has been a long-standing debate regarding the optimal firm size for innovation. Empirical results have settled into a puzzle: R&D spending increasing with scale while R&D productivity decreases with scale. Thus large firms appear irrational. We propose the puzzle stems from the fact that product and patent counts undercount large firm innovation. To test that proposition we use recently available NSF BRDIS survey data of firms R&D practices as well as a broader measure of R&D productivity. Using the broader measure, we find that both R&D spending and R&D productivity increase with scale—thus resolving the puzzle. We further find that while large firms and small firms differ in the types of R&D they conduct, there is no type whose returns decrease in scale—there are merely types for which the small firm penalty is less severe.
    Date: 2016–03
  2. By: Lorena M. D’Agostino (AQR-IREA Research Group. Department of Econometrics, Statistics and Spanish Economy. University of Barcelona.); Rosina Moreno (AQR-IREA Research Group. Department of Econometrics, Statistics and Spanish Economy. University of Barcelona.)
    Abstract: During the recent economic recession, firms have been less willing to invest in innovation, which often is an uncertain and long-term process. This reduction did not occur equally for all firms, and recent literature has analysed the characteristics of those firms which maintain or even raise their innovative efforts during the crisis. Technological collaboration has been recognised as one of the most important external sources that affects innovation performance. However, how economic recession has changed the impact of R&D collaboration on innovation performance has received few attention. This paper investigates the effect of different external cooperation patterns of firms before and during the last economic recession. We highlight the role of geographical and organizational diversity of knowledge sources, as well as the effect of past experience. We find that R&D cooperation has a stronger effect on radical innovation performance during the economic recession than before, this being true irrespectively of the geographical location of the partners. This benefit from cooperation during the economic turmoil is higher in the case of firms having a diverse portfolio of partners. In addition, we also find that past experience in R&D cooperation positively affects innovation performance during the crisis.
    Keywords: R&D cooperation; Innovation Performance; Spanish firms JEL classification: L25; O31; O31; O33
    Date: 2016–04
  3. By: Jin, Wei; Zhang, ZhongXiang
    Abstract: Whether China continues its business-as-usual investment-driven, environment-polluting growth pattern or adopts an investment and innovation-driven, environmentally sustainable development holds important implications for both national and global environmental governance. Building on a Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans growth model that features endogenous technological change induced by R&D and knowledge stock accumulation, this paper presents an exposition, both analytically and numerically, of the mechanism underlining China’s economic transition from an investment-driven, pollution-intensive to an investment and innovation-driven, environmentally sustainable growth path. We show that if R&D technological innovation is incorporated into China’s growth mechanism, then at some tipping point in time when marginal welfare gain of R&D for knowledge accumulation becomes equalized with that of investment for physical asset deployment, China’s economy will launch capital investment and R&D simultaneously and make a transition to a sustainable growth path along which consumption, capital investment, and R&D have a balanced share of 5: 4: 1, consumption, capital stock, and knowledge stock all grow at a rate of 4.9%, and environmental quality improves at a rate of 2.5%. In contrast, if R&D technological innovation is not harnessed as a new growth engine, then China’s economy will follow its business-as-usual investment-driven growth path along which standalone accumulation of dirty physical capital stock will lead to an more than 200-fold increase in environmental pollution.
    Keywords: Endogenous Technological Change, Sustainable Development, Economic Growth Model, China’s Economic Transition, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q55, Q58, Q43, Q48, O13, O31, O33, O44, F18,
    Date: 2016–03–18
  4. By: Enrique López-Bazo (AQR Research Group-IREA. University of Barcelona); Elisabet Motellón (AQR Research Group-IREA. Universitat Oberta de Catalunya)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of regional determinants on innovation performance controlling by the firm’s absorptive capacity and other sources of firm heterogeneity. The findings for a sample of firms in Spain support the hypothesis that regional determinants matter, though their role is subtler than the one frequently assumed. Rather than a direct influence on firm’s innovation, the regional context moderates the effect of internal determinants. In the case of product innovation the most important mechanism of interaction seems to be operating through cooperation in innovation, whereas for process innovation it seems to be through highly skilled labour.
    Keywords: product innovation; process innovation; firm; multilevel modelling; Spanish regions. JEL classification: D21; O31; R10; R15
    Date: 2016–04
  5. By: Nathan Goldschlag; Travis J. Lybbert; Nikolas J. Zolas
    Abstract: Patents are a useful proxy for innovation, technological change, and diffusion. However, fully exploiting patent data for economic analyses requires patents be tied to measures of economic activity, which has proven to be difficult. Recently, Lybbert and Zolas (2014) have constructed an International Patent Classification (IPC) to industry classification crosswalk using an ‘Algorithmic Links with Probabilities’ approach. In this paper, we utilize a similar approach and apply it to new patent classification schemes, the U.S. Patent Classification (USPC) system and Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) system. The resulting USPC-Industry and CPC-Industry concordances link both U.S. and global patents to multiple vintages of the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS), International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), Harmonized System (HS) and Standard International Trade Classification (SITC). We then use the crosswalk to highlight changes to industrial technology composition over time. We find suggestive evidence of strong persistence in the association between technologies and industries over time.
    Date: 2016–03
  6. By: Iwata, Hiroki
    Abstract: This study investigates the effect of an environmental regulation on the innovation choice of firms in an oligopoly. Most existing studies on environmental regulations and innovations examine the optimal behavior of firms when one innovation project is feasible. In our model, firms are allowed to choose from multiple types of innovation projects. Our main contributions are that we derive the conditions under which environmentally friendly and cost reducing innovations are selected in Bertrand competition and we show how environmental regulation affects innovation choice.
    Keywords: environmental regulation; innovation; the Porter hypothesis
    JEL: D21 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2016–03–25
  7. By: Joseph Stiglitz (Columbia University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes equilibrium, dynamics, and optimal decisions on the factor bias of innovation in a model of induced innovation. In a model with full employment, we show that (a) if the elasticity of substitution is always less than or greater than unity, there is a unique steady state equilibrium; (b) if the elasticity of substitution is less than unity, the steady state is stable, but convergence is oscillatory; (c) if the elasticity of substitution is greater than unity, the steady state is a saddle point; and (d) if the elasticity of substitution is less than unity for both high and low effective capital labor ratios but greater than unity for intermediate values, then there can be multiple steady states. In a model where efficiency wages lead to equilibrium unemployment, we show that if the elasticity of substitution is less than unity, there will be a bias towards excessive labor augmenting innovation, resulting in too high unemployment, with convergence to the unique steady state being oscillatory, rather than monotonic. Similarly, if the elasticity of substitution between skilled and unskilled labor is less than unity, and there is efficiency wage unemployment for unskilled labor only, there is will be excessively skill-biased innovation. This paper provides an alternative resolution to the Harrod-Domar conundrum of the disparity between the natural and warranted rate of growth to that of Solow, with strong policy implications, for instance, concerning the effects of income distribution and monetary policy both in the short run and the long.
    JEL: E24 O30 O31 O33
    Date: 2015–01
  8. By: Curdin Pfister (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich); Miriam Rinawi (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich); Dietmar Harhoff (Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition, Munich); Uschi Backes-Gellner (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich)
    Abstract: Previous research analyzing the importance of knowledge for firms’ innovation activities has focused on knowledge taught at universities, i.e., tertiary level academic education. So far, research has largely neglected a new type of knowledge taught at Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS), i.e., tertiary level vocational education, which is based on more applied research. In this paper, we exploit a unique institutional setting, the foundation of UAS in Switzerland, to estimate the causal effect of this new type of knowledge on firms’ innovation activity. We apply difference-in-differences estimation, comparing the innovation activity of firms in regions where UAS were founded with the innovation activity of firms in regions where no UAS were founded. In line with previous literature, we measure the innovation activity by the number of filed patents. Our results show that firms in regions with newly founded UAS increase their innovation activities by about 10 percent.
    Keywords: Innovation, Universities of Applied Science, Tertiary Vocational Education, Difference-in-Differences
    JEL: I26 O31 J24
    Date: 2016–04
  9. By: Karoline Rogge (SPRU – Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9SL, UK; Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (Fraunhofer ISI), Karlsruhe, Germany)
    Abstract: The Paris Climate Agreement calls for decarbonization of the economy in the second half of this century. This requires a radical redirection and acceleration of technological change towards low- and particularly zero-carbon solutions. Global carbon pricing is seen as a key enabler for such decarbonization, with the European Union’s Emission Trading System (EU ETS) serving as an important pillar. In this paper, I therefore re-view the evidence on the innovation impact of the EU ETS. The review shows a very limited effect of the scheme on technological innovation, but there are clear signs of it having stimulated organizational innovation, with the impact being more pronounced for the electricity sector than for industry. The initially high expectations of the EU ETS regarding technological innovation largely dissipated once the scheme’s lack of strin-gency became apparent and prices collapsed accordingly. Also, for many of the rather incremental innovations that have taken place, the EU ETS was shown to be only one contributing factor among others, with the broader policy mix and long-term targets playing a particularly pivotal role in stimulating innovation. In contrast, there is clear evidence that the EU ETS has been a key driver of various organizational innovations, including making climate change a top management issue. However, so far, these or-ganizational innovations have only had limited effects on shifting corporate strategies towards low-carbon solutions because of low carbon prices, the relatively high share of free allocations in industry, and more pressing business concerns. Despite this, the scheme’s positive impact on organizational innovations should not be underestimated, as these constitute a necessary precondition for future technological innovations. The findings suggest that the Commission’s proposal for the fourth trading period of the EU ETS points in the right direction, but further efforts will be needed to significantly in-crease the scarcity of EU allowances and the share of auctioning in order to fully un-leash the scheme’s transformative power. If the identified shortcomings are not ad-dressed, the EU ETS cannot play its foreseen role in guiding the decarbonization of the European economy, for which innovations in low-carbon solutions are a fundamental requirement.
    Keywords: climate policy, emission trading, EU ETS, innovation
    JEL: O31 O38 Q54 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2016–09
  10. By: Zhong, Sheng (UNU-MERIT); Verspagen, Bart (UNU-MERIT & SBE, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We argue that the analysis level of a technological trajectory is very suitable to analyse the decisions of firms in latecomer countries with regard to the technological area that they should focus on. Technological trajectories are the main focal points along which technological innovation develops, and they are more detailed than the common sectors, like electronics of pharmaceuticals, that are used in the analysis of catching-up based growth. We present a collection of methods that has been proposed in the literature to identify technological trajectories. These methods use patent citation networks, and are applied to two separate fields in energy efficiency technologies. We identify the relevant technological trajectories, and analyse how the main countries active in these fields can be classified as either latecomer or incumbent countries. We then present a measure for how much patents from a particular country contribute to the main technological trajectories in the field, and to what extent they are derived from these trajectories. We use an explorative regression model to establish that latecomer countries tend to contribute to a lesser extent than incumbents to the main technological trajectories in the fields we investigate.
    Keywords: technological trajectories, patent citation networks, latecomer innovation strategy
    JEL: O31 O33 O47
    Date: 2016–03–29
  11. By: Fudickar, Roman; Hottenrott, Hanna; Lawson, Cornelia (University of Turin)
    Abstract: Academic consulting is recognised as an important and effective means of knowledge transfer with the public and private sectors. These interactions with external sectors offer opportunities for research application but also raise concerns over their potentially negative consequences for academic research and its dissemination. For a sample of social, natural and engineering science academics in Germany, we find consulting to be widespread, undertaken by academics at all seniority levels and in all disciplines, with academics in the social sciences more likely to provide advice to the public sector and those in engineering to the private sector. Controlling for the selection into consulting, we then investigate its effect on research performance. While previous research suggested that consulting activities might come at the cost of reduced research output, our analysis does not confirm this concern. The results, however, suggest that stronger engagement in consulting increases the probability to cease publishing research altogether. This may point to a flight of consulting-active academics from active research. Moreover, public sector consulting comes with lower average citations which may suggest a move towards context-specific publications that attract fewer citations. We draw lessons for research institutions and policy about the promotion of academic consulting.
    Date: 2016–03
  12. By: Daniel Fixari (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Frédérique Pallez (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Depuis plusieurs années, se mettent en place en France des politiques publiques territorialisées d'innovation et de développement économique (politiques de clusters notamment), menées par des acteurs variés, qu'il s'agisse de l'Etat ou des diverses collectivités territoriales. Il en est résulté sur les territoires des systèmes complexes d'acteurs appelés " écosystèmes d'innovation ", dont on peut interroger la coordination et les performances. Comment en outre, dans ces conditions, la convergence de stratégies publiques est-elle assurée ? Ce questionnement, qui renvoie notamment aux problématiques de la gouvernance multi-niveaux, s'appuie sur une étude empirique menée dans trois régions françaises, qui visait à caractériser le fonctionnement de ces écosystèmes et à en proposer des modalités d'amélioration. Sur la base de ce cas, nous caractérisons les sources de la complexité apparente du système, et montrons que, contrairement aux discours qui appellent à la réduction du nombre de " structures ", la mise en place de nouveaux dispositifs de coordination, au-delà de l'harmonisation des fonctionnements, a pour effet complémentaire de constituer des espaces et des procédures permettant la formulation progressive d'une stratégie collective des acteurs publics sur le territoire.
    Keywords: complexity,innovation ecosystems,public action,collective strategy,complexité,écosystèmes d'innovation,action publique,coordination,stratégie collective
    Date: 2016–09–01
  13. By: Bharat Diwakar; Gilad Sorek
    Abstract: This study shows how the two alternative saving motives, life-cycle consumption smoothing and parental bequests, determine the relation between population growth and R&D-based economic growth, i.e. the sign of the "weak scale-effect". We take a textbook R&D-based growth model of infinitely living agents with no weak-scale effect, and analyze it in an Overlapping Generations framework - with and without bequest saving-motive. We show how the different saving motives determine the relation between population growth and per-capita income growth, which proves to be ambiguous in general, and may also be non-monotonic. Hence, we conclude that the counterfactual weak-scale effect that is present in the second and third generations of R&D-based growth models of infinitely-living agents depends on their specific demographic structure, and thus is not inherent to R&D-based growth theory itself.
    Keywords: R&D-based Growth, Weak Scale Effect, Overlapping Generations
    JEL: O31 O40
    Date: 2016–03
  14. By: Uwe Cantner (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Tina Wolf (University of Southern Denmark, Odense)
    Abstract: At least since Schumpeter published his work 'The Theory of Economic Development' (1912), a wide body of literature has focused on the evolutionary process behind firm growth and survival. Recently a growing interest is devoted to the variable 'location' as a critical factor, shaping firm performance. However, less attention has been paid to the region-specific characteristics that may play a relevant role in determining the growth and survival of a firm. Some works see university-based knowledge spillovers as one such factor (Audretsch and Lehmann 2005, Cassia et al. 2009). This paper extends this approach to the regional innovator network, promoting region-specific knowledge spillovers. Two data bases are applied. First, patent data delivers the innovator network for Thuringia. The second data base contains firm specific information on innovative ventures founded in Thuringia in the period between 1990 and 2006. The results show that the firm's individual probability to be innovative and connected to the innovator network positively influences the chances of this firm to survive.
    Keywords: Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Networks, Inventor, Patents, Survival
    JEL: L26 D85 P25 O31
    Date: 2016–04–15
  15. By: R, Sendhil; P, Ramasundaram; P, Anbukkani; Singh, Randhir; Sharma, Indu
    Abstract: Productivity, technology and efficiency drive agricultural growth through research. The total factor productivity (TFP) being increase in rate of growth of output over the rate of growth of inputs, its decline is a major concern and policy priority in the context of sustainable food production. This paper examines the wheat TFP in India during 2001-02 to 2010-11 across regions. The TFP determinants were discussed in terms of technological progress and technical efficiency. Inputs usage barring human labor and animal power, was intensive and registered positive growth. The mean TFP declined by 1 per cent. The slowdown is attributed to decline in the technological progress by 1.1 per cent despite a marginal increase in the efficiency by 0.1 per cent. The capital intensive new sciences need to be harnessed for breaking yield barriers. Higher allocation of funds to research and extension is needed for technological progress and efficiency gains.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2015
  16. By: FUKUGAWA Nobuya; GOTO Akira
    Abstract: Local public technology centers (LPTCs) are technology transfer organizations administrated by local governments in Japan. LPTCs arrange various technology transfer channels mainly for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the region. Although it has been recognized that technical consultation is the most important channel for technology transfer, there are virtually no reliable statistics that define and measure this. This study is the first to investigate such technical consultation, gathering information from surveys conducted at the branch level. The key findings can be summarized as follows. First, LPTCs solve various (technological and non-technological) problems through technical consultation. What is notable is that a non-negligible proportion of the problems have to do with design. Second, these problems are diverse in terms of complexity as well, with design problems requiring a longer time to solve. Third, technical consultation acts as a gateway to further technology transfer activities. Additional technical assistance triggered by technical consultation varies across technological fields. Fourth, LPTCs act as innovation intermediaries that connect SMEs to other sources of knowledge, such as universities, when the problems are too hard to solve internally. Fifth, LPTCs believe that technical consultation contributes to their researchers' better understanding of local firms' technological needs, which is salient for LPTCs that frequently deal with design problems.
    Date: 2016–03
  17. By: Kroll, Henning; Meyer, Niclas
    Abstract: [Introduction] The Seventh EU Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7) was one of the world's largest support programmes for research and development even though the sum of national research budgets in the EU is still higher. More than € 55bn, the third largest section of the European budget, have been invested in knowledge, innovation and human capital with the declared objective to increase the potential for economic growth and to improve European competitiveness. In this effort, FP7 covered not only different themes and disciplines but addressed different stages of the innovation process and multiple, heterogeneous stakeholders. In the most general terms, the 7th Framework Programme, as its predecessor, was adopted as an instrument to support the integration of a "European Research Area" (ERA) (Chou, 2012), a "system of research programmes integrating the scientific resources of the European Union", one "in which researchers, scientific knowledge and technology circulate freely" and suitable to "strengthening [the Union's] scientific and technological bases" (European Commission, 2000). It is defined as a clear complement to national research policy while at the same time addressing the same resources and people - to build a robust, overarching innovation system of strong players with complementary capacities, well networked across national borders. In recent years, following FP7's formal conclusion, various evaluation studies have been published, which come to an overall favourable assessment of the programme's achievements. Without doubt, these are relevant, valid and this very paper builds substantially on the many findings that they have established. Until now, however, the internal structure of what we refer to as "the Seventh Framework Programme" remains underexplored. Despite the fact that it has now already been notably adapted for Horizon 2020, little empirical evidence is available on the extent to which its different lines sub-programmes complemented each other, resonated with national efforts and, in so doing, led to satisfaction or frustration among their consortiums of beneficiaries. [...]
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Sheldon, Ian; Roe, Brian; Olimov, Jafar
    Abstract: In this paper, existing work on credence goods is extended to include a "diagnosis" stage whereby ill-informed consumers rely on a third party to certify that food products have beneficial characteristics. This compares to existing models of credence goods which focus only on a "treatment" stage, i.e., food is simply certified as having such characteristics. Adding the diagnosis stage allows for "deep capture" by food producers who attempt to influence regulatory outcomes on what quality claims can be made about food products: specifically an innovator, the “expert”, can expend resources to “nudge” regulatory assessment of quality samples in a positive direction, assuming also that there are economies of scope between innovation and influence.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2015
  19. By: Pamuk, Haki; van Rijn, Fedes
    Abstract: A relatively new view to boost agricultural growth relies on the innovation system perspective. The Integrated Agricultural Research for Development Approach (IAR4D) adopted this as its main approach through the implementation of local decentralized Innovation Platforms (IPs) in eight countries. Previous research indicates considerable heterogeneity in IP impact. In this paper we show that this heterogeneity might have resulted from heterogeneity in implementation: IPs have equally implemented the principles of the IAR4D approach. We quantify the five defining principles of IAR4D into an IAR4Dness index and find that the index is correlated positively and significantly to the food security Looking at the sub-components of this index, it seems that especially participation in information sharing activities and field visits is crucial. Our analysis indicates that the effect of IAR4Dness on FSC does not operate through increased use of agricultural technologies or household social capital, two potential channels of impact.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Miguel Martín-Retortillo (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain); Vicente Pinilla (Universidad de Zaragoza and Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón –IA2, Spain); Jackeline Velazco (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Perú, Peru); Henry Willebald (Universidad de la República, Uruguay)
    Abstract: Since 1950 profound changes, such as new technological innovations or changes in agricultural and trade policies took place in the Latin American agriculture. This article aims to analyse the dynamics of the growth of Latin American agricultural production between 1950 and 2008. It explores whether the increases in agricultural production have been due to increases in the use of production factors, or whether production increases have been due to efficiency gains. Our findings suggest that efficiency gains made a rather modest contribution to the important increase in production; this increase was principally the result of the use of capital. This was the most important productive factor in explaining increases in output, together with more moderate increases in the use of land and labour.
    Keywords: Latin American economic history, Latin American agriculture, Agricultural productivity, Agricultural growth
    JEL: N56 O13 Q11
    Date: 2016–04
  21. By: Kusterer, David J.; Schmitz, Patrick W.
    Abstract: We report data from a laboratory experiment with 566 participants that was designed to test Aghion and Tirole's (1994a) management of innovation theory. A research unit and a customer can invest to increase the probability of making an innovation. When the innovation is made, the parties bargain over the division of the revenue. In line with Aghion and Tirole's (1994a) predictions based on the Grossman-Hart-Moore property rights approach, we find that ownership matters for the division of the revenue and the investments. However, communication can somewhat mitigate the theoretical problem that the customer will not relinquish ownership to the cash-constrained research unit.
    Keywords: Incomplete Contracts; Investment incentives; Laboratory experiments; Property rights
    JEL: C92 D23 D86 O32
    Date: 2016–04
  22. By: Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne
    Abstract: Community-based management (CBM) of village poultry aims to foster development and reduce poverty in Benin by disseminating five technologies for improving village poultry farming. We develop a theoretical model to analyze multiple technology adoption decisions that takes into account the interrelations between the technologies. Estimates from multivariate probit models indicate significant interrelations between the five adoption decisions. We show how the estimation results, and particularly the different types of marginal effects, can be utilized to deeply analyze the interrelations between adoption decisions. CBM successfully promoted the adoption of various technologies. Some adoption decisions indicate farmers’ general openness towards new technologies.
    Keywords: Community-Based Management, Technology adoption, Multivariate probit, Village poultry, Benin, West Africa, International Development, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q12, Q16, C31, C35, O13, O14,
    Date: 2015
  23. By: Murendo, Conrad; Wollni, Meike; de Brauw, Alan; Mugabi, Nicholas
    Abstract: Social networks play a vital role in generating social learning and information exchange that can drive the diffusion of new financial innovations. This is particularly relevant for developing countries where education, extension and financial information services are underprovided. This article identifies the effect of social networks on the adoption of mobile money by households in Uganda. Using data from a household survey, conditional logistic regression is estimated controlling for correlated effects and other information sources. Results show that mobile money adoption is positively influenced by the size of social network members exchanging information, and the effect is more pronounced for non-poor households. The structure of social network however has no effect. The findings show that information exchange through social networks is crucial for adoption of mobile money. Mobile money adoption is likely to be enhanced if promotion programs reach more social networks.
    Keywords: social networks, mobile money, adoption, Uganda, Consumer/Household Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, D14, D85, O33, Q12,
    Date: 2015
  24. By: McDowell, Donald
    Abstract: What does it take to be an entrepreneur? The answer to this question has been debated and discussed for centuries. Entrepreneurship programs and courses are taught throughout many secondary and post-secondary educational institutions in this nation. There are also many entrepreneur centers engaged in on-going research and activities. However, most of the information collected and published has been overly theoretical and academic in nature with limited practical application. Unlike quantitative methods of research, like a survey, which focuses on the questions of who, what, where, how much, and how many, and historical analysis, which often situates the participant in some form of historical context, case studies are the preferred strategy when how or why questions are asked. Case studies also extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research. Thus, the results from a survey of entrepreneurs operating in North Carolina will be augmented and compared with selected case studies. Thus, the case studies will focus not only on how entrepreneurs survive but more specifically it address and identifies, more in-depth; the institutional, personal, social, and economic factors that can both positively or negatively impact entrepreneurs. Moreover, we can also make an assessment of how much is real and how much is perceived perception of the entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Entreprenuer, Logistic Regression, Case Study, Economic Development, Descriptive Analysis, Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, O and R,
    Date: 2016–01–22
  25. By: Zheng, Yannu (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: Children of immigrants inherit human capital attainment from their parents that impact on their innovative performance. Some of this stem from their migrant parents’ positive and negative selection traits, part from their physical or cognitive proximity of country of origin to the host society. In this paper, I examine how second-generation immigrants (with at least one foreign-born parent), taking into consideration their parents’ region of origin, perform in inventive activity compared with native Swedes (with two native-born parents) and how this is related to their parents’ background. The study is based on a new Swedish database of inventors, which matched with the entire population between 1985 and 2007. The results show that, in terms of probability of becoming an inventor and number of forward citations to their patents, second-generation immigrants with non-Nordic European backgrounds perform better than native Swedes. Their better performance is related to the positive selection of their foreign-born parents and a certain distance of proximity to Sweden. The study indicates that there is a trade-off effect between the selection and proximity of foreign-born parents on second-generation immigrants’ patenting performance, but that differs between groups. For second-generation immigrants with other Nordic backgrounds, their less well performance is mainly attributed to their lower education level, which is further related to their less positively selected parents. However, for second-generation immigrants with one native-born parent and one parent from another non-European country, their large distance of proximity to Sweden seems to impede their performance.
    Keywords: Native Swedes; Foreign-born; Innovation; Human capital; Selection
    JEL: J15 J24 N30 O31
    Date: 2016–04–08
  26. By: Huang, Jikun; Ding, Jiping
    Abstract: While Asian food economy has been experiencing significant transitions, little transformation occurs in farm land operation. However, recent rapid emergence of middle and large farms in many regions of China is striking. Overall goal of this paper is to understand small-scale farm transformation in China based on a unique dataset surveyed in Northeast and North China. The results show that the institutional innovation through establishing land transfer service center to activate land rental market, supporting policies to incentivize and speed up land consolidation, and farm mechanization services are major driving forces in recent evolution of China’s farm operations. The paper concludes with policy implications on small-scale farming transformation in China and the rest of world and identifies remaining research issues for further study.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, International Development,
    Date: 2015
  27. By: Jean Paul Simon
    Abstract: Technology companies with high market capitalisation (often called unicorns) have been receiving a lot of attention and media coverage recently. In general, unicorns are IT-centric (software mostly, but also hardware). They are often rather young global companies that match unsatisfied demand with supply through the production (which can easily be scaled up) of innovative and usually affordable services and products. These are usually part of the mobile internet wave, and rely on connectivity (high speed networks, mobile and fixed), new devices (smartphones, tablets, phablets…) and the opportunities these bring. They are grounded in network effects, and demand-side economies of scale and scope. They depend on a strong favourable business environment, developing organically and building on fast expanding markets (emerging economies, middle classes). They are Venture Capital-dependent and the competition for funding can generate impressive (i.e. inflated) valuations. These companies can be disruptive for other sectors and firms. This report aims to document the phenomenon by investigating a qualitative sample of 30 companies that have recently been valued above the one billion dollar threshold. It identifies some of their characteristics and the lessons to be learnt. The report has two parts: Part I contains the overall findings of the investigation and some suggestions for policy makers. Part II contains a detailed account of the case studies on which the investigation is based. They are published as separate documents
    Keywords: IT industry, technology, innovation, market capitalisation
    JEL: L00 L1 L2 L8 O3
    Date: 2016–04
  28. By: Dina Mohamed Khaled Mansour (University of Porto); Hortênsia Maria da Silva Gouveia Barandas (University of Porto)
    Abstract: The growing proliferation of online content and the importance of being found online has inspired practitioners to purposefully develop and target this content until the content marketing concept was born. Technical entrepreneurs who run IT startups without business training can incorporate content marketing into their online marketing plans as they acquire self-taught business management skills. Through an exploratory multiple case study approach, the nature of online marketing activities performed in a group of ten IT startups in Portugal and Egypt is examined, in addition to the familiarity of the concept of content marketing and the key challenges faced. Results demonstrate that even though technical entrepreneurs are heavily oriented towards technology and tend to ignore marketing, they are capable of capitalizing on their challenges and can perform online and content marketing within financial and business knowledge constraints. The study advances the incumbent knowledge about IT startups and the way technical entrepreneurs view and conduct marketing. More importantly the study addresses content marketing as an empirically tested concept.
    Keywords: Content marketing, IT startups, Technical entrepreneurs, Multiple case studies, Portugal, Egypt.
    Date: 2016–03
  29. By: Emeric Lendjel (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marianne Fischman (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Experimentations and innovations that involve barge transport flourish in France as the main leg for urban distribution of goods. Based on a study of existing container barge transport (CBT) chains, this article identifies several obstacles impeding their use for urban river logistics: the complexity of these chains, on the one hand, and the level of specificity of assets involved in the loading and unloading phases, on the other hand. With the help of transaction costs economics, the article shows that several innovations involving barge transport to supply French cities share a common aim to diminish transaction costs, especially in those phases. This article also shows that coordination and pooling issues lead to adopt integrated or quasi-integrated governance structures to organize regular inland shipping lines necessary to supply dense French urban areas.
    Keywords: transaction costs economics, coordination, governance structure,urban river logistics, innovation
    Date: 2015
  30. By: Paul J Dunne and Nicholas Masiyandima
    Abstract: The study uses firm level data from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys and employs alternative techniques to identify and estimate the within and intra-industry productivity impact of firm foreign ownership in SADC. Using firm labour productivity and employing sector fixed effects to identify the impact of foreign firm ownership on productivity, we find results that strongly suggest the existence of positive within firm and intra-industry FDI productivity spillovers for both small and large firms in the region. The productivity gains are, however, larger for small firms than for large firms suggesting greater productivity spillover advantages for the relatively technologically backward small firms. Similarly, there is heterogeneity with regard to productivity spillovers across individual countries, with the relatively technologically advanced countries such as South Africa and Mauritius experiencing larger intra-industry spillovers while less technologically endowed countries enjoy larger within firm gains.
    Keywords: Growth; development; firm; technology; spillovers; productivity; FDI; SADC
    JEL: O33
    Date: 2016

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