nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒04‒23
twenty-two papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. R&D, Scale Effects and Spillovers: New Insights from Emerging Countries By Luintel, Kul B; Khan, Mosahid
  2. “Relatedness, external linkages and innovation” By Ernest Miguélez; Rosina Moreno
  3. Does environmental policy stringency foster innovation and productivity in OECD countries? By Morales-Lage, Rafael; Bengochea-Morancho, Aurelia; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada
  4. Innovation success: What is the role of innovation strategies? By Jové Llopis, Elisenda; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
  5. Knowledge Creation and Dissemination by Local Public Technology Centers in Regional and Sectoral Innovation Systems: Insights from patent data By FUKUGAWA Nobuya
  6. Sourcing Innovation: probing Technology Readiness Levels with a design framework By Fabien Jean; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil
  7. Who Invests in the High-Tech Knowledge Base? By Matt Hopkins; William Lazonick
  8. Innovation, institutional ownership, and financial constraints By Schain, Jan Philip; Stiebale, Joel
  9. Public Support to Innovation Strategies By Laura Barbieri; Daniela Bragoli; Flavia Cortelezzi; Giovanni Marseguerra
  10. The European Union’s growing innovation divide By Reinhilde Veugelers
  11. Dynamic Entrepreneurship and Technology-Based Innovation By Audretsch, David; Kuratko, Donald; Link, Albert
  12. Role of Public Research Institutes in National Innovation Systems in Industrialized Countries: The cases of Fraunhofer, NIST, CSIRO, AIST, and ITRI By Patarapong INTARAKUMNERD; GOTO Akira
  13. Assessing complementarity in organizational innovations for technological innovation: the role of knowledge management practices By Caroline Mothe; Uyen Nguyen-Thi; Phu Nguyen Van
  14. Innovation, Competition and Productivity. Firm Level Evidence for Eastern Europe and Central Asia By Klaus S. Friesenbichler; Michael Peneder
  15. International technology transfer and domestic innovation: evidence from the high-speed rail sector in China By Yatang Lin; Yu Qin; Zhuan Xie
  16. Networks of Enterprises and Innovations: Evidence from SMEs in Vietnam By Doan, Quang Hung; Vu, Hoang Nam
  17. The differentiated impacts of organizational innovation practices on technological innovation persistence By Christian Le Bas; Caroline Mothe; Thuc Uyen Nguyen-Thi
  18. Firm Surveys relating Environmental Policies, Environmental Performance and Innovation: Design Challenges and insights from Empirical Application By Massimiliano Mazzanti; Davide Antonioli; Claudia Ghisetti; Francesco Nicolli
  19. Factors Affecting on Acceptance of Mobile Banking by Customers (Case Study: The Branches of Tejarat Bank in Guilan Province, Northern of Iran) By Mohammad Taleghani
  20. Determinants of Industrial Coagglomeration and Establishment-level Productivity By Fujii, Daisuke; Nakajima, Kentaro; Saito, Yukiko Umeno
  21. Effectiveness of fiscal incentives for R&D: quasi-experimental evidence By Irem Guceri; Li Liu
  22. Innovation in air transport market: impact on competitors strategies By Isabelle Laplace; Chantal Latgé-Roucolle; Ion Buzdugan

  1. By: Luintel, Kul B (Cardiff Business School); Khan, Mosahid
    Abstract: There has been a concomitant rise in R&D and the rate of economic growth in emerging countries. Analyzing a panel of 31 emerging countries, we find convincing evidence of scale effects which make government policies potent for long-run growth. This contrasts sharply with the well known findings of Jones (1995a). Innovations show increasing returns to knowledge stock, implying that the diminishing returns assumed by some semi-endogenous growth models might not be generalized. International R&D spillovers raise the innovation bar. The observed growth rates of emerging economies appear in transition therefore their growth rates may recede with the passage of time.
    Keywords: Scale Effects; Ideas Production; Diffusion; Panel Integration and Cointegration
    JEL: O3 O4 O47
    Date: 2016–04
  2. By: Ernest Miguélez (GREThA, University of Bordeaux & AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona.); Rosina Moreno (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona.)
    Abstract: This paper has two main objectives. First, it estimates the impact of related and unrelated variety of European regions’ knowledge structure on their patenting activity. Second, it looks at the role of technological relatedness and extra-local knowledge acquisitions for local innovative activity. Specifically, it assesses how external technological relatedness affects regional innovation performance. Results confirm the strong relevance of related variety for regional innovation; whereas the impact of unrelated variety seems relevant only for the generation of breakthrough innovations. The study also shows that external knowledge flows have a higher impact, the higher the similarity between these flows and the extant local knowledge base.
    Keywords: variety, patents, patent citations, relatedness, knowledge production function JEL classification: O18, O31, O33, R11
    Date: 2016–04
  3. By: Morales-Lage, Rafael; Bengochea-Morancho, Aurelia; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada
    Abstract: In this paper we use panel data models and quantile regressions to test the "weak" and "strong" versions of the Porter hypothesis, using data from 14 OECD countries over the period 1990-2011. A newly-released environmental policy stringency index (EPS) provided by the OECD is used as an indicator of the stringency of environmental regulations in order to tackle endogeneity issues of proxies used in earlier research. The findings indicate that more stringent environmental regulations positively influence R&D expenditure, the number of patent applications and total factor productivity (TFP). The results show that environmental stringency has a positive effect on R&D, mainly for the lower quantiles (0.10, 0.25) of the distribution of R&D, whereas for the number of patent applications and total factor productivity, the effect increases for the highest quantiles (0.75, 0.90) of the distribution of the targeted indicators.
    Keywords: environmental regulations,Porter hypothesis,OECD,innovation,quantile regression
    JEL: Q43 Q48 Q53
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Jové Llopis, Elisenda; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to explore the role played by firms' strategies during innovation process and its effects on innovation success. We argue that firm's innovative decisions not only concern how much innovation effort to make but, more especially, what kind of innovation objectives to pursue, which refer to strategic decisions taken at the level of the firm. Our econometric analysis is based on a sample of 3,919 manufacturing and services firms taken from the Spanish Technological Innovation Panel (PITEC) for the period 2008–2012. Firstly, applying a principal component analysis we identified a diverse range of innovation strategies (no strategy, unfocused, market, production, cost and environmental and regulatory strategy). Secondly, after controlling positive skewness of the dependent variables a generalized linear model is used to exanimate the impact of these innovation strategies. Our empirical results reveal some relevant aspects. Firstly, firms that do not have a well-defined innovation strategy experience fewer probability of being a successful innovative firm. Secondly, firms that do have an innovation strategy, but not focused on any specific orientation, have enhanced innovation success, but less than that of firms with an oriented strategy. Finally, the results also show that there is a good fit between an oriented strategy pursued by firms and their innovation success. Keywords: innovation objectives, innovation strategy, innovation success, Spain JEL Classification Numbers: D21. O31. O32
    Keywords: Conducta organitzacional, Innovacions tecnològiques -- Direcció i administració, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2015
  5. By: FUKUGAWA Nobuya
    Abstract: Local public technology centers (LPTCs) in Japan help small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) improve productivity through technology transfer. Using a comprehensive patent database and based on frameworks of regional and sector innovation systems, this study quantitatively evaluates LPTCs' technology transfer activities. The key findings can be summarized as follows. First, local SMEs' technological portfolios (the distribution of patents across technological fields) indicate a better fit with the technological portfolios of LPTCs than with those of local universities. This tendency is salient for manufacturing LPTCs. Second, LPTCs collaborate more intensively on research with local SMEs compared to the local universities. This tendency is also salient for manufacturing LPTCs. Third, in regions where SMEs' technological portfolios are concentrated in biotechnology, LPTCs engage more in licensing. In regions where SMEs' technological portfolios are concentrated in mechanical engineering, LPTCs engage more in technical consultation.
    Date: 2016–03
  6. By: Fabien Jean (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pascal Le Masson (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Benoit Weil (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Supplier-buyer exchanges are well addressed in literature except in the case of unknown objects. Sourcing Innovation, i.e. the process of finding external sources of innovation and then bringing those innovations into the firm should transform incoming unknown objects to ascribe them value. Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) have formalised the unknown in supplier-buyer exchanges in many industries for forty years but there is no evidence that they enable that transformation. We then use design theories, i.e. the Technology-Environment framework, to probe TRL through analysing ten cases combining documents analyses and longitudinal studies. We found that TRL avoid fixating on a low mature technology and are not an obstacle at genericity; however they fixate when the buyer waits a certain TRL prior exploring the new technology value. Finally TRL are unable to guide designers towards generativity notably because they embrace a definition of Environment focused on the prototyping method.
    Keywords: generativity,supplier-buyer exchanges, Technology-Environment framework, design theory, innovation theory, fixation
    Date: 2015–11–09
  7. By: Matt Hopkins (The Academic-Industry Research Network.); William Lazonick (University of Massachusetts Lowell and The Academic-Industry Research Network.)
    Abstract: A nation must accumulate a high-tech knowledge base to prosper. In this paper, we provide a historical perspective on the interaction of household families, government agencies, and business enterprises, or what we call “the investment triad†, in providing a foundation for the accumulation of a high-tech knowledge base in the United States. Households and governments interact by making investments in education. Governments and businesses interact in the development of the high-tech knowledge base by investing in research and development. Businesses and households interact to invest in the knowledge base through the employment relation. The quality of these interactions in terms of complementarity and sophistication are of critical importance to the productivity performance of investments in the knowledge base. Most discussions of investing in the high-tech knowledge base focus on investments made in R&D by government and business as well as universities and non-profits. We argue that investment in R&D does not capture the productivity of R&D in generating high-quality, low cost high-tech products, nor how the revenues from those products support the higher incomes of the broad base of employees in the high-tech labor force. Over the past decade total R&D spending as a percent of GDP in the United States has remained high by historical standards, with Business-funded R&D exceeding the proportion of Government-funded R&D in the total. Yet there is a sense in the United States that over the past two to three decades the institutional arrangements for investing in the knowledge base have broken down. We hypothesize that the innovation problem resides in the interaction of the organizations – household families, government agencies, and business enterprises – in the investment triad. Using the investment-triad framework, this report provides an historical overview of the evolution of the institutional arrangements for investing in the knowledge base in the United States since the mid-19th century, culminating in an agenda for research on the contemporary operation and performance of the investment triad.
    JEL: H1 I2 L2 O3 P1
    Date: 2014–05
  8. By: Schain, Jan Philip; Stiebale, Joel
    Abstract: We analyze the relationship between institutional investors, innovation and financing constraints. Building on the empirical framework of Aghion et al. (2013), we find that the effect of institutional ownership on innovation is concentrated in industries with high dependence on external finance and among firms which are a priori likely to be financially constrained. The complementarity between institutional ownership and competition, predicted by the original paper's theory where institutional investors increase innovation through reducing career risks, disappears once this heterogeneity is taken into account. We also provide evidence that the sensitivity of R&D investment to internal funds decreases with institutional ownership.
    JEL: G23 G32 L25 M10 O31 O34
    Date: 2016
  9. By: Laura Barbieri (Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali, Università Cattolica); Daniela Bragoli (Dipartimento di Discipline matematiche, Finanza matematica ed Econometria, Università Cattolica); Flavia Cortelezzi (Dipartimento di Diritto, Economia e Culture, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria); Giovanni Marseguerra (Dipartimento di Discipline matematiche, Finanza matematica ed Econometria, Università Cattolica)
    Abstract: This study investigates whether the receipt of public R&D funding determines firm's R&D strategy election. Using the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) dataset including more than 3000 Italian manufacturing companies, we adopt a multinomial logit model after controlling for sample selection and endogeneity issues which arise when dealing with CIS data. The main finding is that public R&D funding in uences whether firms select the make, the buy or the make&buy strategy and in particular firms, after receiving public support, prefer the composite strategy rather than the single strategies. This result turns out to be good news given that government support, correcting for the market failures which characterize the combined strategy, favors the strategy which seems to enhance a positive synergy between in house R&D and external sourcing.
    Keywords: Public Funding, R&D strategies, CIS Survey
    JEL: G32 O31 D21
    Date: 2015–12
  10. By: Reinhilde Veugelers
    Abstract: Highlights There is a significant divide between the European Union countries with the greatest capacity to innovate, and those with the least capacity to innovate. The difficult convergence process has been proceeding only very slowly and unevenly, and more recently seems to have come to a halt. For footnotes and references, see the PDF version of this paper. A particular weak spot for the EU is corporate investment in research; in this area, the intra-EU divide is growing. As the business sector is responsible for the persistent R&D intensity gap between the EU and the United States and Asia, the persistent failure of lagging EU countries to catch up in this area provides much of the explanation for the EU’s weak performance compared to other economies. The evidence shows that the deployment of public budgets and the mix of policies employed by EU member states have tended to aggravate the intra-EU divide. The EU needs to better understand its growing internal innovation divide if it is to achieve its ambition of becoming a world innovation leader. 1. Introduction The European Union’s lofty ambition is that its growth should be socially and environmentally sustainable and its future prosperity should be built on foundations of innovation. But ambition has so far not translated into leading performance. According to the European Commission’s 2015 Innovation Union Scoreboard indicator (IUS), a composite indicator developed to assess innovation performance, Europe is not doing well. The EU’s IUS score is only 81 percent of that of the United States. For the moment, Europe still has a substantial lead over emerging markets. But China, with an IUS score still half of the EU's, is catching up fast. On private expenditure on research and development, a key indicator to assess a nation’s capacity for innovation, the EU is lagging significantly. Its private R&D-to-GDP ratio is 57 percent of the US level. In terms of public expenditure on R&D, there is no gap between the EU and the US. But Europe’s overall R&D-to-GDP-ratio continues to stand at 2 percent, far from the EU's 3 percent target and significantly lower than the US, Japan, South Korea and Singapore. China has caught up fast and in terms of overall R&D spending is already on par with the EU. This Policy Contribution examines the EU’s struggle to improve its capacity for innovation, in particular the differences between EU member states in terms of their capacity to innovate. Is the EU’s failure to catch up a failure of its innovation-leading member states to defend and further improve their leading positions? Or is it because its innovation-lagging member states fail to catch up and the EU has not closed the innovation divide between its member countries? We show a serious divide between EU member states in terms of their capacity to innovate, with convergence taking place only very slowly and unevenly. More recently, the already-difficult convergence process seems to have come to a halt. In terms of the innovation policies used by member states, the evidence shows that the deployment of public budgets and the mix of instruments might have aggravated the divide. 2. The innovation capacity of EU member states - a growing divide The innovation capacity of nations measures their ability to generate new ideas and to translate them into economic growth and prosperity (Furman et al, 2002). Because of differences in initial conditions and because of differences in how EU countries have sought to create innovation-based growth, we can expect substantial differences between European countries in terms of innovation capacity. We would however expect that the process of EU integration would allow lagging countries to catch up faster, pushing convergence within the EU in terms of innovation capacity, along with economic convergence. In order to assess countries’ innovation capacities, a range of factors needs to be explored. In addition to the availability of R&D inputs, public R&D infrastructure and financing, this includes the linking of public and private bodies involved in innovation, incentives for firms to innovate, and the ability of firms to create and capture value from their innovations on world markets (Furman et al, 2002). To measure innovation capacity, we use the Summary Innovation Index from the IUS. This covers eight aspects of innovation capacity - human resources, public research systems, finance, investment by firms, linkages, intellectual property rights, innovations and economic effects1. We measure the variation in innovation capacity across the EU countries. Convergence occurs when the variation decreases over time. The divide in innovation capacity measures the gap between the best and worst performers within a group of countries2. When looking within the EU at differences in IUS performance (Table 1), the countries at the top are Denmark, Finland, Germany and Sweden, while Bulgaria, Latvia and Romania sit at the bottom.
    Date: 2016–04
  11. By: Audretsch, David (Indiana University); Kuratko, Donald (Indiana University); Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to distinguish between dynamic and static entrepreneurship. We define the construct of dynamic entrepreneurship in terms of Schumpeterian innovativeness and then develop a hypothesis suggesting that human capital is conducive to such action. In contrast, a paucity of human capital is more conducive to static entrepreneurship (defined in terms of organizational or ownership status). Based on a rich data set of entrepreneurs receiving research funding through the U.S. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, our empirical evidence suggests that academic-based human capital is positively correlated with dynamic behavior, whereas as business-based human capital and prior business experience is not.
    Keywords: Dynamic entrepreneurship; Static entrepreneurship; Schumpeterian innovation; human capital; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program
    JEL: J24 L26 O38
    Date: 2016–04–14
  12. By: Patarapong INTARAKUMNERD; GOTO Akira
    Abstract: Public research institutes (PRIs) were established for many reasons including promoting defense related research and health related research. Helping domestic industries remain as one of the important missions for PRIs even when the countries have become industrialized and firms' technological capabilities are high. PRIs aim to upgrade existing industries, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as spearheading new ones. They can conduct research to solve today's problems in the existing industries and those of next-generation technologies which may lead to the creation of new industries. Moreover, the relationship between PRIs and firms and non-firm actors such as universities became more intense, open, horizontal, international, and long term. To reduce risk and uncertainty inherent in the research mentioned above, the intermediary roles of PRIs are becoming increasingly important. The emphasis and the ways that PRIs help industry change over time and vary across countries as they are an integral part of national innovation systems. This makes generalization difficult, but the experiences of five leading PRIs in Germany, Taiwan, Japan, Australia, and the United States shows that the balances between contract research vs. longer term research with its own initiative, mobility of researchers vs. retaining core researchers, and competitive grants and funds from industry vs. block grants from governments are important in keeping PRIs relevant to industry needs and maintaining research standards. These balances depend on the nature of the national innovation system in which they are embedded. The governance of PRIs is of particular importance to maintain proper balances.
    Date: 2016–03
  13. By: Caroline Mothe (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Uyen Nguyen-Thi (CEPS/INSTEAD - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development); Phu Nguyen Van (BETA - Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We here empirically investigate the pattern of complementarity between four organizational practices. Firm-level data were drawn from the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) carried out in 2008 in Luxembourg. Supermodularity tests confirm the crucial role of organizational innovation in raising firms’ technological innovation. The pattern of complementarity between organizational practices differs according to the type of innovation, i.e. product or process innovation, but also according to whether the firm is in the first stage of the innovation process (i.e. being innovative or not) or in a later stage (i.e. innovation performance in terms of sales of new products).
    Keywords: Supermodularity, Technological innovation,Complementarity, Organizational innovation, Substitution
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Klaus S. Friesenbichler (WIFO); Michael Peneder (WIFO)
    Abstract: We investigate the drivers of firm level productivity in catching-up economies by jointly estimating its relationship to innovation and competition using data from the EBRD-WB Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The findings confirm an inverted-U shaped impact of competition on R&D. Both competition and innovation have a simultaneous positive effect on labour productivity in terms of either sales or value added per employee, as does a high share of university graduates and foreign ownership. Further positive impacts come from firm size, exports, or population density. Innovation and foreign ownership appear to be the strongest drivers of multifactor productivity.
    Keywords: innovation, competition, productivity, development, transition economies, simultaneous system
    Date: 2016–04–13
  15. By: Yatang Lin; Yu Qin; Zhuan Xie
    Abstract: How does the transfer of advanced technology spur innovation in developing countries? This paper exploits the large-scale introduction of high-speed railway (HSR) technology into China in 2004 as a natural experiment to address this question. The experiment is unique in the sense that this wave of technology transfer is large, abrupt and arguably exogenous in timing, covering a variety of technology classes and a large number of geographically-dispersed railway-related firms. With detailed information on the types of technology transferred and the identities of the receiving firms, as well as their product market specializations, we are able to depict a clear picture of how foreign technology is digested and spurs follow up innovation in and out of directly receiving firms. Our findings suggest that technology transfer leads to significant growth in HSR-related patents in cities with direct receivers of imported technology after 2004 in a triple-difference estimation. We also observe sizable spill overs to firms that are not directly related to the railway industry. Technology similarity plays an important role in technology diffusion, but we do not observe any significant impacts of geographic proximity. Previous university research strength in relevant fields is also conducive to stronger technology spill overs.
    Keywords: Innovation; foreign technology transfer; knowledge spill over; China
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2015–12
  16. By: Doan, Quang Hung; Vu, Hoang Nam
    Abstract: By using the latest dataset from the survey of SMEs conducted in Vietnam in 2011, we show that a firm both participating in a wider network of input suppliers, buyers, and associations of enterprises and conducting innovative activities in production has higher labor productivity than others, implying that networks of enterprises and innovation are complementary to each other in affecting performance of SMEs in Vietnam. We also find that supports of the government including providing better infrastructure to the SMEs and helping the SMEs to be formalized when being established are conducive to the development of the SMEs in Vietnam.
    Keywords: Complementary, supermodularity, Network, Innovation, SMEs.
    JEL: D58 O3
    Date: 2016–01
  17. By: Christian Le Bas (ESDES - École de management de Lyon - Université Catholique de Lyon); Caroline Mothe (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Thuc Uyen Nguyen-Thi (CEPS/INSTEAD - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development)
    Abstract: This article tests the major determinants of technological (product and process) innovation persistence and provides evidence of the significant role of organizational innovation. Design/methodology/approach Data came from two waves of the Luxembourg Community Innovation Survey (CIS): CIS2006 for 2004–2006 and CIS2008 for 2006–2008. The longitudinal data set resulted in a final sample of 287 firms. A multinomial probit model estimates the likelihood that each firm belongs to one of three longitudinal innovation profiles: no, sporadic, or persistent innovators. Findings The determinants have differentiated impacts on process and technological innovation persistence. Organizational innovation influences technological innovation persistence. In the analysis of detailed organizational practices, strong evidence emerged that knowledge management exerts a crucial effect on product innovation persistence; workplace organization instead is associated with process innovation persistence.
    Keywords: R&D,persistence,innovation,Technological innovation,organizational innovation
    Date: 2015
  18. By: Massimiliano Mazzanti; Davide Antonioli; Claudia Ghisetti; Francesco Nicolli
    Abstract: This report provides a review of recent firm-level and plant-level surveys containing questions on environmental policies, innovation practices or performance which are relevant for environmental policy analysis and assessment. We specifically focus on the core element that relates environmental policies to environmental and economic performance, namely the adoption of innovative practices and environmental innovations by firms. The study gives an overview of the main literature exploiting surveys, with the aim of discussing main themes and their core limitations to propose advancements for future research. The report provides technical details on surveyed questionnaire implementation, by focusing on to the intrinsic trade-off in the design of alternative questions. It also discusses how environmental policy and its stringency have been measured in previous literature. Finally, it provides suggestions on how to implement a multi-country survey and on other ways to better harness firm-level data in the analysis of effects of environmental policies on business behaviour.
    Keywords: innovation, environmental innovation, firm surveys, firm behaviour, environmental policies
    JEL: C8 D22 Q52 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2016–04–12
  19. By: Mohammad Taleghani (Rasht Branch , Islamic Azad University)
    Abstract: This study is conducted to identify factors affecting the acceptance of mobile banking by Tejarat bank customers. The main models used in this study are the adoption of technology model and innovation and publishing model. This research method is descriptive - survey and in terms of purpose is practical. The population of this study is customers of Tejarat Bank city of Rasht, and a sample of 393 of these clients has been investigated. To analyze the data and test hypotheses PLS structural equation modeling methods were used. The results indicate that that perceived usefulness and ease of use are two important factors were identified in the acceptance of mobile banking. While the perceived risk and costs have no impact on the acceptance of mobile banking.
    Keywords: Acceptance mobile bank, perceived usefulness, perceived risk, ease of use and Tejarat Bank.
    JEL: M15 M30 M10
  20. By: Fujii, Daisuke; Nakajima, Kentaro; Saito, Yukiko Umeno
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationships between determinants of industrial coagglomeration and establishment-level productivity. For each pair of industries, we first construct degree of coagglomeration and indices for three factors of coagglomeration: inter-firm transactions, knowledge spillover, and labor market pooling. We then examine correlation between these three factors and degree of coagglomeration. Overall, inter-firm transactions and labor market pooling are positively correlated with the degree of coagglomeration whereas knowledge spillover has no significant relationship with coagglomeration. We also find that determinants of coagglomeration are quite different across industries. Further, we examine relationships between these factors and establishment-level productivity. In the results, we find that determinants of coagglomeration are not necessarily positively associated with productivity of establishments.
    Keywords: coagglomeration, transaction costs, knowledge spillover, labor pooling
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2016–03
  21. By: Irem Guceri (Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation); Li Liu (Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation)
    Abstract: With growing academic and policy interest in R&D tax incentives, the question about their effectiveness has become ever more relevant. In the absence of an exogenous policy reform, the simultaneous determination of companies' tax positions and their R&D spending causes an identification problem in evaluating tax incentives. To overcome this problem, we exploit a UK policy reform and use the population of corporation tax records that provide precise information on the amount of firm-level R&D expenditure. Using difference-in-differences and other panel regression approaches, we find a positive and significant impact of tax incentives on R&D spending, and an implied user cost elasticity estimate of around -2.3. This translates to more than a pound in additional private R&D for each pound foregone in corporation tax revenue.
    Keywords: Tax incentives; corporation tax returns; quasi-experiment
    JEL: H2 O3
    Date: 2015
  22. By: Isabelle Laplace (ENAC - Ecole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile - ENAC); Chantal Latgé-Roucolle (LEEA - ENAC - Laboratoire d'Economie et d'Econométrie de l'Aérien - PRES Université de Toulouse - Ecole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile); Ion Buzdugan (UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole)
    Abstract: The objective of this empirical paper is to analyze the impact of an innovation in air transport system on airlines competitive behavior. We consider as innovation, the use of an aircraft with a significant higher capacity: the Airbus 380. Does the use of the A380 by an airline on a particular route give incentives to competitors to introduce as well this type on aircraft on the same route? To answer this question we use some econometric methods to estimate the impact of the introduction of the A380 by an airline, on the probability that airline’s competitors will follow up the innovation. Controlling for others factors which might impact the choice of innovation, we show that the use of the A380 by an airline on a route gives incentives to competitors to introduce it as well
    Keywords: Air transport,aircraft innovation,aircraft size,airlines,competitive strategies
    Date: 2016–04–12

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