nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒03‒29
thirty-one papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Opening up the innovation system framework towards new actors and institutions By Warnke, Philine; Koschatzky, Knut; Dönitz, Ewa; Zenker, Andrea; Stahlecker, Thomas; Som, Oliver; Cuhls, Kerstin; Güth, Sandra
  2. Choosing the Right Partner: R&D Cooperations and Innovation Success By Sandra M. Leitner
  3. The Bright Side of Patents By Joan Farre-Mensa; Deepak Hegde; Alexander Ljungqvist
  4. Innovation and Immigration – Insights from a Placement Policy By Jahn, Vera; Steinhardt, Max Friedrich
  5. Financing innovation By Kerr, William R.; Nanda, Ramana
  6. Sharing R&D Investments in Breakthrough Technologies to Control Climate Change By Rubio, Santiago J.
  7. Patents and Research Investments: Assessing the Empirical Evidence By Eric Budish; Benjamin N. Roin; Heidi L. Williams
  8. Innovation in Clean Coal Technologies: Empirical Evidence from Firm-Level Patent Data By Kruse, Jürgen; Wetzel, Heike
  9. Agglomeration and innovation By Carlino, Gerald; Kerr, William R.
  10. Innovation in Green Energy Technologies and the Economic Performance of Firms By Kruse, Juergen
  11. Impact of social interactions on demand curves for innovative products By Katarzyna Maciejowska; Arkadiusz Jedrzejewski; Anna Kowalska-Pyzalska; Rafal Weron
  12. Europe's digital future: Focus on key priorities By Bertschek, Irene; Ohnemus, Jörg
  13. Technological Change and Reallocation By Junghoon Lee
  14. Fighting Software Piracy: Some Global Conditional Policy Instruments By Simplice Asongu; Pritam Singh; Sara Le Roux
  15. Verwertung der Innovationen von an Hochschulen tätigen Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern By Bijedić, Teita; Brink, Siegrun; Chlosta, Simone; Werner, Arndt
  16. La mise en oeuvre d'innovations nécessite-t-elle l'instauration de certains types de réseaux ? Une application aux stations de sports d'hiver By Véronique Favre Bonte; Elodie Gardet; Catherine Thévenard-Puthod
  17. Technology Development in South Africa: The Case of Wind and Solar PV. By Lucy Baker
  18. Inter-organisational network configurations for ski areas innovations By Veronique Favre-Bonté; Elodie Gardet; Catherine Thevenard-Puthod
  19. Policy Brief: Factors Affecting Engagement and Commercialization of Innovation Activities of Firms in Tanzania By Osoro, Otieno; Voeten, Jaap
  20. The Innovation-Employment nexus: a critical survey of theory and empirics By Flavio Calvino; Maria Enrica Virgillito
  21. Corporate taxation and location of intangible assets: Patents vs. trademarks By Dudar, Olena; Voget, Johannes
  22. Endogenous Technology Adoption and R&D as Sources of Business Cycle Persistence By Diego Anzoategui; Diego Comin; Mark Gertler; Joseba Martinez
  23. A Typology of Innovations of Service in the Hospitality Industry By Jordane Steiner; Yves Cinotti
  24. The dynamics of entrepreneurial careers in high-tech ventures: Experience, education, and exit By Cumming, Douglas; Walz, Uwe; Werth, Jochen Christian
  25. Agglomeration of knowledge in the German regional economy By Krenz, Astrid
  26. Sources of Canadian Economic Growth By Samira Hasanzadeh; Hashmat U. Khan
  27. The Theory of Economic Development of J.A. Schumpeter: Key Features By BAZHAL, IURII
  28. Structural Equation Model in Evaluation of Technological Potential of European Union Countries in the years 2008-2012 By Adam P. Balcerzak; Michal Bernad Pietrzak
  29. Aggregate Employment, Job Polarization and Inequalities: A Transatlantic Perspective By Julien Albertini; Jean Olivier Hairault; ;
  30. Balanced Growth Despite Uzawa By Gene M. Grossman; Elhanan Helpman; Ezra Oberfield; Thomas Sampson
  31. Legitimizing farmers' new knowledge, learning and practices through communicative action: Application of an agro-environmental policy By Jean Pierre Del Corso; Charilaos Kephaliacos; Gaël Plumecocq

  1. By: Warnke, Philine; Koschatzky, Knut; Dönitz, Ewa; Zenker, Andrea; Stahlecker, Thomas; Som, Oliver; Cuhls, Kerstin; Güth, Sandra
    Abstract: The paper revisits the established framework of the national and regional innovation system (NIS/RIS) in the light of recent insights from innovation research in order to increase its capacity for generating meaningful insights for policy makers and other actors wishing to influence innovation capacity of nations, regions or sectors. We review six research strands that challenge the classical NIS/RIS framework by pointing to a wider range of actors, institutions and innovation modes relevant for the innovation landscape: User innovation, social innovation, collaborative innovation, new innovation intermediaries, venture philanthropy, social and relational capital and non-R&D intensive industries. We find that each of these phenomena points to relevant contributions to national or regional innovation capacities that are not well captured by the established NIS/RIS framework. While some aspects could easily be integrated by adding some "arrows and boxes" in the graphics usually used for representing the framework, we find that several phenomena point to the need for a more fundamental revision of the innovation system framework. In particular it emerges that a distinctive assignment of actors to functions in the innovation process is no longer possible. Given, for example, the research insights on user innovation, social innovation and collaborative innovation, societal actors can no longer be assigned to the role of "demand articulation". Rather they actively contribute or sometimes even take over the generation of knowledge and innovation ideas as well as other functions such as financing, e.g. through crowdfunding activities. The broadened view on innovation also requires a wider understanding of the infrastructures and frameworks forming the enabling basis for innovation activities. Social and relational capital for instance that is deeply embedded in the cultural context of a region becomes a key enabler for trustful interactions of the diverse innovation actors such as low R&D intense firms that make huge contributions to innovation and employment but generate their knowledge through interaction with customers. The growing recognition of the economic and social relevance of collaborative and social innovation implies that collaboration platforms become as relevant infrastructures as classical technology transfer schemes. Finally the broadened view on innovation points to a wide range of intermediaries that form the backbone of an innovation system without necessarily seeing innovation as their primary purpose. As a consequence of these insights we suggest a revised innovation system framework. This system captures three types of contributions: Innovation supply and demand, innovation influx and innovation framework. Actors that may provide relevant contributions in one of these domains are grouped in open clouds, emphasizing the fluidity between functions and actors. We hope that this framework will allow for a more meaningful analysis of the innovation capacity of specific NIS/RIS systems.
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Sandra M. Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Abstract Generally, establishments can choose among different cooperation partners for innovation. However, the choice of a particular partner is pivotal to the success of any cooperative arrangement for innovation and therefore not an easy one. The ensuing analysis uses a comprehensive firm-level dataset of Central, East and Southeast European (CESEE) and Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries to shed light on the role of different cooperative arrangements – cooperations with domestic suppliers, domestic client firms, foreign suppliers, foreign client firms and with external academic or research institutes – for a product innovators’ success, captured in terms of either annual average sales per new or significantly improved product or, alternatively, the probability of applying for a patent. It demonstrates that the choice of cooperation partner is essential Innovators profit greatly from innovation partnerships with foreign suppliers only in terms of higher sales from novel or improved products but, in turn, are less likely to apply for patents if engaged in cooperative arrangements with foreign suppliers or client firms, indicating that patenting is probably predominantly undertaken by foreign cooperation partners. Furthermore, it highlights that establishment size, ownership structure, trading status or absorptive capacity greatly matter and that the institutional environment is essential for an innovator’s commercial success, which assigns a decisive role to policy-makers in building an environment that helps innovators extract returns to innovations to the fullest extent possible.
    Keywords: product innovators, types of R&D cooperations, innovation success, Central, East and Southeast Europe
    JEL: O30 O32 O34
    Date: 2016–02
  3. By: Joan Farre-Mensa; Deepak Hegde; Alexander Ljungqvist
    Abstract: Motivated by concerns that the patent system is hindering innovation, particularly for small inventors, this study investigates the bright side of patents. We examine whether patents help startups grow and succeed using detailed micro data on all patent applications filed by startups at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) since 2001 and approved or rejected before 2014. We leverage the fact that patent applications are assigned quasi-randomly to USPTO examiners and instrument for the probability that an application is approved with individual examiners’ historical approval rates. We find that patent approvals help startups create jobs, grow their sales, innovate, and reward their investors. Exogenous delays in the patent examination process significantly reduce firm growth, job creation, and innovation, even when a firm’s patent application is eventually approved. Our results suggest that patents act as a catalyst that sets startups on a growth path by facilitating their access to capital. Proposals for patent reform should consider these benefits of patents alongside their potential costs.
    JEL: D23 G24 L26 O34
    Date: 2016–02
  4. By: Jahn, Vera (Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg); Steinhardt, Max Friedrich (Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg)
    Abstract: The paper examines the impact of immigration on innovation. We exploit an immigrant placement policy which took place during the early nineties in Germany when large numbers of so called ethnic Germans entered the country. This allows us to overcome the potential bias of endogenous location decisions and to estimate how regional inflows of ethnic Germans affected patent applications over time. Although the majority of ethnic German inflows was unskilled, we do not find any evidence of a negative impact on innovations. Instead, our panel estimates suggest that immigration had no or even a positive impact on innovations.
    Keywords: Innovation; Immigration; Ethnic Germans; Quasi-experimental setting
    JEL: F22 O32 R11
    Date: 2016–02–29
  5. By: Kerr, William R.; Nanda, Ramana
    Abstract: We review the recent literature on the financing of innovation, inclusive of large companies and new startups. This research strand has been very active over the past five years, generating important new findings, questioning some long-held beliefs, and creating its own puzzles. Our review outlines the growing body of work that documents a role for debt financing related to innovation. We highlight the new literature on learning and experimentation across multi-stage innovation projects and how this impacts optimal financing design. We further highlight the strong interaction between financing choices for innovation and changing external conditions, especially reduced experimentation costs.
    Keywords: finance, innovation, entrepreneurship, banks, venture capital, experimentation
    JEL: G21 G24 L26 M13 O31 O32
    Date: 2015–12–11
  6. By: Rubio, Santiago J.
    Abstract: This paper examines international cooperation on technological development as an alternative to international cooperation on GHG emission reductions. In order to analyze the scope of cooperation, a three-stage technology agreement formation game is solved. First, countries decide whether or not to sign up to the agreement. Then, in the second stage, the signatories (playing together) and the non-signatories (playing individually) select their investment in R&D. In this stage, it is assumed that the signatories not only coordinate their levels of R&D investment but also pool their R&D efforts to fully internalize the spillovers of their investment in innovation. Finally, in the third stage, each country decides non-cooperatively upon its level of energy production. Emissions depend on the decisions made regarding investment and production. If a country decides to develop a breakthrough technology in the second stage, its emissions will be zero in the third stage. For linear environmental damages and quadratic investment costs, the grand coalition is stable if marginal damages are large enough to justify the development of a breakthrough technology that eliminates emissions completely, and if technology spillovers are not very important.
    Keywords: International Environmental Agreements, R&D Investment, Technology Spillovers, Breakthrough Technologies, Environmental Economics and Policy, D74, F53, H41, Q54, Q55,
    Date: 2016–02–29
  7. By: Eric Budish; Benjamin N. Roin; Heidi L. Williams
    Abstract: A well-developed theoretical literature — dating back at least to Nordhaus (1969) — has analyzed optimal patent policy design. We re-present the core trade-off of the Nordhaus model and highlight an empirical question which emerges from the Nordhaus framework as a key input into optimal patent policy design: namely, what is the elasticity of R&D investment with respect to the patent term? We then review the — surprisingly small — body of empirical evidence that has been developed on this question over the nearly half century since the publication of Nordhaus's book.
    JEL: O3
    Date: 2016–01
  8. By: Kruse, Jürgen (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI)); Wetzel, Heike (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI))
    Abstract: This article empirically analyzes supply-side and demand-side factors expected to affect innovation in clean coal technologies. Patent data from 93 national and international patent o ces is used to construct new firm-level panel data on 3,648 clean coal innovators over the time period 1978 to 2009. The results indicate that on the supply-side a firm's history in clean coal patenting and overall propensity to patent positively a↵ects clean coal innovation. On the demand-side we find strong evidence that environmental regulation of emissions, that is CO2, NOx and SO2, induces innovation in both e ciency improving combustion and after pollution control technologies.
    Keywords: clean coal technologies; innovation; patents; technological change
    JEL: C33 O31 Q40 Q55
    Date: 2016–02–01
  9. By: Carlino, Gerald; Kerr, William R.
    Abstract: This paper reviews academic research on the connections between agglomeration and innovation. We first describe the conceptual distinctions between invention and innovation. We then discuss how these factors are frequently measured in the data and note some resulting empirical regularities. Innovative activity tends to be more concentrated than industrial activity, and we discuss important findings from the literature about why this is so. We highlight the traits of cities (e.g., size, industrial diversity) that theoretical and empirical work link to innovation, and we discuss factors that help sustain these features (e.g., the localization of entrepreneurial finance).
    Keywords: agglomeration, clusters, innovation, invention, entrepreneurship
    JEL: J2 J6 L1 L2 L6 O3 R1 R3
    Date: 2015–12–10
  10. By: Kruse, Juergen (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI))
    Abstract: In this article, I empirically analyze and compare the impact of innovation in green and non-green energy technologies on the economic performance of firms. My analysis is conducted on a panel of 8,619 patenting firms including 968 green energy patenters from 22 European countries over the period 2003 to 2010. I measure economic firm performance in terms of productivity and use a panel data model based on an extended Cobb-Douglas production function. My results show that green energy innovation has a statistically significant negative impact on economic firm performance. In contrast, non-green energy innovation is shown to have a statistically significant positive impact on economic firm performance. These findings suggest that private economic returns in terms of productivity are lower for green energy than for non-green energy innovation.
    Keywords: green energy technologies; innovation; performance; patents; technological change
    JEL: C33 L25 O31 Q40 Q55
    Date: 2016–02–24
  11. By: Katarzyna Maciejowska; Arkadiusz Jedrzejewski; Anna Kowalska-Pyzalska; Rafal Weron
    Abstract: Empirical studies suggest that word-of-mouth (WOM) strongly influences the innovation diffusion process and is responsible for the 'S' shape of the adoption curve. However, it is not clear how WOM affects demand curves for innovative products and strategic decisions of producers. Using an agent-based model of innovation diffusion, which links consumer opinions with reservation prices, we show that a relatively strong WOM effect can lead to the creation of two separated price-quantity regimes, with a nonlinear transition between them. A small shift of the product's market price can result in a drastic change of the demanded quantity and, hence, the revenues of a firm. Using Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field treatment we demonstrate that WOM may have ambiguous consequences and should be taken into account when designing marketing strategies.
    Keywords: Word-of-mouth; Innovation diffusion; Agent-based model; Demand curve; Marketing strategy
    JEL: C63 O33 Q55
    Date: 2016–03–10
  12. By: Bertschek, Irene; Ohnemus, Jörg
    Abstract: Customised products and services, flexible working arrangements, productivity growth, and increasing prosperity - these are just some of the advantages promised by a digitised and connected economy. Business managers and politicians are keen to reap the potential benefits of the digital transformation. Such a transformation of the economy, however, is a complex task which goes hand in hand with a significant number of challenges. Digital transformation brings about changes in production and innovation processes, in markets and working environments, and also has societal implications. In particular, there are widespread fears that the increased use of machines and robots for tasks previously completed by humans shall result in job losses. Actors at both European and national levels have launched numerous agendas, initiatives and directives in order to support the digital transformation. The Digital Agenda, part of the Europe 2020 Strategy consists of seven pillars (EU Commission, 2016a): i) Digital Single Market, ii) Interoperability & Standards, iii) Trust & Security, iv) Fast and ultra-fast Internet access, v) Research and innovation, vi) Enhancing digital literacy, skills and inclusion, vii) ICT-enabled benefits for EU society. These seven pillars comprise 132 actions ranging from simplifying Pan-European licensing for online works (action 1), to investing in High-Performance Computing (action 132).
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Junghoon Lee
    Abstract: This paper considers a technological change which can be utilized only by production units that adapt to new knowledge. A simple firm dynamics model is used to show that such an innovation enhances reallocation, whereas a technological advance that is available to all production units does not. This implication is used in structural vector autoregressions to study the driving force behind cyclical movements in reallocation and the rival/nonrival nature of technology. This paper finds that one single shock explains most of the unpredictable movements in reallocation over a three- to ten-year horizon and that this shock is closely related to the investmennt-specific technology shock identified by long-run restrictions. The investment-specific shock also accounts for more than 35 percent of hours forecast errors over a two- to ten-year horizon. These findings imply that technology shocks fostering an ongoing reallocation are responsible for a large portion of economic fluctuations, confirming a rival or Schumpeterian nature of technological progress.
    Date: 2016–03
  14. By: Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun); Pritam Singh (Oxford Brookes, UK); Sara Le Roux (Oxford Brookes, UK)
    Abstract: This study examines the efficiency of tools for fighting software piracy in the conditional distributions of software piracy. Our paper examines software piracy in 99 countries for the period 1994-2010, using contemporary and non-contemporary quantile regressions. The intuition for modelling distributions contingent on existing levels of software piracy is that the effectiveness of tools against piracy may consistently decrease or increase simultaneously with increasing levels of software piracy. Hence, blanket policies against software piracy are unlikely to succeed unless they are contingent on initial levels of software piracy and tailored differently across countries with low, medium and high levels of software piracy. Our findings indicate that GDP per capita, research and development expenditure, main intellectual property laws, multilateral treaties, bilateral treaties, World Intellectual Property Organisation treaties, money supply and respect of the rule of law have negative effects on software piracy. Equitably distributed wealth reduces software piracy, and the tendency not to indulge in software piracy because of equitably distributed wealth increases with increasing software piracy levels. Hence, the negative degree of responsiveness of software piracy to changes in income levels is an increasing function of software piracy. Moreover the relationships between policy instruments and software piracy display various patterns, namely: U-shape, Kuznets-shape, S-shape and negative thresholds. A negative threshold represents negative estimates with increasing negative magnitude throughout the conditional distributions of software piracy. We also discuss the policy implications of our study.
    Keywords: Intellectual property rights; Panel data; Software piracy
    JEL: F42 K42 O34 O38 O57
    Date: 2016–03
  15. By: Bijedić, Teita; Brink, Siegrun; Chlosta, Simone; Werner, Arndt
    Abstract: Eine bedeutende Säule der Innovationspolitik ist die Unterstützung des Wissenstransfers und die Verwertung marktfähiger Erfindungen aus der Hochschulforschung. Trotz der Unterstützung der Wissensverwertung bleibt ein großer Teil von Innovationen aus der Forschungstätigkeit an deutschen Hochschulen ungenutzt. Hier setzt die vorliegende Studie mit dem Ziel an, verschiedene Determinanten (individuelle, berufsbezogene und Umfeldfaktoren) zu untersuchen, die die Innovationstätigkeit von Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern beeinflussen. An deutschen Hochschulen generieren vor allem vollzeitbeschäftigte Wissenschaftler, die multidisziplinäre oder angewandte Forschung betreiben und daneben noch einer Selbstständigkeit nachgehen, besonders häufig Erfindungen. Frauen bleiben dabei nicht nur insgesamt, sondern auch innerhalb der einzelnen Fächerverbünde hinter ihren männlichen Kollegen zurück. Für die Kommerzialisierung der Erfindungen lassen sich jedoch keine Geschlechterunterschiede mehr finden. Auf dieser Stufe der Innovationstätigkeit sind Praxiserfahrungen der Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler durch frühere Berufserfahrungen oder aktuelle Nebentätigkeiten ausschlaggebend.
    Abstract: Universitylevel institutions are an important source of innovations. However, there are a lot of inventions of academics at German universities, which are not transferred into a commercial use. We analysed how academics' characteristics, working conditions, and the institu-tional context affect the likelihood to innovate and commercialize their inventions. Our results show that scientists, who are male, work full-time, do applied or multi-disciplinary research with a secondary employment innovate more often. To commercially exploit their inventions, we no longer find a gender effect but higher levels of professional experience and distinct human capital resources facilitating this step of innovation activity.
    Keywords: Wissenschaftler,Geschlecht,Innovationstätigkeit,Innovationsverwertung,Wissenschaftskontext,academics,gender,innovation,inventions,commercial exploitation,institutional context
    JEL: A1 C3 O3
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Véronique Favre Bonte (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Elodie Gardet (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Catherine Thévenard-Puthod (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc)
    Abstract: Cet article vise à étudier le lien entre la forme des réseaux interorganisationnels et les types d'innovation dans les services. Contrairement aux innovations industrielles, les innovations dans les services ne peuvent pas être protégées par des brevets ou dessins et modèles. Ainsi, la recherche de partenaires complémentaires voire la construction d'un réseau apparaît souvent comme la clé pour développer une innovation permettant de générer un avantage concurrentiel durable. C'est pourquoi nous nous sommes intéressées aux principales formes de réseaux interorganisationnels qui ont donné naissance à des innovations de services. Une typologie des innovations de service et une grille d'analyse des réseaux nous ont permis d'étudier les innovations mises en oeuvre par deux grands domaines skiables : les Portes du Soleil et Paradiski. Au total, nous avons ainsi étudié la structure de 12 réseaux d'innovation. Nos résultats montrent qu'en fonction du type d'innovation mis en place, les réseaux qui les portent diffèrent en termes de partenaires mobilisés, de mode de régulation et de rayonnement. En revanche, le type d'innovation à développer n'influence pas l'architecture du réseau, qui demeure centrée dans tous les cas.
    Keywords: Innovation, Service, Réseaux inter-organisationnels, Tourisme, Typologies
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Lucy Baker (Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex.)
    Abstract: This paper examines the political economy of technology development in the context of South Africa’s emerging utility-scale, privately generated renewable energy sector. Focussing on the wind and solar PV industries, the paper explores how international dynamics in manufacturing, investment and trade that involve increasingly global industries, are interacting with territorial factors embedded within South Africa’s unique economic, social and political context. While South Africa’s renewable energy industry has been celebrated internationally, there are tensions between commercial priorities, and requirements for economic development including local content. The paper merges perspectives from global production networks and the literature on technological innovation in low and middle income countries in order to analyse the potential for the development of innovative capabilities in South Africa’s renewable energy sector. The paper provides rich empirical content including challenges to the definition and implementation of local content requirements, as well as the involvement of key national and international actors.
    Keywords: Innovation, local content, renewable energy technologies, global production networks, South Africa
    Date: 2016–05
  18. By: Veronique Favre-Bonté (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Elodie Gardet (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Catherine Thevenard-Puthod (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc)
    Abstract: Unlike industrial innovations, service innovations cannot be protected by patents or designs. Thus, the implementation of innovation networks is often seen as a key to generate a sustainable competitive advantage. In this paper, we are interested in the main forms of inter-organizational networks that led to service innovations. More precisely, this article aims to examine the relationship between the characteristics of inter-organizational networks and the type of service innovation. A typology of service innovations and a network analysis framework allowed us to study the innovations implemented by two major French winter sports resorts: the Portes du Soleil and Paradiski. In total, we studied the structure of 12 innovation networks. Our results show that, depending on the type of innovation implemented, networks are different in terms of partners involved, regulation mode and geographic scope. However, regardless of the innovation developed, it seems necessary to have a central actor to orchestrate the various partners.
    Keywords: Tourism, Typology,Innovation, Service, Inter-organizational network
    Date: 2016
  19. By: Osoro, Otieno; Voeten, Jaap (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Flavio Calvino; Maria Enrica Virgillito
    Abstract: Understanding whether technical change is beneficial or detrimental for employment is at the center of the policy debate, especially in phases of economic recession. So far, the effects of innovation ó in its manifold declinations and intrinsic complexity ó on labour demand have proven to be not unequivocal. This essay critically reviews the role of technical change in shaping employment dynamics at different levels of aggregation. Firstly, it disentangles theoretically the role of different compensation mechanisms through which employment adjusts after an innovation is introduced. Secondly, it critically presents the most recent empirical evidence on the topic, with a focus on methods and limitations. Finally, it provides an attempt to conceptualize a number of stylized facts and empirical regularities on the innovation-employment nexus.
    Keywords: Innovation, Technological Unemployment, Compensation Mechanisms
    Date: 2016–03–13
  21. By: Dudar, Olena; Voget, Johannes
    Abstract: Numerous empirical studies have analysed the influence of corporate taxation on the location of intangible assets within a company group. However, the previous literature has rather focused on studying the impact of taxation on patent location choices assuming that these assets represent the rest of intangibles as well. This paper complements previous studies by estimating and comparing the tax elasticities of two different types of intangibles - patents and trademarks. We employ data on European and US patent and trademark applications in the period of 1996-2012 and estimate a multinomial logit model that incorporates various observed and unobserved factors of the intangible's location choice. According to our main findings, trademarks are more sensitive to changes in taxation as compared to patents. This implies that firms use trademarks more eagerly for tax planning purposes than patents.
    Keywords: intangible assets,patent,trademark,tax planning,corporate taxation
    JEL: H25 F23 H26 H3
    Date: 2016
  22. By: Diego Anzoategui; Diego Comin; Mark Gertler; Joseba Martinez
    Abstract: We examine the hypothesis that the slowdown in productivity following the Great Recession was in significant part an endogenous response to the contraction in demand that induced the downturn. We first present some descriptive evidence in support of our approach. We then augment a workhorse New Keynesian DSGE model with an endogenous TFP mechanism that allows for both costly development and adoption of new technologies. We estimate the model and use it to assess the sources of the productivity slowdown. We find that a significant fraction of the post-Great Recession fall in productivity was an endogenous phenomenon. The endogenous productivity mechanism also helps account for the slowdown in productivity prior to the Great Recession, though for this period shocks to the effectiveness of R&D expenditures are critical. Overall, the results are consistent with the view that demand factors have played a role in the slowdown of capacity growth since the onset of the recent crisis. More generally, they provide insight into why recoveries from financial crises may be so slow.
    JEL: E3 O3
    Date: 2016–02
  23. By: Jordane Steiner (ISTHIA - Institut supérieur du tourisme, de l'hôtellerie et de l'alimentation (Toulouse) - UT2 - Université Toulouse 2); Yves Cinotti (ISTHIA - Institut supérieur du tourisme, de l'hôtellerie et de l'alimentation (Toulouse) - UT2 - Université Toulouse 2)
    Abstract: Innovation also relates to the hospitality industry which could seem a traditional sector. For hotels, innovating is a way to differentiate themselves in the market. This paper aims to establish a classification of innovations in the hospitality industry. On the basis of the analysis of 100 innovations, a new typology of service with five classes is proposed for the hospitality industry.
    Abstract: L’innovation concerne aussi l’industrie hôtelière qui peut paraître un secteur traditionnel. Innover est un moyen pour les hôtels de se différencier de la concurrence. Cette communication vise à établir une classification des innovations dans l’hôtellerie. À partir de l’analyse de 100 innovations, une nouvelle typologie des innovations de service adaptées à l’hôtellerie est proposée comptant cinq catégories.
    Keywords: hospitality industry,typology,Innovation,Services,Typologie,hôtellerie
    Date: 2014–05–21
  24. By: Cumming, Douglas; Walz, Uwe; Werth, Jochen Christian
    Abstract: We investigate the career dynamics of high-tech entrepreneurs by analyzing the exit choice of entrepreneurs: to found another firm, to become dependently employed, or to act as a business angel. Our detailed data resting on the CrunchBase online database indicate that founders stick with entrepreneurship as a serial entrepreneur or as an angel investor only in cases where the founder (1) had experience either in founding other startups or working for a startup, (2) had a 'jack-of-all-trades' education, or (3) achieved substantial financial success upon a venture capital exit transaction.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship,entrepreneurial spawning,angel finance,venture capital,exit,systemically important financial institutions
    JEL: G24 G34 L26
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Krenz, Astrid
    Abstract: This article investigates the geographical location of workers in jobs with high-knowledge requirements in the German economy. Our analysis takes individual-level data from the German socioeconomic panel (GSOEP) and combines them with the knowledge information for different jobs that comes from the US Department of Labor. We make use of the regional information inherent to the GSOEP that can be accessed only through a special user contract. High-knowledge employment is differently distributed across the German regions. Whereas highknowledge employment in communication and media as well as public safety is rather concentrated across regions, high-knowledge employment in computers and electronics, engineering and technology, education and training and mechanical tasks is more dispersed. Eastern German regions display a lower share of highknowledge workers in computers, engineering, mechanical tasks and public safety. The results are important to understand the regional development potential across the German regions. Our analysis detects a division in high-knowledge employment between the East and West of Germany.
    Keywords: agglomeration,knowledge,Germany
    JEL: R11 R12 J24
    Date: 2016
  26. By: Samira Hasanzadeh (Department of Economics, Carleton University); Hashmat U. Khan (Department of Economics, Carleton University)
    Abstract: We apply modern growth accounting based on the semi-endogenous growth theory of Jones (2002) to determine the sources of Canadian economic growth between 1981- 2013. This framework allows us to distinguish between transition dynamics and steady- state growth, and quantify their respective contributions. We find that over 80% of the total average growth rate of output per worker of 1.24 percentage points has been due to transitional factors. Among these, the bulk of the contribution is attributed to domestic human capital growth driven by educational attainment, and global research and development (R&D) intensity. These two factors have been the primary sources of Canadian economic growth. The growth in capital-output ratio contributed a small share of 0.14 percentage points suggesting a limited role of capital accumulation. The steady-state growth over is attributed to population growth indicating modest scale effects of about 16% of the total average growth. Our results highlight that the future of Canadian productivity growth and the standard of living are closely tied to sustained growth in both domestic human capital and global R&D intensity.
    Keywords: Modern Growth Accounting, Economic Growth
    JEL: O47 O51
    Date: 2016–03
    Abstract: This paper comprises translation into English the preface of Iurii Bazhal to the first Ukrainian edition of Joseph Schumpeter’s famous fundamental book “The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle” that was translated in Ukrainian and published in 2011 in commemoration of its 100th anniversary. The paper reveals the contemporary significance of this classical book as the challenger on replacing the neoclassical approaches in capacity to become the mainstream of modern economic theory. It is shown the Schumpeter’s approach gives a new vision of driving forces for economic development where a crucial conceptual place belongs to category the innovation. Second part of the paper reviews modern Neo-Schumpeterian approaches which have substantiated the importance of the structural innovation technological change of national economy for economic development. The government must permanently analyze a compliance of the actual production structure in the country with the current and future technological paradigms.
    Keywords: Schumpeter, Dynamics of economic development, Innovation theory, Technological paradigm, Innovation policy
    JEL: B31 O11 O30 O40
    Date: 2016–02–25
  28. By: Adam P. Balcerzak (Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland); Michal Bernad Pietrzak (Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland)
    Abstract: The abilities of countries to take advantage of global technological progress is currently the main growth determinant. It is especially important in the case of developed economies and the countries that concentrate on closing a development gap. As a result, there is a scientific need to make an international comparisons of countries’ technological potential, which can be useful in pointing the economies that can be considered as the leaders and the economies that make especially quick progress in the field. Thus, the main purpose of the research is the identification of the variables that influence countries’ technological potential at macroeconomic level, which can be used in its measuring. The second aim of the article is the evaluation of progress obtained by “new” European Union member states. It is assumed that technological potential can be treated as a latent variable. Thus, it can be measured with application of Structural Equation Models (SEM). In the research, the hypothetic SEM model was proposed for the European Union countries in the years 2008-2012. The model was estimated with application of seven variables sugested by Eurostat as the potential measures of technological potential of the EU economies. The research confirmed significant influence of five of the given variables. Additionally, the research showed some progress in the field obtained by Central European countries that joined the EU after the year 2004.
    Keywords: structural equation model (SEM),technology, technological potential, European Union
    JEL: C30 C38 O14
    Date: 2016–03
  29. By: Julien Albertini; Jean Olivier Hairault; ;
    Abstract: This paper develops a multi-sectorial search and matching model with endogenous occupational choice in a context of structural change. Our objective is to shed light on the way labor market institutions aect aggregate employment, job polarization and inequalities observed in the US and in European countries. We consider the cases of the US, France and Germany that are representative of alternative institutional settings, having the potential to induce divergent time-paths in the evolution of labor market outcomes during the process of technological transition. In the US and in Germany, we nd employment gains from technological change and job polarization, whereas, in France, the technological change reduces aggregate employment in a context of job polarization. In the US, an half of these employment gains are due to the technological change, and the other half to the changes in the LMI, the contribution of the rise in share of skilled worker being negligible. In France, the change in LMI aects new job opportunities in manual jobs: the reallocation of routine workers towards manual jobs is obstructed for want of job creations of manual services. Hence, without technological change, the fall in French employment would have been cut by 70%. The model also predicts that, without the increase in skilled labor supply, the fall in French employment would have doubled. The improvement in educational attainment dampened the unfavorable consequences of technological change. we show that Germany transforms this structural change in employment gains, only after the labor reforms implemented after the middle of the 90s.
    Keywords: Search and matching, job polarization, reallocation, labor market institutions
    JEL: E24 J62 J64 O33
    Date: 2016–03
  30. By: Gene M. Grossman; Elhanan Helpman; Ezra Oberfield; Thomas Sampson
    Abstract: The evidence for the United States points to balanced growth despite falling investment-good prices and an elasticity of substitution between capital and labor less than one. This is inconsistent with the Uzawa Growth Theorem. We extend Uzawa's theorem to show that the introduction of human capital accumulation in the standard way does not resolve the puzzle. However, balanced growth is possible if schooling is endogenous and capital is more complementary with schooling than with raw labor. We describe balanced growth paths for a variety of neoclassical growth models with capital-augmenting technological progress and endogenous schooling. The balanced growth path in an overlapping-generations model in which individuals choose the duration of their education matches key features of the U.S. economic record.
    JEL: E25 J24 O40
    Date: 2016–01
  31. By: Jean Pierre Del Corso (LEREPS - Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Toulouse - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - UT2 - Université Toulouse 2 - École Nationale de Formation Agronomique - ENFA); Charilaos Kephaliacos (LEREPS - Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Toulouse - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - UT2 - Université Toulouse 2 - École Nationale de Formation Agronomique - ENFA); Gaël Plumecocq (AGIR - AGrosystèmes et développement terrItoRial - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), LEREPS - Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Toulouse - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - UT2 - Université Toulouse 2 - École Nationale de Formation Agronomique - ENFA)
    Abstract: This article examines the role of communication in the process that guides economic actors to integrate the moral obligations implied by adopting sustainability principles in their action choices and to reexamine their practices. We analyze two approaches to implementing agro-environmental measures that encourage farmers to preserve water resources. Verbal interactions between farmers and agricultural advisors, who are part of these policy programs, are analyzed drawing on Jürgen Habermas's theory of communicative action. The discourse analysis used here shows that communicative action encouraged participants to reexamine the validity of the technical, experiential, and normative knowledge that legitimized their reasons for acting. This study brings to light the fact that, in the context of a business primarily oriented towards making a profit, committing to sustainable development does not only operate in technical terms; such a commitment also requires collective validation of the effectiveness of alternative farming practices.
    Keywords: Agricultural advice , Communicative action theory , Agricultural innovations , Learning processes , Agro-environmental policy
    Date: 2015

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